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Cholesterol treatment

Norma Angélica Estrada Cruz, Julio César Almanza Pérez, Ángeles Fortis Barrera, Juan Manuel Gallardo, Leticia Manuel Apolinar, Julia Jeanett Segura Uribe, Sandra Orozco Suárez, Angélica Coyoy Salgado, Christian Guerra Araiza
In addition to oxidative stress due to the increase of free radicals, estrogen deficiency is associated with changes in enzymatic activity, glutathione redox ratio (GSH/GSSG), and the content of oxidative markers such as malondialdehyde. Tibolone, a synthetic steroid, has been used as an elective treatment for the relief of menopausal symptoms. However, the acute effects of hormonal therapy with tibolone on metabolic parameters and oxidative stress markers associated with the first stages of estrogen deficiency are still unknown...
August 14, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Luoyi Zhu, Ao Yang, Yang Mu, Niya Zhang, Lvhui Sun, Shahid Ali Rajput, Desheng Qi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary non-gossypol cottonseed oil (CSO) or cottonseed meal (CSM) and their interactions on the texture properties, structure, nutritional composition, and edible safety of egg yolk. A total of 162 24-wk-old Hy-line Brown laying hens were randomly allocated into 9 diet treatments with 6 replicates of 3 hens per cage. A 3 × 3 factorial design using corn soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0, 6, or 12% CSM and 0, 2, or 4% CSO in place of soybean meal and soybean oil, respectively, was utilized...
August 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Emma L Feeney, Rebecca Barron, Victoria Dible, Zita Hamilton, Yvonne Power, Linda Tanner, Cal Flynn, Paul Bouchier, Tom Beresford, Nessa Noronha, Eileen R Gibney
Background: Dairy fat consumed as cheese has different effects on blood lipids than that consumed as butter. It is unknown whether the effect is specific to fat interaction with other cheese nutrients (calcium, casein proteins), or to the cheese matrix itself. Objective: We aimed to test the effect of 6 wk daily consumption of ∼40 g dairy fat, eaten within macronutrient-matched food matrices, on markers of metabolic health, in overweight adults aged ≥50 y. Design: The study was a 6-wk randomized parallel intervention; 164 volunteers (75 men) received ∼40 g of dairy fat/d, in 1 of 4 treatments: (A) 120 g full-fat Irish cheddar cheese (FFCC) (n = 46); (B) 120 g reduced-fat Irish cheddar cheese + butter (21 g) (RFC + B) (n = 45); (C) butter (49 g), calcium caseinate powder (30 g), and Ca supplement (CaCO3) (500 mg) (BCC) (n = 42); or (D) 120 g FFCC, for 6 wk (as per A) (n = 31)...
August 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Gang Wang, Tao Han, ShiJia Wang, Min Chen, Yueming Sun, Zan Fu
To investigate the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ (PPAR γ ) in the progression of cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD), C57bl/6J mice were randomized to the following groups (n=7/group): L (lithogenic diet, LGD), LM (LGD+pioglitazone), CM (chow diet+pioglitazone), and NC (normal control, chow diet). Gallbladder stones were observed by microscopy. Histological gallbladder changes were assessed. Bile acids (BA) and cholesterol were measured in the serum, bile, and feces. Proteins and mRNA expression of genes involved in BA metabolism and enterohepatic circulation were assessed by western blotting and real-time RT-PCR...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jean Jacques Noubiap, Jean Joel Bigna, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Ulrich Flore Nyaga, Eric Vounsia Balti, Justin B Echouffo-Tcheugui, André Pascal Kengne
BACKGROUND: The burden of dyslipidaemia in Africa remains inadequately characterised. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in African adults from hospital-based and community-based studies. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, African Journals Online, and African Index Medicus for studies published between Jan 1, 1980, and July 31, 2017, without language restriction. We assessed methodological quality of all cross-sectional studies reporting on the prevalence of elevated concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, or triglycerides, or low concentrations of HDL cholesterol in adults residing in African countries...
September 2018: Lancet Global Health
Gabriela Gomez, Lori L Beason-Held, Murat Bilgel, Yang An, Dean Wong, Stephanie Studenski, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show links between metabolic syndrome and Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Understanding the link between vascular-related health conditions and dementia will help target at risk populations and inform clinical strategies for early detection and prevention of AD. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metabolic syndrome is associated with global cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) positivity and longitudinal Aβ accumulation. METHODS: Prospective study of 165 participants who underwent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET neuroimaging to measure Aβ, from June 2005 to May 2016...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Bijan Ghorbanpour Oskouei, Soheil Abbaspour-Ravasjani, Seyed Jamal Musavinejad, Seyed Ahmad Salehzadeh, Alireza Abdolhosseinzadeh, Hamed Hamishehkar, Kazem Ghahremanzadeh, Behrooz Shokouhi
AIM: The evaluation of the positive and protective effects thymol as a natural compound on the STZ -induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, seven groups of the streptozotocin induced diabetic and normal rats (overall 42 males) were tested through various biochemical and histopathological factors such as: serum glucose, insulin, creatinine, lipids, lipoproteins, liver function-related enzymes, and antioxidant status in liver and kidney. RESULTS: The obtained results in this work indicated that thymol had a significant anti-hypoglycemic, anti-hypolipidemic activities on the STZ-induced diabetic rats...
