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Spinal AND Cord AND Injury

Seiichiro Sakai, Takashi Shichita
Stroke causes neuronal cell death and destruction of neuronal circuits in the brain and spinal cord. Injury to the brain tissue induces sterile inflammation triggered by the extracellular release of endogenous molecules, but cerebral inflammation after stroke is gradually resolved within several days. In this pro-resolving process, inflammatory cells adopt a pro-resolving or repairing phenotype in the injured brain, activating endogenous repairing programs. Although the mechanisms involved in the transition from inflammation to neural repair after stroke remain largely unknown to date, some of the mechanisms for inflammation and neural repair have been clarified in detail...
October 18, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Shijie Zhang, Hui Liu, Qing Xu, Fei Huang, Ranran Xu, Qingquan Liu, Yongman Lv
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common kidney disorder which is associated with a high risk of mortality. Extensive evidence revealed the participation of renal afferent sensory nerves in the pathophysiology of renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, however the role of these nerves in renal IR injury is controversial and remains to be further explored. Here, we report that capsaicin sensitive sensory nerves and neuropeptides prevented renal damage in AKI induced by IR injury. The sensory afferent degeneration model was established by injecting 50 mg/kg of capsaicin to male neonatal rats and verified by the tail flick test and reduced sensory neuropeptide of substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide in spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion and kidney after 12 weeks...
October 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Zhongju Shi, Guangzhi Ning, Bin Zhang, Shiyang Yuan, Hengxing Zhou, Bin Pan, Jiahe Li, Zhijian Wei, Fujiang Cao, Xiaohong Kong, Shiqing Feng
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a highly severe disease and it can lead to the destruction of the motor and sensory function resulting in temporary or permanent disability. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts longer than 200 nt that play a critical role in central nervous system (CNS) injury. However, the exact roles of lncRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the early acute phase of SCI remain to be elucidated. We examined the expression of mRNAs and lncRNAs in a rat model at 2 days after SCI and identified the differentially expressed lncRNAs (DE lncRNAs) and differentially expressed mRNAs (DE mRNAs) using microarray analysis...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Koya Obara, Natsuko Tohgi, Kyoumi Shirai, Sumiyuki Mii, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Ryoichi Aki, Shree Ram Singh, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
Our previous studies showed that nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells, which reside in the bulge area of the hair follicle, could restore injured nerve and spinal cord and differentiate into cardiac muscle cells. Here we transplanted mouse green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing HAP stem-cell colonies enclosed on polyvinylidene fluoride membranes (PFM) into the severed thoracic spinal cord of nude mice. After seven weeks of implantation, we found the differentiation of HAP stem cells into neurons and glial cells...
October 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Dietmar Krappinger, Richard A Lindtner, Michael J Zegg, Benjamin Henninger, Verena Kaser, Anna Spicher, Rene Schmid
PURPOSE: To revisit the concept of spondylotic traumatic central cord syndrome (TCCS) by assessing the frequency of discoligamentous injury and to correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intraoperative findings. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of twenty-three consecutive patients (mean age: 62.7 ± 14.8 years) with profound spondylotic TCCS after acute cervical hyperextension trauma but without signs of instability on initial CT scans who underwent anterior surgical decompression and fusion was performed...
October 19, 2018: European Spine Journal
Zimei Wang, Brian Maunze, Yunfang Wang, Pantelis Tsoulfas, Murray G Blackmorea
The brain communicates with the spinal cord through numerous axon tracts that arise from discrete nuclei, transmit distinct functions, and often collateralize to facilitate the coordination of descending commands. This complexity presents a major challenge to interpreting functional outcomes from therapies that target supraspinal connectivity after injury or disease, while the wide distribution of supraspinal nuclei complicates the delivery of therapeutics. Here we harness retrograde viral vectors to overcome these challenges...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Andrea M Halsey, Alex C Conner, Roslyn M Bill, Ann Logan, Zubair Ahmed
After injury to the spinal cord, edema contributes to the underlying detrimental pathophysiological outcomes that lead to worsening of function. Several related membrane proteins called aquaporins (AQPs) regulate water movement in fluid transporting tissues including the spinal cord. Within the cord, AQP1, 4 and 9 contribute to spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced edema. AQP1, 4 and 9 are expressed in a variety of cells including astrocytes, neurons, ependymal cells, and endothelial cells. This review discusses some of the recent findings of the involvement of AQP in SCI and highlights the need for further study of these proteins to develop effective therapies to counteract the negative effects of SCI-induced edema...
