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Nutrition lipid

Brandon C Farmer, Lance A Johnson, Angela J Hanson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Various groups have explored the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) on neurodegeneration through nutritional and metabolic alterations. In this review, we hope to summarize recent findings in humans as well as preclinical APOE models. RECENT FINDINGS: Metabolic pathways including lipid metabolism appear to play a large role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Carrier status of the E4 variant of the APOE gene is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, and increasing evidence suggests that E4 carriers may respond differently to a host of dietary and metabolic-related treatments...
December 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Nan Yang, Olaf Butenschoen, Rumana Rana, Lars Köhler, Dietrich Hertel, Christoph Leuschner, Stefan Scheu, Andrea Polle, Rodica Pena
In forest ecosystems, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important for plant growth and soil biogeochemical processes. The biochemical composition of ECM mycelium is an important fungal effect trait with consequences for its decomposition rate, and consequently on soil carbon pools and plant nutrition. Although the link between ECM fungi and leaf litter-released nutrients is well known, the response of ECM fungal biochemical composition to different leaf litter species remains poorly understood. To determine how leaf litter quality influences ECM fungi's biochemical profiles, we planted young beech trees in an oak forest and replaced the natural leaf litter with that of European beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), or lime (Tilia cordata)...
December 13, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Stephan Lüders, Bastian Schrader, Jörg Bäsecke, Hermann Haller, Albrecht Elsässer, Michael Koziolek, Joachim Schrader
BACKGROUND:  For the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors (RF) there are numerous recommendations of professional societies, which relate to the personal way of life of individuals (for example nutrition/diet, physical activity, stress reduction etc.). The implementation of these recommendations is so far poor. In the ELITE study, data on RF, nutritional behavior, physical activity and quality of life in the Oldenburger Münsterland region are to be collected prospectively and improved by individual information...
December 13, 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Sophie Schutte, Diederik Esser, Femke P M Hoevenaars, Guido J E J Hooiveld, Marion G Priebe, Roel J Vonk, Suzan Wopereis, Lydia A Afman
Background: Whole-grain wheat (WGW) is described as nutritionally superior to refined wheat (RW) and thus advocated as the healthy choice, although evidence from intervention studies is often inconsistent. The liver, as the central organ in energy metabolism, might be an important target organ for WGW interventions. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of WGW consumption compared with RW consumption on liver health and associated parameters...
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Camila Alves Nogueira de Souza, Giovana Longo-Silva, Risia Cristina Egito Menezes, Alyne da Costa Araujo, Maysa Helena de Aguiar Toloni, Maria Alice de Araújo Oliveira
Analyzing quantitative and qualitative aspects of school meals represents the initial stage to ensure that the National School Food Program (PNAE) is an effective space for the promotion of healthy eating habits and establishing individual rights. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of meals served and consumed, as well as quantifying food waste in Child Daycare Centers in Maceió, in the state of Alagoas. All meals served and consumed by 359 children (aged 17 to 63 months) were analyzed by the direct weighing method for three non-consecutive days in all institutions...
December 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Filipa Mandim, Lillian Barros, Ricardo C Calhelha, Rui M V Abreu, José Pinela, Maria José Alves, Sandrina Heleno, P F Santos, Isabel C F R Ferreira
The inflorescences of Calluna vulgaris were nutritionally and chemically characterized. Furthermore, different organic and aqueous extracts were prepared for the evaluation of their bioactive properties. From the obtained results, carbohydrates were the major compounds, followed by protein, lipid and ashes. It was possible to identify the sugars fructose and glucose, five organic acids, 26 individual fatty acids and the four tocopherol isoforms. Concerning the extract composition, 12 phenolic compounds were identified, with myricetin-3-O-glucoside and myricetin-O-rhamnoside predominating...
December 12, 2018: Food & Function
Jia Wang, Zhuo Wang, Bing Li, Yu Qiang, Tian Yuan, Xintong Tan, Zihan Wang, Zhigang Liu, Xuebo Liu
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of lycopene (LYC), a major carotenoid present in tomato, on high-fat and high-fructose western diet (HFFD)-induced cognitive impairments and the protective effects on HFFD-elicited insulin resistance, lipid metabolism dysfunction and inflammatory responses in the gut-liver-brain axis. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We randomly assigned 3-month-old C57BL/6 J mice to three groups with different diets: the control group, HFFD group and HFFD + LYC group (LYC, 0...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Malinna Jusoh, Saw Hong Loh, Ahmad Aziz, Thye San Cha
Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biofuels and nutritional inventions. Recent studies from our lab have shown that two plant hormones, auxin and jasmonic acid, influence microalgae growth and fatty acid accumulation. Therefore, in this study, a high oil-producing strain Chlorella vulgaris UMT-M1 was selected for hormonal study using gibberellin (GA). Exogenous GA3 was applied to early stationary culture of C. vulgaris UMT-M1. Results showed that GA3 gradually increases the cell density of C...