August 13, 2018: Drug Research
Bilal Houshaymi, Nadine Nasreddine, Mamdouh Kedees, Zeina Soayfane
The bioavailability of ivermectin is modulated by lipid-based formulations and membrane efflux transporters such as Breast Cancer Resistance Protein and P-glycoprotein (BCRP and P-gp). We have investigated the effect of oleic acid on the uptake of ivermectin in vitro using Caco-2 cells and in vivo in the intestines of wild-type mice. Complex micelles (M) with oleic acid induced a significant increase (e. g. for M3 was 7-fold, p≤0.001) in the uptake of the drug in a time-dependent manner with no involvement of cholesterol in the mechanism...
August 13, 2018: Drug Research
S Serpunja, I H Kim
A total of 768 1-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens with an average body weight of 43.64 ± 0.59 g were used in a 5-wk feeding trial. The chickens were distributed into 4 treatments of 12 replications per treatment with 16 chickens per pen. Dietary treatments included the following: TRT1, basal diet; TRT2, -40 kcal diet + 0.05% emulsifier; TRT3, -60 kcal diet + 0.05% emulsifier; TRT4, -80 kcal diet + 0.05% emulsifier. The emulsifier contained 80% sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and 20% tween 20. In our study, the treatment diets had no significant effect on growth performance, meat quality, relative organ weight, serum lipid profiles, and excreta microbiota...
August 7, 2018: Poultry Science
J L Peng, S P Bai, J P Wang, X M Ding, Q F Zeng, K Y Zhang
The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of deficiency or high level addition of methionine (Met) in diet on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and hepatic lipid metabolism in broiler. A completely random design was used with 3 dietary treatments with the addition of Met from DL-methionine (DLM) at 0%, 0.22%, and 0.32% in a basal diet. The analyzed dietary Met was 0.271%, 0.485%, and 0.584% respectively for the Met-deficient, sufficient, and excessive diet. A total of 360 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to the treatments...
August 7, 2018: Poultry Science
Marija Polovina, Gerhard Hindricks, Aldo Maggioni, Massimo Piepoli, Panos Vardas, Milika Ašanin, Dijana Ðikic, Nemanja Ðuricic, Ivan Milinkovic, Petar M Seferovic
Aims: Evidence suggests an excess risk of non-thromboembolic major adverse cardiac events (MACE) associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), particularly in individuals free of overt coronary artery disease (CAD). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases cardiovascular risk in the general population, but less is known how it influences outcomes in AF patients. We aimed to assess whether MetS affects the risk of MACE in AF patients without overt CAD. Methods and results: This prospective, observational study enrolled 843 AF patients (mean-age, 62...
August 7, 2018: European Heart Journal
Peter J H Jones, Maryam Shamloo, Dylan S MacKay, Todd C Rideout, Semone B Myrie, Jogchum Plat, Jean-Baptiste Roullet, David J Baer, Kara L Calkins, Harry R Davis, P Barton Duell, Henry Ginsberg, Helena Gylling, David Jenkins, Dieter Lütjohann, Mohammad Moghadasian, Robert A Moreau, David Mymin, Richard E Ostlund, Rouyanne T Ras, Javier Ochoa Reparaz, Elke A Trautwein, Stephen Turley, Tim Vanmierlo, Oliver Weingärtner
Current evidence indicates that foods with added plant sterols or stanols can lower serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This review summarizes the recent findings and deliberations of 31 experts in the field who participated in a scientific meeting in Winnipeg, Canada, on the health effects of plant sterols and stanols. Participants discussed issues including, but not limited to, the health benefits of plant sterols and stanols beyond cholesterol lowering, the role of plant sterols and stanols as adjuncts to diet and drugs, and the challenges involved in measuring plant sterols and stanols in biological samples...