October 18, 2018: Cells
Maria Bacova, Katarina Bimbova, Jana Fedorova, Nadezda Lukacova, Jan Galik
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes partial or total loss of sensory and motor functions. Despite enormous efforts, there is still no effective treatment which might improve patients' neurological status.The application of electric current to the injured spinal cord is known to promote healing and tissue regeneration. The use of this modality in treating the injured spinal cord to improve neurological recovery has been introduced as a potential treatment. NEW METHOD: Here we describe the method of epidural implantation of a miniature oscillating field (OF) stimulator designed in our laboratory immediately after Th9 spinal compression in Wistar rats...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Sudhanshu Sahu, Rong Li, Gabriele Loers, Melitta Schachner
Glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) are long chains of repeating disaccharide units, covalently linked to core proteins to form proteoglycans. Proteoglycans can be cell membrane-bound or are part of the extracellular matrix. They are important in a wide range of biologic processes, including development, synaptic plasticity, and regeneration after injury, as well as modulation of growth factor signaling, cell migration, survival, and proliferation. Synthesis of CS and DS in the Golgi apparatus is mediated by sulfotransferases that modify sugar chains through transfer of sulfate groups to specific positions on the sugar moieties...
October 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
C-S Bao, X-L Li, L Liu, B Wang, F-B Yang, L-G Chen
OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of transplanted human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) on spinal cord injury in mice and to explore its molecular mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spinal cord injury model in C57BL/6J mice was established. On the 10th day of SCI, hUCMSCs were injected into the center of spinal cord injury area (hUCMSC), and control groups (Control) were injected with an equal amount of medium. Western blotting, Real Time-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry, were used to analyze the content of IL-7, inflammatory cytokines, and macrophages after spinal cord injury in different groups...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Dekun Yin, Yonglin Chen, Rongxiang Lu, Bingbing Fan, Shunxing Zhu, Xingguo Xu, Zhongling Xu
Neuropathic pain is a severe debilitating state caused by injury or dysfunction of somatosensory nervous system, and the clinical treatment is still challenging. Translocation associated membrane protein 1 (TRAM1), an adapter protein, participates in a variety of transduction pathways and mediates the biological functions such as cell proliferation, activation, and differentiation. However, whether TRAM1 is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain is still unclear. In our study, we reported the role of TRAM1 in the maintenance of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) on rats...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Meng-Chun Kao, Yu-Te Wu, Mei-Yung Tsou, Wen-Chuan Kuo, Chien-Kun Ting
Incorrect needle placement during an epidural block causes medical complications such as dural puncture or spinal cord injury. We propose a system combining an optical coherence tomography imaging probe with an automatic identification algorithm to objectively identify the epidural needle-tip position and thus reduce complications during epidural needle insertion. Eight quantitative features were extracted from each two-dimensional optical coherence tomography image during insertion of the needle tip from the skin surface to the epidural space...
