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Involuntary weight loss

Géraldine Liot, Julien Valette, Jérémy Pépin, Julien Flament, Emmanuel Brouillet
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with involuntary abnormal movements (chorea), cognitive deficits and psychiatric disturbances. The most striking neuropathological change in HD is the early atrophy of the striatum. While the disease progresses, other brain structures also degenerate, including the cerebral cortex. Changes are also seen outside the brain, in particular weight loss/cachexia despite high dietary intake. The disease is caused by an abnormal expansion of a CAG repeat in the gene encoding the huntingtin protein (Htt)...
September 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Enzo Emanuele, Marco Bertona, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Javier Salvador Morales, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Alejandro Lucia
OBJECTIVES: Muscle wasting in patients with cancer has been linked to an increased activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and higher circulating levels of activin-A (ActA), a negative growth factor for muscle mass. Baicalin is a natural flavonoid that can reduce skeletal muscle atrophy in animal models of cancer cachexia by inhibiting NF-κB. This pilot open-label study assessed the effects of baicalin supplementation (50 mg daily for 3 months) in cancer patients who showed involuntary weight loss >5% over the past 6 months...
July 12, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Marie Angélique De Scheerder, Sylvie Rottey, An Mariman, Marleen Praet, Dirk Vogelaers
We describe a 43-year-old patient with subacute appearance of neurological and atypical complaints of anergia, anorexia and weight loss six months earlier. In spite of several admissions in different hospitals, no underlying somatic cause could be found and he was admitted to a psychiatric hospital with a tentative diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Subsequently, he was referred to the unit of medically unexplained physical symptoms within the department of general internal medicine for assessment by the psychiatrist, involved in this programme...
September 2, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
Richard Charnigo, Maya Guglin
The "obesity paradox" in heart failure (HF) is a phenomenon of more favorable prognosis, especially better survival, in obese versus normal-weight HF patients. Various explanations for the paradox have been offered; while different in their details, they typically share the premise that obesity per se is not actually the cause of reduced mortality in HF. Even so, there is a lingering question of whether clinicians should refrain from, or at least soft-pedal on, encouraging weight loss among their obese HF patients...
August 27, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Patricia Westmoreland, Phillip S Mehler
Anorexia nervosa is a serious mental illness with a high mortality rate. The body image distortion inherent to this disorder and the impaired judgment and cognition due to malnutrition frequently result in patients refusing treatment. Treatment is most effective if patients are treated early in the course of their illness and undergo a full course of treatment. Involuntary treatment may therefore be both life-saving and critical to recovery. Between April 2012 and March 2016, 109 patients (5.2% of patients admitted to the Eating Recovery Center in Denver, CO) were certified, 39% of whom were transferred from the ACUTE Center for Eating Disorders at Denver Health Medical Center...
July 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Taisuke Kitamura, Seiji Gotoh, Hayato Takaki, Fumi Kiyuna, Sohei Yoshimura, Kenichiro Fujii
An 86-year-old woman with a one-year history of dementia was admitted to our hospital complaining of loss of appetite, hallucinations, and disturbance of consciousness. She gradually presented with chorea-like involuntary movements of the extremities. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral symmetrical hyperintense signals in the basal ganglia. The serum vitamin B12 level was below the lower detection limit of 50 pg/ml. The homocysteine level was markedly elevated at 115.8 nmol/ml...
July 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Massimo Venturelli, Emiliano Cè, Eloisa Limonta, Ettore Muti, Renato Scarsini, Anna Brasioli, Federico Schena, Fabio Esposito
Loss in body mass (∆BM) is a common feature in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the etiology of this phenomenon is unclear. The aim of this cohort study was to observe possible ∆BM in AD patients following a standard institutionalized diet. Secondary objective was to identify possible predictors of ∆BM. To this end, 85 AD patients (age: 76±4 yrs; stature: 165±3 cm; BM: 61.6±7.4 kg; mean±standard deviation) and 86 controls (CTRL; age: 78±5 yrs; stature: 166±4 cm; BM: 61.7±6.4 kg) were followed during one year of standard institutionalized diet (~1800 kcal/24h)...