August 7, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Nicole H Korman, Shelukumar Shah, Shuichi Suetani, Karen Kendall, Simon Rosenbaum, Frances Dark, Ketevan Nadareishvili, Dan Siskind
Purpose: People with severe mental illness are sedentary, have high cardio-metabolic risks and significantly reduced life expectancy. Despite considerable data regarding positive physical and mental health outcomes following exercise interventions, implementation and evaluation of real-world programs is lacking. The primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of an exercise intervention implemented by exercise physiology (EP) students within a residential rehabilitation unit for residents with severe mental illness, together with assessment of a range of secondary physical and mental health outcomes pre- and post- the intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Adriana L Carvalho, Bianca Massaro, Luciana T P E Silva, Carlos E G Salmon, Sandra Y Fukada, Marcello H Nogueira-Barbosa, Jorge Elias, Maria C F Freitas, Carlos E B Couri, Maria C Oliveira, Belinda P Simões, Clifford J Rosen, Francisco J A de Paula
Anthropomorphic measures among type 1 diabetic patients are changing as the obesity epidemic continues. Excess fat mass may impact bone density and ultimately fracture risk. We studied the interaction between bone and adipose tissue in type 1 diabetes subjects submitted to two different clinical managements: (I) conventional insulin therapy or (II) autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHST). The study comprised 3 groups matched by age, gender, height and weight: control (C = 24), type 1 diabetes (T1D = 23) and type 1 diabetes treated with AHST (T1D-AHST = 9)...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
C Mary Schooling, S Luo, G Johnson
BACKGROUND: Despite great progress in the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease, it remains the leading cause of global mortality and morbidity, with new unexpected risk factors emerging and few effective new pharmaceutical treatments. ADAMTS-13 is involved in a clotting disorder, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, for which new treatments are being developed. Observationally, ADAMTS-13 activity is inversely associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but positively associated with diabetes...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Alexander Vonbank, Heinz Drexel, Stefan Agewall, Basil S Lewis, Joern F Dopheide, Keld Kjeldsen, Claudio Ceconi, Gianluigi Savarese, Giuseppe Rosano, Sven Wassmann, Alexander Niessner, Thomas Andersen Schmidt, Christoph H Saely, Iris Baumgartner, Juan Tamargo
With statins, the reported rate of adverse events differs widely between randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observations in clinical practice, the rates being 1-2% in RCTs versus 10-20% in the so-called real world. One possible explanation is the claim that RCTs mostly use a run-in period with a statin. This would exclude intolerant patients from being included into RCTs and therefore favor a bias towards lower rates of intolerance.We here review data from RCTs with more than 1000 participants with and without a run-in period, which were included in the Cholesterol Treatment Trialists collaboration (CTTC)...
August 7, 2018: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
Jordan A Holmes, Roger F Anderson, Leroy G Hoffman, Timothy N Showalter, Mohit Kasibhatla, Sean P Collins, Michael A Papagikos, Brittany D Barbosa, Lori J Stravers, Zahra Mahbooba, Andrew Z Wang, Ronald C Chen
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer survivors who receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. They require coordinated care between cancer specialist and primary care physicians (PCPs) to monitor for cancer control and manage cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 103 men receiving ADT with radiotherapy from 7 institutions to assess cardiovascular risk factors and survivorship care. Medical records, fasting labs, and patient-reported outcomes using a validated instrument were assessed at baseline (pre-treatment) and 1 year post-RT...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Cristina Aguirre-Portolés, Jaime Feliu, Guillermo Reglero, Ana Ramírez de Molina
At the time of diagnosis, 20% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) present with metastasis. Among individuals with primary lesions, 50% of them will develop distant tumors with time. Therefore, early diagnosis and prediction of aggressiveness is crucial for therapy design and disease prognosis. Tumoral cells must undergo significant changes in energy metabolism to meet increased structural and energetic demands for cell proliferation, and metabolic alterations are considered to be a hallmark of cancer. Here, we present ABCA1, a regulator of cholesterol transport, as a new marker for invasion and colorectal cancer survival...
August 11, 2018: Molecular Oncology
R Anderson, S Rust, J Ashworth, J Clayton-Smith, R L Taylor, P T Clayton, A A M Morris
Lathosterolosis is a rare defect of cholesterol synthesis. Only four previous cases have been reported, two of whom were siblings. We report a fifth patient, with a relatively mild phenotype. He presented at 5 years of age with bilateral posterior cataracts, which were managed with lensectomies and intraocular lens implants. He also had learning difficulties, with a full-scale IQ of 64 at 11 years of age. His head circumference is between the 0.4th and 2nd centiles, and he has mild hypotonia and subtle dysmorphism (a high-arched palate, anteverted nostrils, long philtrum and clinodactyly of toes)...
August 11, 2018: JIMD Reports
Carlos Brotons, Irene Moral, Diana Fernández, Mireia Puig, Eva Calvo Bonacho, Paloma Martínez Muñoz, Carlos Catalina Romero, Luis Javier Quevedo Aguado
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To develop a predictive function of lifetime cardiovascular risk, including morbidity and mortality, in a healthy working population in Spain. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. We selected healthy workers, aged 18 to 65 years, with no history of cardiovascular disease, who underwent a health assessment between 2004 and 2007. We used 70% of the cohort to develop the risk equation, and the remaining 30% to validate the equation. Four Cox proportional hazards models were constructed using cardiovascular events and competing events as dependent variables...
August 7, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
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