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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094998/-nutritional-and-functional-state-of-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-effects-of-oral-nutritional-supplementation-ofos-study
#1
Maria Del Pilar Benito Martínez, Jorge Estanislao La Serna Infantes, Marta Guarro Riba, Mireia Morera Inglès, Diego Marco Camere Colarossi, Marco Antonio Camere Torrealva
INTRODUCTION: Weight loss and malnutrition are associated with a worse prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the OFOS study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a new nutritional oral formula in adults with COPD with weight loss or malnutrition. METHODS: Prospective, single-centre, randomized, open-label and controlled trial conducted in Lima (Peru). A total of 99 outpatients of both sexes were included (control [GC]: 49; supplement [GS]: 50), aged from 18 to 80 years old, who had been diagnosed with COPD and that suffered from malnutrition or involuntary weight loss during the last months...
July 28, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067433/urinary-incontinence-in-women-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Emily S Lukacz, Yahir Santiago-Lastra, Michael E Albo, Linda Brubaker
Importance: Urinary incontinence, the involuntary loss of urine, is a common health condition that may decrease quality of life. Ten to twenty percent of women and up to 77% of women residing in nursing homes have urinary incontinence, yet only 25% seek or receive treatment. Observations: This review summarizes the evaluation and therapeutic options for women affected by urinary incontinence. The initial assessment should focus on understanding the effect of incontinence on quality of life, the patient's goals and preferences for treatment, the results of previous treatments, and the presence of concomitant conditions, such as advanced pelvic organ prolapse, that may require referral...
October 24, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017480/longitudinal-assessment-of-daily-activity-patterns-on-weight-change-after-involuntary-job-loss-the-adapt-study-protocol
#3
Patricia L Haynes, Graciela E Silva, George W Howe, Cynthia A Thomson, Emily A Butler, Stuart F Quan, Duane Sherrill, Molly Scanlon, Darlynn M Rojo-Wissar, Devan N Gengler, David A Glickenstein
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has identified obesity as one of the most visible and neglected public health problems worldwide. Meta-analytic studies suggest that insufficient sleep increases the risk of developing obesity and related serious medical conditions. Unfortunately, the nationwide average sleep duration has steadily declined over the last two decades with 25% of U.S. adults reporting insufficient sleep. Stress is also an important indirect factor in obesity, and chronic stress and laboratory-induced stress negatively impact sleep...
October 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929907/management-of-obesity-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#4
M H Shojaei, S M Alaviniaa, B C Craven
CONTEXT: Individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are susceptible to central and visceral obesity and it's metabolic consequences; consensus based guidelines for obesity management after SCI have not yet been stablished. OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare effective means of obesity management among SCI individuals. METHODS: This systematic review included English and non-English articles, published prior to April 2017 found in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, CINAHL Psychinfo and Cochrane databases...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891198/targeted-medical-nutrition-for-cachexia-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Philip C Calder, Alessandro Laviano, Fredrik Lonnqvist, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Maria Öhlander, Annemie Schols
BACKGROUND: Cachectic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may benefit from nutritional support. This double-blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of targeted medical nutrition (TMN) vs. an isocaloric comparator in pre-cachectic and cachectic patients with COPD. METHODS: Patients aged ≥50 years with moderate-to-severe COPD and involuntary weight loss or low body mass index (16-18 kg/m(2) ) were randomized 1:1 to receive TMN (~230 kcal; 2 g omega-3 fatty acids; 10 μg 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3) or isocaloric comparator twice daily for 12 weeks (ClinicalTrials...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855891/hypothalamic-inflammation-and-energy-balance-disruptions-spotlight-on-chemokines
#6
REVIEW
Ophélia Le Thuc, Katharina Stobbe, Céline Cansell, Jean-Louis Nahon, Nicolas Blondeau, Carole Rovère
The hypothalamus is a key brain region in the regulation of energy balance as it controls food intake and both energy storage and expenditure through integration of humoral, neural, and nutrient-related signals and cues. Many years of research have focused on the regulation of energy balance by hypothalamic neurons, but the most recent findings suggest that neurons and glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, in the hypothalamus actually orchestrate together several metabolic functions. Because glial cells have been described as mediators of inflammatory processes in the brain, the existence of a causal link between hypothalamic inflammation and the deregulations of feeding behavior, leading to involuntary weight loss or obesity for example, has been suggested...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764647/relationship-between-oral-health-and-fried-s-frailty-criteria-in-community-dwelling-older-persons
#7
Benedikta Kamdem, Laurence Seematter-Bagnoud, Fabiana Botrugno, Brigitte Santos-Eggimann
BACKGROUND: Oral health and frailty might be linked through several pathways, but previous studies are scarce. This study examined the association between oral health and components of Fried's frailty phenotype. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis was based on a sample of 992 community-dwelling persons aged 73 to 77 years observed in the 2011 follow-up of the Lausanne 65+ cohort (Lc65+) study. Data were collected through annual mailed questionnaires, interview and physical examination...