2016: PloS One
Sneha Bharadwaj, Andrew Campbell Moffat, Brad Wood, Avinash Bharadwaj
An elderly man presented with severe right ear pain and discharge, hoarseness and dysphagia causing significant involuntary weight loss. Extensive investigations by varied specialties only highlighted right vocal cord palsy and right parotid lymphadenitis. Reassessment on transfer to a rehabilitation ward noted clinically subtle right Ramsay Hunt syndrome with multiple lower cranial nerve involvement. We illustrate a case of varicella zoster virus cranial polyneuritis with bulbar symptoms mimicking bulbar stroke, requiring percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeds, with significant clinical and radiological recovery over 1 year...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Miguel L Batista, Felipe S Henriques, Rodrigo X Neves, Mireia R Olivan, Emídio M Matos-Neto, Paulo S M Alcântara, Linda F Maximiano, José P Otoch, Michele J Alves, Marília Seelaender
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cachexia is a syndrome characterized by marked involuntary loss of body weight. Recently, adipose tissue (AT) wasting has been shown to occur before the appearance of other classical cachexia markers. We investigated the composition and rearrangement of the extracellular matrix, adipocyte morphology and inflammation in the subcutaneous AT (scAT) pad of gastrointestinal cancer patients. METHODS: Surgical biopsies for scAT were obtained from gastrointestinal cancer patients, who were signed up into the following groups: cancer cachexia (CC, n = 11), weight-stable cancer (WSC, n = 9) and weight-stable control (non-cancer) (control, n = 7)...
March 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
P Mayr, K S Kuhn, P Klein, J F Stover, E A Pestana
AIMS: Reducing the intake of low molecular weight carbohydrates with artificial nutrition may lower glycaemic response in patients with diabetes. We evaluated effects of a diabetes-specific carbohydrate modified oral nutritional supplement (ONS) during 12 weeks administration in 40 elderly type 2 normal weight patients with diabetes with previous involuntary weight loss. METHODS: Prospective, randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Patients ingested 2×200 ml/day diabetes-specific or isocaloric standard ONS (control) in addition to their regular diet...
July 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Anne Liv Lyngroth, Susanne Miriam Sørensen Hernes, Bengt-Ove Madsen, Ulrika Söderhamn, Ellen Karine Grov
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare individual reports by patients and relatives (proxy) of the Nutritional Form For the Elderly and relate the Nutritional Form For the Elderly scores to Mini Mental Status Examination scores, weight loss, Body Mass Index, five-point Clock Drawing Test and background variables. BACKGROUND: Undernutrition or risk of undernutrition is a significant problem among people with dementia. A poor nutritional state increases the risk of infections, delayed convalescence after acute illness and reduced quality of life...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Jongho Kwon, Jung-Woo Park, Jin-Soo Park, Seyoung Kim, Hyunrim Choi, Sinye Lim
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the association between shift or night work and weight change have been focused on finding the risk of weight gain caused by shift or night work. In this study, we aimed to reveal the risk of weight gain and weight loss associated with night work by using a nationwide representative data. METHODS: This study was performed on 1605 full-time wage workers between the age of 20 and 69 based on the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010-2012)...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Mieko Nakamura, Toshiyuki Ojima, Miyo Nakade, Rika Ohtsuka, Tatsuo Yamamoto, Kayo Suzuki, Katsunori Kondo
BACKGROUND: Involuntary weight loss and underweight increase the risks of mortality and disability in older people. However, the association and interaction of poor oral health and dietary intake with body mass index (BMI) have not been elucidated. METHODS: Data were analyzed for 96 794 respondents aged >65 years who were randomly selected from 31 Japanese municipalities in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Weight loss was defined as ≥2-3 kg of loss over the preceding 6 months...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology
Jenny Townhill, Alis C Hughes, Benny Thomas, Monica E Busse, Kathy Price, Stephen B Dunnett, Michael H Hastings, Anne E Rosser
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that is well recognised as producing progressive deterioration of motor function, including dyskinetic movements, as well as deterioration of cognition and ability to carry out activities of daily living. However, individuals with HD commonly suffer from a wide range of additional symptoms, including weight loss and sleep disturbance, possibly due to disruption of circadian rhythmicity. Disrupted circadian rhythms have been reported in mice models of HD and in humans with HD...