August 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Luyao Xu, Benson O A Botchway, Songou Zhang, Jingying Zhou, Xuehong Liu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) can have a significant impact on an individual's life. Herein, we discuss how resveratrol improves SCI by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Evidences show resveratrol suppresses NF-κB signaling pathway to exert its beneficial effects on various diseases. NF-κB signaling pathway plays a significant role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of SCI including increase in inflammation, augmentation of damage caused by free radicals and lipid peroxidation as well as facilitation of apoptosis and axonal demyelination...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Joshua D Roth, M Francesca Monn, Thomas M Shelton, Matthew J Mellon
Introduction: We aim to present a modified technique and outcomes of a novel method allowing for direct visualization of the reservoir placement during a penoscrotal inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP). Methods: Out of165 patients who underwent IPP placement from August 2012 to March 2015, 157 underwent a modified technique and comprised the cohort of this study. A Deaver's retractor was placed lateral to the penis and over the pubic bone to allow for direct visualization of the tissues overlying the lower abdomen...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
Mahmoud Farrag, Nic D Leipzig
A combinatorial approach integrating stem cells and capable of exploiting available cues is likely needed to regenerate lost neural tissues and ultimately restore neurologic functions. This study investigates the effects of the subcutaneous maturation of adult-derived neural stem cell (aNSCs) seeded into biomaterial constructs on aNSC differentiation and ultimate regional neuronal identity as a first step toward a future spinal cord injury treatment. To achieve this, we encapsulated rat aNSCs in chitosan-based hydrogels functionalized with immobilized azide-tagged interferon-γ inside a chitosan conduit...
October 17, 2018: Cells
Jing Jin, Hao Li, Gaonian Zhao, Su Jiang
BACKGROUND Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an injury-triggered event that is associated with permanent neurologic deficit. The deficit instigated by SCI leads to medical co-morbidity, not only affecting sensory and motor capabilities, but also having an impact on the physiological and economic condition of the patient. Against this backdrop, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of lycopsamine, a plant-derived alkaloid in SCI rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS The traumatic SCI injury in rats was created using a force-calibrated weight-drop device...
October 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Georgios Baskozos, John M Dawes, Jean S Austin, Ana Antunes-Martins, Lucy McDermott, Alex J Clark, Teodora Trendafilova, Jon G Lees, Stephen B McMahon, Jeffrey S Mogil, Christine Orengo, David L Bennett
Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons provide connectivity between peripheral tissues and spinal cord. Transcriptional plasticity within DRG sensory neurons after peripheral nerve injury contributes to nerve repair but also leads to maladaptive plasticity, including the development of neuropathic pain. This study presents tissue and neuron specific expression profiling of both known and novel Long Non-Coding RNAs (LncRNAs) in rodent DRG following nerve injury. We have identified a large number of novel LncRNAs expressed within rodent DRG, a minority of which were syntenically conserved between mouse, rat and human and which including both- intergenic and antisense LncRNAs...
October 16, 2018: Pain
Lauren Cadel, Claudia DeLuca, Sander L Hitzig, Tanya L Packer, Aisha K Lofters, Tejal Patel, Sara J T Guilcher
CONTEXT: Pain and depression are two prevalent secondary complications associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) that negatively impact health and well-being. Self-management strategies are growing in popularity for helping people with SCI to cope with their pain and depression. However, there is still a lack of research on which approaches are best suited for this population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this scoping review was to determine what is known about the self-management of pain and depression through the use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies in adults with SCI...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Shuo-Hsiu Chang, Fangshi Zhu, Neel Patel, Taimoor Afzal, Marcie Kern, Gerard E Francisco
CONTEXT: To investigate the feasibility of combining the lower-limb exoskeleton and body weight unweighing technology for assisted walking in tetraplegia following spinal cord injury (SCI). FINDINGS: A 66-year-old participant with a complete SCI at the C7 level, graded on the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) as AIS A, participated in nine sessions of overground walking with the assistance from exoskeleton and body weight unweighing system...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Shigeki Kubota, Tetsuya Abe, Hideki Kadone, Yukiyo Shimizu, Toru Funayama, Hiroki Watanabe, Aiki Marushima, Masao Koda, Yasushi Hada, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Masashi Yamazaki
CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: The hybrid assistive limb (HAL) is a wearable exoskeleton robot that assists walking and lower limb movements via real-time actuator control. Our aim was to clarify the safety and feasibility of using the HAL robotic suit for rehabilitation in patients with severe thoracic myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (T-OPLL). DESIGN: Uncontrolled case series; pre- and post-intervention measurement. SETTING: In-patient rehabilitation unit...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
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