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Cholesterol treatment

Abhishek Sharma, Nidhi Mohan
Despite significant risk reduction with statin therapy, there remains a residual cardiovascular risk. It has been seen that aggressive statin therapy in high risk patients may not lower the low- density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to goal in up to 40% of patients. Niacin is a potent high- density lipoprotein cholesterol-raising drug, and has been proposed as an attractive approach to reduce cardiac events in patients with or at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, previous evidence for niacin has been challenged by negative outcomes in 2 large, randomized, controlled trials comparing niacin to placebo with background statin therapy...
October 11, 2018: Minerva Medica
Marketta Dalla Valle, Tiina Laatikainen, Hanna Potinkara, Päivi Nykänen, Jarmo Jääskeläinen
Background: Childhood obesity exposes individuals to cardiometabolic disturbances. We analyzed how family-based multidisciplinary obesity treatment influenced children's cardiometabolic health. Materials and methods: In this retrospective, two-year, follow-up study of 654 2- to 18-year-old children treated for obesity in three Finnish pediatric clinics in 2005-2012, blood pressure (BP), metabolic parameters, and the influence of sex, puberty and a change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) were analyzed...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Hee Yeon Kim, Dong Keon Kim, Seung-Hyun Bae, HyeRan Gwak, Ji Hoon Jeon, Jong Kwang Kim, Byung Il Lee, Hye Jin You, Dong Hoon Shin, Young-Ho Kim, Soo Youl Kim, Sung-Sik Han, Jin-Kyoung Shim, Ji-Hyun Lee, Seok-Gu Kang, Hyonchol Jang
Glioblastoma is a highly malignant tumor that easily acquires resistance to treatment. The stem-cell-like character (stemness) has been thought to be closely associated with the treatment resistance of glioblastoma cells. In this study, we determined that farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS), a key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis, plays an important role in maintaining glioblastoma stemness. A comparison of the mRNA expression in patient-derived glioblastoma sphere cells, which maintain stemness, and their differentiated counterparts, which lose stemness, via RNA sequencing showed that most of the altered genes were networked in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway...
October 17, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Zeng Wang, Yunsong Peng, Xinjun Cai, Yingying Cao, Guonong Yang, Ping Huang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Abdominal surgery significantly affects the structure and function of the gastrointestinal system of patients, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is an important nutrition support method for postoperative patients. However, in the process of TPN practice, the excessive fat emulsion and compound amino-acid prescriptions ratio are often prescribed by doctors. To address the problem, we developed the computerized TPN prescription management system to promote the personalized provision of TPN...
October 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
S S Elnesr, A Ropy, A H Abdel-Razik
New strategies must be developed to improve poultry performance and health. One of these strategies is the use of supplementations as sodium butyrate (SB) to improve the physiological status and then increasing the growth performance, but the best period of age in which the addition of SB is more effective on birds is not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary inclusion of SB supplementation through the first, second or whole growth period on some physiological indices and growth performance of growing Japanese quail...
October 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
A Benito-Vicente, K B Uribe, H Siddiqi, S Jebari, U Galicia-Garcia, A Larrea-Sebal, A Cenarro, M Stef, H Ostolaza, F Civeira, L Palacios, C Martin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pathogenic mutations in the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor gene (LDLR) cause Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH), one of the most common genetic disorders with a prevalence as high as 1 in 200 in some populations. FH is an autosomal dominant disorder of lipoprotein metabolism characterized by high blood cholesterol levels, deposits of cholesterol in peripheral tissues such as tendon xanthomas and accelerated atherosclerosis. To date, 2500 LDLR variants have been identified in the LDLR gene; however, only a minority of them have been experimentally characterized and proven to be pathogenic...
2018: PloS One
Fernanda Pedrotti Moreira, Karen Jansen, Taiane de A Cardoso, Thaíse C Mondin, Pedro V Magalhães, Flavio Kapczinski, Luciano D M Souza, Ricardo A da Silva, Jean Pierre Oses, Carolina D Wiener
OBJECTIVE: To identify the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and psychiatric disorders in young adults in southern Brazil. METHODS: This population based cross-sectional study involved a total of 1,023 young adults between the ages of 21 and 32 years. Current episodes of psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - Plus version. MetS was evaluated using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III)...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Pinelopi Grigoropoulou, Anastasios Tentolouris, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Dimitrios Tsilingiris, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Maria Sykara, Nikolaos Tentolouris
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Increased aortic stiffness, assessed with the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Statins reduce effectively cardiovascular disease and mortality in high-risk patients. The aim of this prospective non-randomized, observational study was to examine the impact of treatment with either 10 mg atorvastatin plus diet or diet alone on carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia...
