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"Chitosan Nanoparticle"

Stainsloss Isabella, Sankaran Mirunalini, Kannaiyan Pandiyan
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) on inflammatory markers, estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), level of glycoprotein and the mast cell population in 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) 25 mg/kg b.wt. induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. After 8 weeks of tumor formation, rats had access to an oral administrated with DIM 10 mg/kg b.wt. and DIM@CS-NP 0.5 mg/kg body weight respectively for 8 weeks. The oral administration of DIM@CS-NP 0.5 mg/kg b...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Wei-Ting Huang, Yi-Ping Ko, Ting-Yu Kuo, Mikael Larsson, Min-Chih Chang, Ren-Der Jean, Dean-Mo Liu
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been one of the most frequently-used diagnostic tools with high dimensional precision and positioning accuracy in clinical practices. To achieve contrast enhancement, utilization of high-efficient MR imaging contrast agents becomes a prime consideration and is indispensably reinforced the diagnosis precision, especially for the emerging precision medicine. Gadolinium (Gd)-based complexes has been widely used in current clinical MRI operations, however, numerous side effects were reported and highlighted in clinic...
January 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mohsin Qureshi, Mohd Aqil, Syed Sarim Imam, Abdul Ahad, Yasmin Sultana
The present work was designed to explore the efficacy of neuroactive drug (risperidone) loaded chitosan lipid nano particle (RIS-CH-LNPs) to enhance the bioactivity in schizophrenia via nasal route. The three-factor and three-level formulation by design approach was used for optimization and their effects were observed on (Y1) size in nm, (Y2) % drug loading, and (Y3) % drug release. The optimized formulation RIS-CH-LNPopt was further evaluated for its surface morphology, ex-vivo permeation study, in-vivo behavior study, and stability study...
October 11, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Abhishesh Kumar Mehata, Shreekant Bharti, Priya Singh, Matte Kasi Viswanadh, Lakshmi Kumari, Poornima Agrawal, Sanjay Singh, Biplob Koch, Madaswamy S Muthu
Breast cancer, up-regulated with human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER-2) has led to the concept of developing HER-2 targeted anticancer therapeutics. Docetaxel-loaded D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate conjugated chitosan (TPGS-g-chitosan) nanoparticles were prepared with or without Trastuzumab decoration. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of conventional, non-targeted as well as targeted nanoparticles were in the range of 126-186 nm and 74-78% respectively. In-vitro studies on SK-BR-3 cells showed that docetaxel-loaded non-targeted and HER-2 receptor targeted TPGS-g-chitosan nanoparticles have enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity with a promising bioadhesion property, in comparison to conventional formulation i...
October 4, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Abdulaziz Almalik, Ibrahim Alradwan, Majed A Majrashi, Bashayer A Alsaffar, Abdulmalek T Algarni, Mohammed S Alsuabeyl, Haitham Alrabiah, Nicola Tirelli, Ali H Alhasan
In recent years, nanotechnology has been proven to offer promising biomedical applications for in vivo diagnostics and drug delivery, stressing the importance of thoroughly investigating the biocompatibility of potentially translatable nanoparticles (NPs). Herein, we report the cellular responses of uncoated chitosan NPs (CS NPs) and hyaluronic acid-coated chitosan NPs (HA-CS NPs) when introduced into Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) in a dose-dependent manner (2.5, 0.25, 0.025, 0.0025, and 0.00025 mg mL-1 ) at two time points (24 and 48 h)...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Tongyi Sun, Bo Zhan, Weifen Zhang, Di Qin, Guixue Xia, Huijie Zhang, Meiyu Peng, Sheng-An Li, Yun Zhang, Yuanyuan Gao, Wen-Hui Lee
Background: Nonscar wound healing is a desirable treatment for cutaneous wounds worldwide. Peptide OH-CATH30 (OH30) from king cobra can selectively regulate the innate immunity and create an anti-inflammatory micro-environment which might benefit nonscar wound healing. Purpose: To overcome the enzymatic digestion and control release of OH30, OH30 encapsulated in carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles (CMCS-OH30 NP) were prepared and their effects on wound healing were evaluated...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Mingrong Cheng, Daxi Ma, Kangkang Zhi, Baochi Liu, Weiping Zhu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our previous study found that a nanoparticle drug delivery system that operates as a drug carrier and controlled release system not only improves the efficacy of the drugs but also reduces their side effects. However, this system could not efficiently target hepatoma cells. The aim of this study was to synthesize biotin-modified galactosylated chitosan nanoparticles (Bio-GC) and evaluate their characteristics in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Bio-GC nanomaterials were synthesized, and confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR)...