December 10, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ondulla T Toomer, Amanda M Hulse-Kemp, Lisa L Dean, Deborah L Boykin, Ramon Malheiros, Kenneth E Anderson
Previous studies have identified normal-oleic peanuts as a suitable and economical broiler feed ingredient. However, no studies to date have examined the use of high-oleic (HO) peanut cultivars as a feed ingredient for laying hens and determined the impact of feeding HO peanuts on performance and egg nutritive qualities. This project aimed to examine the use of HO peanuts as a feed ingredient for layer hens to determine the effect on performance, egg lipid chemistry, and quality of the eggs produced. Forty-eight 40-wk-old layer hens were fed a conventional soybean meal + corn control diet or a HO peanut + corn diet for 10 wk in conventional battery cages...
December 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Aakanksha Wany, Alok Kumar Gupta, Aprajita Kumari, Sonal Mishra, Namrata Singh, Sonika Pandey, Rhythm Vanvari, Abir U Igamberdiev, Alisdair R Fernie, Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta
Background and Aims: Nitrogen (N) levels vary between ecosystems, while the form of available N has a substantial impact on growth, development and perception of stress. Plants have the capacity to assimilate N in the form of either nitrate (NO3-) or ammonium (NH4+). Recent studies revealed that NO3- nutrition increases nitric oxide (NO) levels under hypoxia. When oxygen availability changes, plants need to generate energy to protect themselves against hypoxia-induced damage. As the effects of NO3- or NH4+ nutrition on energy production remain unresolved, this study was conducted to investigate the role of N source on group VII transcription factors, fermentative genes, energy metabolism and respiration under normoxic and hypoxic conditions...
December 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Fabian Lanuza, Jorge Sapunar, Edmundo Hofmann
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFDL) includes fatty liver or simple steatosis, characterized by lipid deposits in hepatocytes and more advanced stages such as steatohepatitis (NASH) and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Physical inactivity, hypercaloric and unbalanced diet together with aging play a key role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and are strongly associated with metabolic and physical activity continue to be major components in prevention and first-line treatment to attenuate or reverse NAFLD. Dietary patterns, their composition and weight reduction would be the most relevant nutritional aspects in NAFDL treatment...
August 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
Jaime Nieto-Zermeño, Ricardo Ordorica Flores, Blanca Del Río-Navarro, Betzabé Salgado-Arroyo, Jorge Mario Molina-Díaz
Introduction: Obesity is a world pandemic; in Mexico 3 out of 10 adolescents suffer from it. Conservative management of morbid obesity is not effective and bariatric surgery is the only useful therapy. International pediatric bariatric surgery series are scarce and in Mexico there is limited experience. Method: We analyze the metabolic repercussions, comorbidities and complications in our series of Mexican adolescents with morbid obesity who underwent a gastric sleeve between 2011 and 2015...
2018: Gaceta Médica de México
Ayman Hyder
Nutrients may modulate immunity through their transcription factors that act on both metabolic and immunity genes. It has been shown that the transcription factor of lipid ligands PPARγ physically binds the gene promoter of the peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGlyRP3), which showed anti-inflammatory action in vitro. It is hypothesized in the present work that olive oil feeding protects against toxicity of DSS-induced colitis via activation of the lipid transcription factor PPARγ that stimulates the anti-inflammatory PGlyRP3...
December 7, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Magda Gasull, José Pumarega, Hannu Kiviranta, Panu Rantakokko, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Torkjel Manning Sandanger, Fernando Goñi, Lluís Cirera, Carolina Donat-Vargas, Juan Alguacil, Mar Iglesias, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Francesca Romana Mancini, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Gianluca Severi, Theron Johnson, Tilman Kühn, Antonia Trichopoulou, Anna Karakatsani, Eleni Peppa, Domenico Palli, Valeria Pala, Rosario Tumino, Alessio Naccarati, Salvatore Panico, Monique Verschuren, Roel Vermeulen, Charlotta Rylander, Therese Haugdahl Nøst, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Amaia Molinuevo, María-Dolores Chirlaque, Eva Ardanaz, Malin Sund, Tim Key, Weimin Ye, Mazda Jenab, Dominique Michaud, Giuseppe Matullo, Federico Canzian, Rudolf Kaaks, Alexandra Nieters, Ute Nöthlings, Suzanne Jeurnink, Veronique Chajes, Marco Matejcic, Marc Gunter, Dagfinn Aune, Elio Riboli, Antoni Agudo, Carlos Alberto Gonzalez, Elisabete Weiderpass, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Eric J Duell, Paolo Vineis, Miquel Porta
BACKGROUND: The use of biomarkers of environmental exposure to explore new risk factors for pancreatic cancer presents clinical, logistic, and methodological challenges that are also relevant in research on other complex diseases. OBJECTIVES: First, to summarize the main design features of a prospective case-control study -nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort- on plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk...
