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Spinal AND Cord AND Injury

Bruna Dos Santos Ramalho, Fernanda Marques Pestana, Caio Andrade Prins, Fellipe Soares Dos Santos Cardoso, Danilo Rufino Cavalcante, Sérgio Augusto Lopes de Souza, Bianca Gutfilen, Fernanda Martins de Almeida, Ana Maria Blanco Martinez
Despite advances in technology and rehabilitation, no effective therapies are available for patients with SCI, which remains a major medical challenge. This study compared the efficacy of 3 different doses of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) administered by intraperitoneal injection as a therapeutic strategy for compressive SCI. We used adult female C57BL/6 mice that underwent laminectomy at the T9 level, followed by spinal-cord compression for 1 minute with a 30 g vascular clip. The animals received an intraperitoneal (i...
December 13, 2018: Neuroscience
M Pacurari, S Waugh, K Krajnak
Prolonged occupational exposure to hand-held vibrating tools leads to pain and reductions in tactile sensitivity, grip strength and manual dexterity. The goal of the current study was to use a rat-tail vibration model to determine how vibration frequency influences factors related to nerve injury and dysfunction. Rats were exposed to restraint, or restraint plus tail vibration at 62.5 Hz or 250 Hz. Nerve function was assessed using the current perception threshold (CPT) test. Exposure to vibration at 62.5 and 250 Hz, resulted in a reduction in the CPT at 2000 and 250 Hz electrical stimulation (i...
December 13, 2018: Neuroscience
Seungwoo Cha, Jae-Hyun Yun, Youho Myong, Hyung-Ik Shin
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between skeletal muscle mass and spasticity in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Tertiary level hospital in Seoul, Korea METHODS: Spasticity was evaluated in 69 participants with SCI using the spasticity sum score (SSS), Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS), and Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes (SCATS). Skeletal muscle mass was measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner, and skeletal muscle index was calculated by dividing skeletal muscle mass by height squared...
December 14, 2018: Spinal Cord
Peter Wayne New, Bonsan Bonne Lee, Raymond Cripps, Lawrence C Vogel, Adam Scheinberg, Mary-Clare Waugh
STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. OBJECTIVES: Globally map key paediatric spinal cord damage epidemiological measures and provide a framework for an ongoing repository of data. SETTING: Worldwide, initiative of ISCoS Prevention Committee. METHODS: Literature search of Medline (1946-March 2017) and Embase (1974-March 2017). Relevant articles in any language regarding children with spinal cord damage included. Stratification of data quality into Green/Yellow /Red 'zones' facilitated comparison between countries...
December 14, 2018: Spinal Cord
Anna Berardi, Alessio Biondillo, Maria Auxiliadora Màrquez, Rita De Santis, Giovanni Fabbrini, Marco Tofani, Donatella Valente, Giovanni Galeoto
STUDY DESIGN: Psychometric study. OBJECTIVE: To validate the Italian version of the Van Lieshout Test Short Version (VLT-SV) with a spinal cord injury population. SETTING: Three Italian spinal units. METHODS: The Italian version of the VLT-SV (VLT-SV-IT) was administered to a sample of people with cervical spinal cord injuries (C-SCI) and the test-retest was performed. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency and the intraclass correlation coefficient for repeatability assessment (test-retest)...
December 14, 2018: Spinal Cord
A Halvorsen, A L Pettersen, S M Nilsen, K Krizak Halle, E Elmenhorst Schaanning, T Rekand
STUDY DESIGN: Registry-based cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To describe and analyze epidemiological and demographic characteristics of non-traumatic spinal cord injury (NTSCI) and to compare persons with NTSCI and traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). SETTING: A total of 225 non-traumatic and 349 traumatic SCI patients were admitted for primary rehabilitation at one of the three specialized SCI departments in Norway (located in Bergen, Trondheim, and Oslo) from 2012 to 2016...