October 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Asmaa Mawad, Yosra A Helmy, Abdel-Gawad Shalkami, Dipak Kathayat, Gireesh Rajashekara
Microencapsulation enhances the oral delivery of probiotic bacteria. In this study, the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) was microencapsulated using alginate and chitosan nanoparticles. The result showed 90% encapsulation yield of EcN, and the encapsulated EcN displayed significantly (P < 0.05) increased survival in low pH (1.5), high bile salt concentration (4%), and high temperature (70 °C). The most effective cryopreservatives of EcN during freezing and thawing was skim milk and sucrose...
October 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mai M Elkeiy, Abeer A Khamis, Mona M El-Gamal, Maha M Abo Gazia, Zeinb A Zalat, Mohammed A El-Magd
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) isolated from Artemia salina against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) both in vitro (HepG2) and in vivo (diethylnitrosamine-induced HCC in rats) and to investigate the involved underlying mechanisms. Administration of CNPs decreased HCC progression as evidenced by (1) induced HepG2 cell death as detected by MTT assay; (2) induced necrosis as indicated by acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) red staining, annexin V/7-AAD positive staining (detected by flow cytometry), and upregulated expression of necrosis markers (PARP1 and its downstream target, RIP1 genes), but no effect on apoptosis as revealed by insignificant changes in caspase 3 activity and mRNA levels of Bax and AIF; (3) increased intracellular ROS and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2; (4) decreased liver relative weight, serum levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP), total bilirubin, and cancer markers (AFP and GGT), number and area of GST-P positive tumor nodules; and (5) reduced oxidative stress (decrease in MDA levels) and increased activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx enzymes in rat liver...
October 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jinyun Liu, Yu Chen, Tianli Han, Mengying Cheng, Wen Zhang, Jiawei Long, Xiangqian Fu
Highly efficient adsorbents for drinking water purification are demanded since the contaminants are generally in a low concentration which makes it difficult for conventional adsorbents. Herein, we present a novel biomimetic SiO2 @chitosan composite as adsorbent with a high adsorption capability towards heavy metal ions including As(V) and Hg(II). The hollow leaf-like SiO2 scaffold within the adsorbent has a stable chemical property; while on the surface SiO2 , the chitosan nanoparticle provide a large amount of active sites such as amino and hydroxyl groups for adsorbing heavy metal ions...
October 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Maryam Omidinasab, Nadereh Rahbar, Mehdi Ahmadi, Babak Kakavandi, Farshid Ghanbari, George Z Kyzas, Susana Silva Martinez, Neemat Jaafarzadeh
Chitosan (CS), synthesized from chitin chemically extracted from shrimp shells, was used for the synthesis of magnetic chitosan nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 -CSN), which makes the adsorbent easier to separate. Fe3 O4 -CSN was used for the removal of toxic metals such as vanadium (V(V)) and palladium (Pd(II)) ions from aqueous solutions. Influencing factors on the adsorption process such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and agitation speed were investigated. A competitive adsorption of V(V) and Pd(II) ions for the active sites was also studied...
October 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sunena Jha, Shailendra Kumar Singh, Dina Nath Mishra
BACKGROUND: Presence of blood brain barrier is one of the major hurdle in drug delivery to brain for the treatment of neurological diseases. Alternative and more effective drug delivery approaches have been investigated for the drug targeting to brain in therapeutic range. OBJECTIVE: The present investigation was carried out to improve the galantamine bioavailability in brain by intranasal drug delivery through thiolated chitosan nanoparticles and compared to nasal and oral delivery of its solution using pharmacodynamic activity as well as biochemical estimation...