August 1, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760658/frailty-body-composition-and-nutritional-status-in-non-institutionalised-elderly
#8
Leonel São Romão Preto, Maria do Carmo Dias Conceição, Telma Martins Figueiredo, Maria Augusta Pereira Mata, Pedro Miguel Barreira Preto, Ester Mateo Aguilar
OBJECTIVE: Frailty is a clinical syndrome characterized, among other signs, by involuntary weight loss and decreased muscle strength. The aim of this study was to analyse associations between frailty, body composition and nutritional status in non-institutionalised elderly people in the municipality of Alfândega (Braganza-Portugal). METHOD: Observational, prevalence and association study involving 220 elderly (mean 75.8±6.8 years of age; 68.8% women). Frailty was assessedt according to Fried criteria, body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis and nutritional status using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form...
July 28, 2017: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759113/feasibility-and-preliminary-effects-of-resistance-training-and-nutritional-supplements-during-versus-after-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-a-pilot-randomized-trial
#9
Jon Arne Sandmael, Asta Bye, Tora Skeidsvoll Solheim, Guro Birgitte Stene, Lene Thorsen, Stein Kaasa, Jo-Åsmund Lund, Line Merethe Oldervoll
BACKGROUND: Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) experience involuntary weight loss that has a negative impact on physical function, morbidity, and survival. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of an exercise and nutrition intervention during radiotherapy (RT) compared with after RT, and to examine preliminary effects on skeletal muscle mass. METHODS: Patients with HNC were randomized to an exercise and nutrition intervention during RT (EN-DUR) or after RT (EN-AF)...
July 31, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758698/patients-with-established-cancer-cachexia-lack-the-motivation-and-self-efficacy-to-undertake-regular-structured-exercise
#10
David Wasley, Nichola Gale, Sioned Roberts, Karianne Backx, Annmarie Nelson, Robert van Deursen, Anthony Byrne
OBJECTIVES: Patients with advanced cancer frequently suffer a decline in activities associated with involuntary loss of weight and muscle mass (cachexia). This can profoundly affect function and quality of life. Although exercise participation can maintain physical and psychological function in patients with cancer, uptake is low in cachectic patients who are underrepresented in exercise studies. To understand how such patients' experiences are associated with exercise participation we investigated exercise history, self-confidence and exercise motivations in patients with established cancer cachexia, and relationships between relevant variables...
July 31, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717810/association-between-adiposity-and-disability-in-the-lc65-cohort
#11
N Danon-Hersch, S Fustinoni, P Bovet, J Spagnoli, B Santos-Eggimann
OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with mortality and incident disability in Lc65+ cohort. DESIGN: Population-based cohort of non-institutionalized adults with up to 8.9 years of follow-up. SETTING: City of Lausanne, Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS: 1,293 individuals aged 65 to 70 at baseline (58% women). MEASUREMENTS: BMI, WC and covariates were measured at baseline in 2004-2005...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674366/m-protein-negative-myeloma-mimicking-lumbar-disc-herniation
#12
Yusuke Hirota, Shingo Suzuki, Yota Katsuyama, Tohru Iseki, Masatomi Ikusaka
A 60-year-old man was referred to us with high levels of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). He did not complain of any symptoms; however, he had been diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation, even though his back pain improved only to half of its previous level with pregabalin. Thus, we asked about the red flag of back pain and confirmed that he had involuntary body weight loss, which led us to diagnose truly non-secretory multiple myeloma, a variant of multiple myeloma that is associated with M-protein negativity and a normal serum free light chain level...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629899/high-adherence-to-a-mediterranean-diet-and-lower-risk-of-frailty-among-french-older-adults-community-dwellers-results-from-the-three-city-bordeaux-study
#13
Berna Rahi, Soufiane Ajana, Maturin Tabue-Teguo, Jean-François Dartigues, Karine Peres, Catherine Feart
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is considered as a key component for healthy aging, including prevention of age-related disability, while its association with frailty, independent of disability has never been assessed. Our objective was to investigate the relation between MeDi adherence and frailty incidence among persons aged ≥75 years participating at the prospective population-based French Three-City Study. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 560 initially non-frail participants of the Three-City-Bordeaux center, seen at the 2009-2010 follow-up, and re-examined two years later...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585024/job-displacement-and-first-birth-over-the-business-cycle
#14
Barbara Hofmann, Michaela Kreyenfeld, Arne Uhlendorff
In this article, we investigate the impact of job displacement on women's first-birth rates as well as the variation in this effect over the business cycle. We use mass layoffs to estimate the causal effects of involuntary job loss on fertility in the short and medium term, up to five years after displacement. Our analysis is based on rich administrative data from Germany, with an observation period spanning more than 20 years. We apply inverse probability weighting (IPW) to flexibly control for the observed differences between women who were and were not displaced...