October 17, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Yi Zhou, Huanyuan Wang, Fuli Man, Zhiying Guo, Jiahui Xu, Wenjing Yan, Jiaying Li, Qi Pan, Wen Wang
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to identify potential mechanisms involved in the cardiac protective effects of sitagliptin in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male non-diabetic lean Zucker rats (Lean) and ZDF rats treated with saline (ZDF) or sitagliptin (ZDF + sita) were used in this study. The blood pressure and lipid profiles were increased significantly in ZDF rats compared with Lean rats. ZDF + sitagliptin rats had decreased systolic blood pressure compared with ZDF rats...
October 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Seongil Kang, Sangyeol Song, Joosang Lee, Hyekyung Chang, Sanghun Lee
Objectives: Several experimental studies have reported antiobesity and lipid-improving effects of Citrus unshiu . However, clinical studies on its effects are lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of Citrus unshiu peel pellet (CUPP) on obesity and lipid profile. Methods: For 118 patients with body mass index (BMI) > 23 who took Citrus unshiu peel pellet (CUPP) for 4 weeks in a Public Health Center, laboratory and biometric readings before and after CUPP administration were analyzed...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Satu Strausz, Aki S Havulinna, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Adel Bachour, Leif Groop, Antti Mäkitie, Seppo Koskinen, Veikko Salomaa, Aarno Palotie, Samuli Ripatti, Tuula Palotie
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) modifies the risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic complications in a gender-specific fashion. DESIGN AND SETTING: A longitudinal population-based study with up to 25-year follow-up data on 36 963 individuals (>500 000 person years) from three population-based cohorts: the FINRISK study, the Health 2000 Cohort Study and the Botnia Study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident coronary heart disease, diabetic kidney disease, T2D and all-cause mortality from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register and the Finnish National Causes-of-Death Register...
October 15, 2018: BMJ Open
Ahmed Mhalla, Walid Bel Hadj Salah, Rim Mensi, Badii Amamou, Amal Messaoud, Leila Gassab, Wahiba Douki, Med Fadhel Najjar, Lotfi Gaha
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are common co morbidities of schizophrenia and constitute the main factors of high mortality in this pathology. Cardiovascular damages are favored by some risk factors, of which one of the most important is dyslipidemia. In this context, a study of lipid profile in schizophrenia is interesting.  The aims of this study were to compare the lipid profile of patients with schizophrenia to healthy controls and to investigate the associations between lipid parameters and demographics, clinical and treatment characteristics of the patients...
January 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
Ahmad Hassan, Ronen Jaffe, Ronen Rubinshtein, Basheer Karkabi, David A Halon, Moshe Y Flugelman, Barak Zafrir
BACKGROUND: Contemporary data on clinical profiles and long-term outcomes of young adults with coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk profile, presentation, and outcomes of young adults undergoing coronary angiography. METHODS: A retrospective analysis (2000-2017) of patients aged ≤ 35 years undergoing angiography for evaluation and/or treatment of CAD was conducted. RESULTS: Coronary angiography was performed in 108 patients (88% males): 67 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 41 non-ACS chest pain syndromes...