December 14, 2018: Spinal Cord
Zhenhuan Li, Furong Wu, Dafeng Xu, Zhongzheng Zhi, Guanghui Xu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event, leading to the progression of chronic neuropathic pain syndrome. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM1) is an innate immune receptor expressed on neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. TREM1 enhances inflammatory response in various models of diseases, but its significance in SCI remains unclear. In the present study, we attempted to explore the effects of TREM1 on the regulation of SCI. Spinal cord contusion injury was performed in wild type (WT) and TREM1-knockout (TREM1KO ) mice, and real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), western blot, and immunofluorescent (IF) staining were used to calculate TREM1, inflammation and oxidative stress in spinal cord tissues 42 days after SPII...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ramil Hakim, Ruxandra Covacu, Vasilios Zachariadis, Arvid Frostell, Sreenivasa Sankavaram, Mikael Svensson, Lou Brundin
We evaluated the importance of histocompatibility of transplanted MSCs in terms of therapeutic potential. Mouse syngeneic MSCs or allogeneic MSCs were transplanted following SCI in mouse. In this study we found that syngeneic, but not allogeneic, MSCs alternatively activated macrophages resulting in a down-regulation of pro-inflammation. Syngeneic MSCs also had a general suppressive effect on the immune response as compared to allogeneic MSCs. Additionally, syngeneic, but not allogeneic, MSCs significantly enhanced the recovery of hind limb function...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Clara López-Serrano, Eva Santos-Nogueira, Isaac Francos-Quijorna, Marina Coll-Miro, Jerold Chun, Rubèn López-Vales
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular lipid mediator involved in many physiological functions by signaling through six known G-protein-coupled receptors (LPA1 -LPA6 ). In the central nervous system (CNS), LPA mediates a wide range of effects, including neural progenitor cell physiology, astrocyte and microglia activation, neuronal cell death, axonal retraction, and contributions to pain, schizophrenia and hydrocephalus. We recently reported that LPA-LPA1 signaling mediates functional deficits and myelin loss after spinal cord injury (SCI)...
December 11, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Corinne E Metzger, Sammy Gong, Miriam Aceves, Susan A Bloomfield, Michelle A Hook
Profound bone loss occurs following spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in a high incidence of fractures. While likely caused in part by loss of weight-bearing, there is greater bone loss following SCI when compared to that observed in other disuse animal models. Patients with SCI have a protracted inflammatory response, with elevated circulating levels of pro-inflammatory markers. This chronic inflammation could compound the bone loss attributed to disuse and the loss of neural signaling. To assess this, we examined inflammatory markers and bone turnover regulators in osteocytes from rats with a moderate spinal contusion injury (SCI) and intact controls (CON)...
December 11, 2018: Bone
Xin-Hua Cheng, Lei Zhang, Jun Fu
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate changes of somatosensory evoked potentials and the effects of decompression timing on spinal cord recovery and evoked potentials by measuring the somatosensory evoked potentials of rats with spinal cord injury at different time points. METHODS: A total of 70 SD rats were divided into the control group (group A) and the experimental group. The experimental groups included group B, C and D according to the severity of spinal cord injury...
December 11, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Zhenhua Shang, Chunsong Jia, Hao Yan, Bo Cui, Jiangtao Wu, Qi Wang, Wei Gao, Xin Cui, Jin Li, Tongwen Ou
AIMS: To investigate the effects of injecting RNA interference (RNAi) lentiviruses targeting the muscarinic 3 (M3 ) receptor gene into the bladder wall on bladder activity in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Four M3 RNAi lentiviruses were constructed and used to infect primary cultured bladder smooth muscle cells (BSMCs). Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to determine the optimal RNAi lentivirus with the highest interference efficiency...