November 23, 2018: Environmental Research
Suelem Lima da Silva, Júlia Tomazzetti Amaral, Marcely Ribeiro, Elen Endler Sebastião, Carlos Vargas, Felipe de Lima Franzen, Gabrielle Schneider, José Manuel Lorenzo, Leadir Lucy Martins Fries, Alexandre José Cichoski, Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol
Bologna-type sausages were made with 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of pork back fat by oleogel made with pork skin, water, and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) (1.5, 1.5: 1). The technological, nutritional, oxidative, and sensory properties were evaluated. Emulsion stability increased and cooking loss decreased with increasing the pork back fat replacement by oleogel. The reformulation increased the proportion of oleic acid within the lipid fraction by up to 20% and decreased the proportion of linoleic acid by up to 10%, with no changes in the oxidative stability...
November 28, 2018: Meat Science
Sanjay Basu, Ryan G Wagner, Ronel Sewpaul, Priscilla Reddy, Justine Davies
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors-particularly hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and diabetes-have become an increasing concern for middle-income countries. Using newly available, nationally representative data, we assessed how cardiovascular risk factors are distributed across subpopulations within South Africa and identified which cardiovascular treatments should be prioritised. METHODS: We created a demographically representative simulated population for South Africa and used data from 17 743 respondents aged 15 years or older of the 2012 South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES) to assign information on cardiovascular risk factors to each member of the simulated population...
December 6, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Riko Hatakeyama, Marie-Pierre Péli-Gulli, Zehan Hu, Malika Jaquenoud, Guillermo Miguel Garcia Osuna, Alessandro Sardu, Jörn Dengjel, Claudio De Virgilio
The eukaryotic TORC1 kinase is a homeostatic controller of growth that integrates nutritional cues and mediates signals primarily from the surface of lysosomes or vacuoles. Amino acids activate TORC1 via the Rag GTPases that combine into structurally conserved multi-protein complexes such as the EGO complex (EGOC) in yeast. Here we show that Ego1, which mediates membrane-anchoring of EGOC via lipid modifications that it acquires while traveling through the trans-Golgi network, is separately sorted to vacuoles and perivacuolar endosomes...
November 19, 2018: Molecular Cell
Agnieszka Bzikowska, Aneta Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Halina Weker, Aleksandra Wesołowska
Background: Human milk is the optimal nutrition for newborns and infants during the first period of their life – from birth to 6-th month. It contains a uniquely quantitative and qualitative balanced nutrients profile. Composition of breast milk is dynamic and may vary according to maternal nutritional status. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between human milk composition and maternal nutritional status. Material and methods: One-day milk samples were provided by exclusively breastfeeding mothers (n=40) at the first month of lactation...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Magdalena Izdebska, Mariola Herbet, Monika Gawrońska-Grzywacz, Iwona Piątkowska-Chmiel, Agnieszka Korga, Marcin Sysa, Magdalena Iwan, Dorota Natorska-Chomicka, Ewa Poleszak, Andrzej Wróbel, Sławomir Mandziuk, Jarosław Dudka
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on de novo lipogenesis in HepG2 cells caused by high glucose concentrations. Increased lipogenesis in the liver is the main reason for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - currently one of the most common chronic liver diseases. In developed countries, this disease is mostly associated with nutritional disorders, resulting from the increasing consumption of monosaccharides. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol with a promising potential for NAFLD treatment...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jiaofeng Huang, Haoyang Zhang, Shiying Liu, Mingfang Wang, Bo Wan, Bharat Velani, Yueyong Zhu, Su Lin
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection might be associated with fatty liver disease. However, the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and T. gondii infection has not been investigated in a large population. We aimed to study the relationship between those two diseases using a population-based dataset from the United States. METHODS: The data were collected from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) between 1988 and 1994...
December 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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