June 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570949/does-hypoxia-play-a-role-in-the-development-of-sarcopenia-in-humans-mechanistic-insights-from-the-caudwell-xtreme-everest-expedition
#15
Liesl Wandrag, Mario Siervo, Heather L Riley, Maryam Khosravi, Bernadette O Fernandez, Carl A Leckstrom, Daniel S Martin, Kay Mitchell, Denny Z H Levett, Hugh E Montgomery, Monty G Mythen, Michael A Stroud, Michael P W Grocott, Martin Feelisch
OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia refers to the involuntary loss of skeletal muscle and is a predictor of physical disability/mortality. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, although roles for altered hypoxic signaling, oxidative stress, adipokines and inflammatory mediators have been suggested. Sarcopenia also occurs upon exposure to the hypoxia of high altitude. Using data from the Caudwell Xtreme Everest expedition we therefore sought to analyze the extent of hypoxia-induced body composition changes and identify putative pathways associated with fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) loss...
October 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528063/an-involuntary-and-unexpected-treatment-of-nutcracker-esophagus
#16
Diane Mege, Alban Benezech, Henri de Lesquen, Véronique Vitton, Pascal-Alexandre Thomas
A 76-year-old woman complained of painful dysphagia and loss of weight. Esophagoscopy results were negative, whereas computed tomography (CT) disclosed a 25-mm mediastinal tumor without a connection to the esophagus. A diagnosis of nutcracker esophagus was made on high-resolution esophageal manometry. Peroral endoscopic esophageal myotomy failed to improve the symptoms. Right video thoracoscopy allowed resection of the tumor, which looked like a neurogenic tumor of the posterior mediastinum that developed from the right vagus nerve...
June 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494385/l-leucine-dietary-supplementation-modulates-muscle-protein-degradation-and-increases-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-tumour-bearing-rats
#17
Bread Cruz, André Oliveira, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes
Cancer cachexia is characterised by involuntary weight loss associated with systemic inflammation and metabolic changes. Studies aimed at maintaining lean body mass in cachectic tumour-bearing hosts have made important contributions reducing the number of deaths and improving the quality of life. In recent years, leucine has demonstrated effective action in maintaining lean body mass by decreasing muscle protein degradation. Currently, there is a growing need to understand how leucine stimulates protein synthesis and acts protectively in a cachectic organism...
May 8, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427849/sarcopenia-cachexia-and-muscle-performance-in-heart-failure-review-update-2016
#18
REVIEW
Masakazu Saitoh, Junichi Ishida, Wolfram Doehner, Stephan von Haehling, Markus S Anker, Andrew J S Coats, Stefan D Anker, Jochen Springer
Cachexia in the context of heart failure (HF) has been termed cardiac cachexia, and represents a progressive involuntary weight loss. Cachexia is mainly the result of an imbalance in the homeostasis of muscle protein synthesis and degradation due to a lower activity of protein synthesis pathways and an over-activation of protein degradation. In addition, muscle wasting leads to of impaired functional capacity, even after adjusting for clinical relevant variables in patients with HF. However, there is no sufficient therapeutic strategy in muscle wasting in HF patients and very few studies in animal models...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417157/impact-of-cachexia-on-outcomes-in-aggressive-lymphomas
#19
Reem Karmali, Taha Alrifai, Ibtihaj A M Fughhi, Ronald Ng, Vineela Chukkapalli, Palmi Shah, Sanjib Basu, Sunita Nathan, Kelly Szymanski-Grant, Leo I Gordon, Parameswaran Venugopal, Frank J Penedo, Jeffrey A Borgia
Cancer cachexia is defined as a state of involuntary weight loss, attributed to altered body composition with muscle mass loss and/or loss of adiposity. Identifying the association between cancer cachexia and outcomes may pave the way for novel agents that target the cancer cachexia process. Clinical parameters for measurement of cancer cachexia are needed. We conducted a single-institution retrospective analysis that included 86 NHL patients with the aim of identifying an association between cancer cachexia and outcomes in aggressive lymphomas using the cachexia index (CXI) suggested by Jafri et al...
June 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367435/effect-of-underlying-renal-disease-on-nutritional-and-metabolic-profile-of-older-adults-with-reduced-renal-function
#20
Silvia Lai, Maria Ida Amabile, Silvia Altieri, Daniela Mastroluca, Carlo Lai, Paola Aceto, Massimiliano Crudo, Anna Rita D'Angelo, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Alessio Molfino
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is a common condition in the general population, particularly among older adults. Renal impairment is in turn associated with metabolic and nutritional derangements and with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. AIM: To compare the metabolic, nutritional, and cardiovascular impact of reduced kidney function between patients with and without known renal disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled consecutive outpatients (age ≥65 years) with reduced renal function who were divided into two groups: Group A with history of renal disease and Group B with unknown renal disease...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
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