May 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
C M Prado, S J Cushen, C E Orsso, A M Ryan
Our understanding of body composition (BC) variability in contemporary populations has significantly increased with the use of imaging techniques. Abnormal BC such as sarcopenia (low muscle mass) and obesity (excess adipose tissue) are predictors of poorer prognosis in a variety of conditions or clinical situations. As a catabolic illness, a defining feature of cancer is muscle loss. Although the conceptual model of wasting in cancer is typically conceived as involuntary weight loss leading to low body weight, recent studies have shown that both sarcopenia and cachexia can be present with obesity...
May 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Robert El-Kareh, Valeria Pazo, Adam Wright, Gordon D Schiff
BACKGROUND: Involuntary weight loss is associated with higher mortality. When this weight loss is unrecognized, opportunities for timely diagnosis of significant conditions may be missed. OBJECTIVE: To use electronic health record (EHR) data to estimate the frequency of unrecognized involuntary weight loss and its implications. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the weights recorded in an EHR of 100,000 adult patients seen in outpatient clinics over a five-year period using a novel data visualization and review tool...
2015: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
Jane B Hopkinson
Cancer cachexia is a complex syndrome. Its defining feature is involuntary weight loss, which arises, in part, because of muscle atrophy and is accompanied by functional decline. International expert consensus recommends that nutritional support and counselling is a component of multimodal therapy for cancer cachexia, as poor nutritional intake can contribute to progression of the syndrome. The present paper focuses on what is presently known about the nursing contribution to nutritional care in cancer cachexia...
November 2015: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Andrés Alejandro Briseño-Hernández, Deissy Roxana Quezada-López, Lilia Edith Corona-Cobián, Agar Castañeda-Chávez, Alfonso Tonatiuh Duarte-Ojeda, Michel Dassaejv Macías-Amezcua
BACKGROUND: The desmoplastic small round cell tumour is a rare and aggressive intra-abdominal neoplasia, with only 200 cases reported, and a higher incidence in men and predilection for the second decade of life. Histologically characterized by the presence of small nests of undifferentiated tumour cells, wrapped in fibrous desmoplastic stroma. CLINICAL CASE: A 24 year old male started with abdominal pain of 4 weeks onset in the right upper quadrant, colic type, sporadic, self-limiting and accompanied by early satiety, decreased appetite, and involuntary weight loss of 10 kg in 3 months...
May 2015: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Federica Sganga, Francesco Landi, Davide L Vetrano, Andrea Corsonello, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Roberto Bernabei, Graziano Onder
AIM: To assess the impact of hospitalization on modification of drug burden among elderly patients. METHODS: The present prospective cohort study was carried out in acute care hospitals in Italy. The difference in the number of drugs used before hospital admission and those prescribed at discharge was calculated. The prevalence of (i) any increase (1 or more drugs); and (ii) an increase >50% in the number of drugs from admission to discharge was calculated, and the factors associated with these conditions were identified...
May 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Maria De La Luz Nieto, Jennifer M Wu, Catherine Matthews, William E Whitehead, Alayne D Markland
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Fecal incontinence (FI) is a debilitating condition that significantly affects quality of life, and has been associated with multiple risk factors. Our goal was to assess the prevalence of FI among diabetic women and evaluate factors associated with FI in this population. METHODS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2010 was used to evaluate women with diabetes mellitus and FI. FI was defined as involuntary loss of mucus, liquid, or solid stool at least monthly...
October 2015: International Urogynecology Journal
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