October 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Hezhongrong Nie, Xiaohong Yu, Haihong He, Lintao Zhou, Qing Li, Chunli Song, Damin Wang, Tingyu Ren, Zeyan Chen, Hanlian Huang, Xiaoyan Dai, Yiwen Zhou
Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for metabolic haemostasis of liver tissues. Among them, miR-33a is supposed to modulate the cholesterol export and fatty acid oxidation, but whether miR-33a involves in the process of fatty liver disease is unclear. To disclose the hypothesis, we utilized miR-33a mimic and antisense to explore their effects in primary hepatocytes or high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Treatment with palmitic acid (PA) or HFD significantly increased the expression of miR-33a in hepatocytes or liver tissues...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Olugbenga David Oloruntola, Johnson Oluwasola Agbede, Simeon Olugbenga Ayodele, Eyanlola Soladoye Ayedun, Olajumoke Temidayo Daramola, Deborah Adebukola Oloruntola
Background: Following the ban on the importation of import-dependent fed ingredients in most developing countries, the need to look inward for local content is now compelling. Thus, leaf meals that have phytogenic additive potentials are envisaged will be a viable feed ingredient in rabbit diets. Methods: The effect of dietary inclusion of gliricidia leaf meal (GLM) with or without multi-enzyme (E) supplementation in rabbits was investigated using ninety-six 35-day old rabbits of crossbreed (Newzealand and Chinchilla)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Qian Yang, Rui-Xing Yin, Xiao-Li Cao, Feng Huang, Yi-Jiang Zhou, Wu-Xian Chen
Background: This study aimed to assess the association between the angiopoietin-like protein 4 gene ( ANGPTL4 ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid levels, the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS), and response to atorvastatin therapy in a Southern Chinese Han population. Methods: Genotypes of the ANGPTL4 rs4076317, rs7255436, rs1044250 and rs2967605 SNPs in 1,654 unrelated subjects (CAD, 568; IS, 537; and controls, 549) were determined by the Snapshot technology...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Michelo Banda, James Nyirenda, Kaampwe Muzandu, Gibson Sijumbila, Steward Mudenda
Lannea edulis (Sond.) Engl. commonly known as wild grape is used traditionally for the treatment of diabetes. It is only found in Eastern and Southern Africa. Phytochemical screening, antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of aqueous extracts of L. edulis in alloxan induced diabetic rats were carried out. We report herein the findings of this research work. Lannea edulis crude aqueous extracts were obtained by hot infusion and evaporation method. Phytochemical screening was carried out and subsequently toxicity studies of the aqueous extracts were performed to establish the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 ) in albino rats...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Guenther Silbernagel, Lars K Steiner, Tim Hollstein, Guenter Fauler, Hubert Scharnagl, Tatjana Stojakovic, Friederike Schumann, Bediha Bölükbasi, Winfried März, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Ulrich Laufs, Ursula Kassner
Very few studies have investigated the interrelations between PCSK9 metabolism, cholesterol synthesis, and cholesterol absorption. We aimed to address this issue in a large clinical trial of 245 patients with hypercholesterolemia. Serum lipids, PCSK9, lathosterol (cholesterol synthesis marker), campesterol, and sitosterol (cholesterol absorption markers) were measured before and 4-8 weeks after the start of treatment with PCSK9-antibodies (alirocumab or evolocumab). The patients had mean (standard error) LDL-cholesterol and PCSK9 concentrations of 3...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Ana Ojeda-Rodríguez, Itziar Zazpe, Lydia Morell-Azanza, María J Chueca, Maria Cristina Azcona-Sanjulian, Amelia Marti
High rates of childhood obesity require integral treatment with lifestyle modifications that achieve weight loss. We evaluated a lifestyle intervention on nutrient adequacy and diet quality in children and adolescents with abdominal obesity. A randomized controlled trial was performed on 107 participants, assigned either to a usual care group or to an intensive care group that followed a moderate hypocaloric Mediterranean diet and received nutritional education. Intake adequacy was evaluated using Dietary Reference Intakes and diet quality through the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A), the Healthy Lifestyle Diet-Index (HLD-I) and the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED)...
October 13, 2018: Nutrients
Mirko Magnone, Giovanna Leoncini, Tiziana Vigliarolo, Laura Emionite, Laura Sturla, Elena Zocchi, Giovanni Murialdo
We tested the effect of chronic low-dose abscisic acid (ABA), a phytohormone-regulating human glucose tolerance, on the metabolic parameters that are dysregulated in prediabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS).Ten healthy subjects received 1 µg ABA/Kg body weight (BW)/day as an ABA-rich food supplement: (i) the glycemia profile after a carbohydrate-rich meal, with or without supplement, was compared; (ii) fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), and body mass index (BMI) after 75 days of daily supplementation of a habitual Mediterranean diet were compared with starting values...
October 12, 2018: Nutrients
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