December 14, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Aline Barroso Spejo, Caroline Brandão Teles, Giuliana da Silva Zuccoli, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Astrogliosis and microglial reactions are correlated with the formation of scar tissue and synapse loss. 4-hydroxy-tempo (TEMPOL) is a reactive oxygen species scavenger with proven neuroprotective efficacy in experimental models of traumatic injury and cerebral ischemia. TEMPOL has not, however, been applied following ventral root lesions, which are particularly correlated with the degeneration of spinal motoneurons following brachial plexus injuries. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of TEMPOL on motoneurons and adjacent glial reactions, with a particular focus on the preservation of excitatory and inhibitory spinal circuits...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Yangyang Xu, Peng Li, Shizhen Zhang, Yi Wang, Xiaoyan Zhao, Xin Wang, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVES: Data on the treatment of the vegetative state (VS) with cervical spinal cord stimulation (cSCS) are limited and prognostic factors are inconclusive. In this study, we present our experience of treating 12 VS patients with cSCS and discuss the prognostic factors. METHODS: Twelve VS patients were enrolled. Preoperative assessments included CT/MRI, PET, brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), and electroencephalogram (EEG)...
December 13, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Felipe Soares Macedo, Adson Ferreira da Rocha, Cristiano Jacques Miosso, Sergio Ricardo Menezes Mateus
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently have an ineffective cough ability due to dysfunctions in expiratory muscles. In such cases, several articles have reported the occurrence of residual muscular activity in muscles that are accessory to coughing. The knowledge about this activity may be useful for building cough assistance devices. The goal of this review is to investigate and to describe the electromyographic signals generated during voluntary coughing in healthy people and in patients with SCI...
December 13, 2018: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
Miguel Goulão, Biswarup Ghosh, Mark W Urban, Malya Sahu, Christina Mercogliano, Brittany A Charsar, Sreeya Komaravolu, Cole G Block, George M Smith, Megan C Wright, Angelo C Lepore
Stem/progenitor cell transplantation delivery of astrocytes is a potentially powerful strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI). Axon extension into SCI lesions that occur spontaneously or in response to experimental manipulations is often observed along endogenous astrocyte "bridges," suggesting that augmenting this response via astrocyte lineage transplantation can enhance axon regrowth. Given the importance of respiratory dysfunction post-SCI, we transplanted glial-restricted precursors (GRPs)-a class of lineage-restricted astrocyte progenitors-into the C2 hemisection model and evaluated effects on diaphragm function and the growth response of descending rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) axons that innervate phrenic motor neurons (PhMNs)...
December 11, 2018: Glia
Amanda K Morrow, David E Tunkel, Joseph M Collaco, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow, Janet C Lam, Jennifer A Accardo, Suzanne V Rybczynski
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this retrospective review was to determine the utility of polysomnography (PSG) in influencing the decision to decannulate pediatric patients with brain and spinal cord injuries in an inpatient rehabilitation hospital setting. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2016, data were collected on pediatric patients with brain and/or spinal cord injuries who had PSG performed with the goal of decannulation. Patients underwent a decannulation protocol involving toleration of continuous tracheostomy capping and bedside tracheoscopy by otolaryngology...
December 11, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Meghan Cochrane, Marika Hess, Natalie Sajkowicz
CONTEXT: Posterior cord syndrome (PCS) is the least common incomplete spinal cord injury. Findings of posterior cord syndrome include loss of proprioception and vibration, which are not routinely tested with the American Spinal Cord Injury Association's International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) exam and can easily be missed. Seromas may develop after spinal instrumentation and can cause cord compression. FINDINGS: This case describes a unique presentation of posterior cord syndrome following a large seroma formation after laminectomy...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Ana Ferri-Caruana, Luis Millán-González, Xavier García-Massó, Soraya Pérez-Nombela, Maite Pellicer-Chenoll, Pilar Serra-Añó
OBJECTIVE: Our main goal was to measure physical activity (PA) in people with paraplegia. Secondarily, we aimed to establish the relationship between being engaged in physical exercise (PE) and reaching the recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) level. We further analyzed the effect of being engaged in PE on the PA levels. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional. SETTING: Spanish associations for individuals with spinal cord injury...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Mark S Nash, James L J Bilzon
Purpose of Review: Persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) commonly experience individual risks and coalesced health hazards of the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). This review will examinethe role of exercise and nutritional intervention as countermeasures to these disease risks. Recent Findings: The CMS hazards of overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are strongly associated with physical deconditioning and are common after SCI...
2018: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
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