October 3, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Zaina Ait Bachir, YuKun Huang, MuYe He, Lei Huang, XinYu Hou, RongJun Chen, Feng Gao
Background: One of the most important aspects of drug delivery is extended nanoparticle (NP) residence time in vivo. Herein, we report a series of methotrexate (MTX)-loaded chito-san (CS) NPs coated with differently sized methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) at different mPEG surface densities. Materials and methods: MTX was incorporated into NPs (112.8-171.2 nm in diameter) prepared from the resulting mPEG-g-CS. The NPs had a zeta potential of +7.4-35.0 mV and MTX loading efficiency of 17...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Fiamma Gláucia-Silva, Manoela Torres-Rêgo, Karla Samara Rocha Soares, Igor Zumba Damasceno, Denise Vilarinho Tambourgi, Arnóbio Antônio da Silva-Júnior, Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
Snakebite envenoming is a tropical disease neglected worldwide. In Brazil, the Crotalus durissus cascavella (CDC) snake belongs to a genus with venom of highest lethality. A search for new immunoadjuvants aimed to expand the therapeutic alternatives to improve vaccines and antivenom. This approach proposed to produce small and narrow-sized cationic CDC venom-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CHNP) able to induce antibody response against the CDC venom. The ionic gelation method induced the formation of stable and slightly smooth spherical nanoparticles (<160 nm) with protein loading efficiency superior to 90%...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sandra Jesus, Edna Soares, Maria Teresa Cruz, Olga Borges
Over the past few years, exosomes, a class of extracellular vesicles (EVs), have emerged as key players for inter-cellular communication ultimately modulating the behavior of target cells with countless outcomes. Nevertheless, the potential role of exosomes as vaccine adjuvants remains largely unexplored. Herein, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from immune cells may have an immunostimulatory effect and could constitute a good target towards the development of new fine-tuned vaccine adjuvants. To accomplish this goal, exosomes isolated from lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS)-stimulated human monocytic cell line (THP-1) were characterized and tested for their non-specific immunostimulatory activity when administered subcutaneously to healthy mice; additionally, exosomes' vaccine adjuvant ability was also disclosed after their inclusion in vaccine formulations...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Sara Azizian, Afra Hadjizadeh, Hassan Niknejad
Designing scaffolds capable of mimicking the 3D structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and deliver signaling factors to affect and control the cell response favorably, is of high importance in the field of tissue engineering. As polymeric nanoparticles are effective vehicles for delivering growth factors, this study aimed to fabricate and characterize a nanocomposite scaffold based on chitosan and gelatin, incorporated with chitosan nanoparticles loaded with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)...
December 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Irina M Lipatova, Larisa I Makarova, Anna A Yusova
The synthesis, characterization and environmental application of chitosan based material stable in acidic media for adsorption of anionic dyes were investigated. The adsorption material is chitosan nanoparticles immobilized on a fibrous carrier (CPF). The choice of optimal conditions for the preparation of chitosan particles and their immobilization on a chemically activated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber is justified. Immobilized nanoparticles showed high adsorption rates and dye binding capacity (300-1050 mg g-1 ) depending on the dye type...
December 2018: Chemosphere
Ezzeddin M A Hejjaji, Alan M Smith, Gordon A Morris
Mucoadhesive molecules such as chitosan, can allow targeting of a particular tissue to prolong residence time and subsequently improve bioavailability. The purpose of this study was to investigate chitosan-tripolyphosphate (CS:TPP) nanoparticles and to evaluate the interaction between nanoparticles of different CS:TPP ratios with mucin using viscosity, particle size analysis and ζ-potential. For all CS:TPP ratios examined, a minimum value of viscosity was reached for a 3:1 CS:TPP ratio, however chitosan nanoparticles at this ratio were not stable (<+30 mV), whereas a CS:TPP ratio of 4:1 displayed the strongest interaction...
September 30, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
M Mehrabi, H Montazeri, N Mohamadpour Dounighi, A Rashti, R Vakili-Ghartavol
Most infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic infiltrations from the mucosal tract. Nowadays, the use of vaccines has been widely investigated for the prevention of different infectious diseases, infertility, immune disorders, malignancies, and allergies. Broad-spectrum adjuvant substances have been studied for immune system stimulation with a greater efficiency against specific antigens. Various adjuvants have been developed such as inorganic, oil-based, and emulsion adjuvants, bacterial products and their derivatives, cytokines, cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs, and particulate systems...
September 2018: Archives of Razi Institute
Mingming Song, Hui Wang, Kuanmin Chen, Song Zhang, Lizhen Yu, Ezzat H Elshazly, Lixia Ke, Renmin Gong
In this paper, a new oral insulin formulation, insulin-loaded carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin-grafted chitosan nanoparticles (insulin/CMCD-g-CS NPs), was fabricated by ionic crosslinking technique. The therapeutic efficacy of new formulation was investigated in detail. Firstly, the CMCD-g-CS was synthesized by EDC-mediated esterification reaction. The prepared CMCD-g-CS exhibited favourable loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of drug. The release experiment in vitro showed that the nanocarrier could efficiently protect encapsulated insulin at simulated gastric environment and release drug in the simulated colonic fluid...
October 3, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
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