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Nutrition lipid

Inga C Teller, Heike Hoyer-Kuhn, Hella Brönneke, Pia Nosthoff-Horstmann, Annemarie Oosting, Gregor Lippach, Maria Wohlfarth, Manfred Rauh, Eline M van der Beek, Jörg Dötsch, Kai D Nüsken
Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adverse metabolic outcome later in life. Healthy mice challenged with a Western-style diet (WSD) accumulated less body fat when previously fed a diet containing large lipid globules (complex lipid matrix (CLM)). This study was designed to clarify whether an early-life CLM diet mitigates 'programmed' visceral adiposity and associated metabolic sequelae after IUGR. In rats, IUGR was induced either by bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG) or sham operation (i...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Guangmang Liu, Wei Cao, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Jing Wang
The animal gut effectively prevents the entry of hazardous substances and microbes while permitting the transfer of nutrients, such as water, electrolytes, vitamins, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals and microbial metabolites, which are intimately associated with intestinal homoeostasis. The gut maintains biological functions through its nutrient-sensing receptors, including the Ca-sensing receptor (CaSR), which activates a variety of signalling pathways, depending on cellular context. CaSR coordinates food digestion and nutrient absorption, promotes cell proliferation and differentiation, regulates energy metabolism and immune response, stimulates hormone secretion, mitigates secretory diarrhoea and enhances intestinal barrier function...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Suzana Ferreira-Dias, Natália M Osório, Carla Tecelão
In this chapter, some examples of laboratory protocols to produce functional structured lipids, namely, human milk fat substitutes, dietetic triacylglycerols, and interesterified fat blends with improved nutritional and rheological properties, catalyzed either by immobilized commercial or noncommercial lipase preparations, are presented. In addition to batch synthesis, the continuous production in packed- or fluidized-bed bioreactors is addressed, as well as the evaluation of operational stability of the biocatalysts used (either in batch reuses or in continuous mode)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
María Pilar Villena-Esponera, Rafael Moreno-Rojas, Guillermo Molina-Recio
The goal of this paper is to assess food and nutritional security status of an indigenous population who migrated from Colombia to Ecuador. We collected data about the perception of food insecurity, anthropometric and food intake (n = 104). An analysis multivariate (Generalized Linear Model) we used to know the adequacy to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). All the households were food insecure, stunting affected 45.1% of children and adolescents and the 60% were overweight or obese women. Significant differences were observed by gender for energy, lipid, carbohydrate, fiber, and iron (p < 0...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
María Limones, Julio Sevillano, María G Sánchez-Alonso, Emilio Herrera, María Del Pilar Ramos-Álvarez
BACKGROUND: Although recent studies have investigated the effect of maternal nutrition on metabolic programming of the offspring, the question whether a nutritional insult during early gestation favours an altered metabolic state of the mother that persists during the remainder period of pregnancy, when foetal growth is maximal, remains to be answered. METHODS: To address this issue, we analysed the effect of 40% food restriction during the first 12 days of gestation on glucose tolerance, as well as on liver and adipose tissue metabolism, in Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Wencke Walter, Martin Bornhäuser, Friedrich Stölzel, Anne Zeidler, Holger Knoth
BACKGROUND: Screening for Aspergillus (Asp-AG) and Candida antigen (Ca-AG) with immunoassays is established for stem cell recipients at high risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI). While parenteral nutrition (PN) will be applied in case of complications leading to insufficient alimentation, piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) is started at the onset of febrile neutropenia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate drug-laboratory interactions between PN as well as TZP and both immunoassays which could affect the specificity of the assays and lead to false assumption of an IFI...
August 14, 2018: Mycoses
Beatriz Pelegrina-Cortés, Laura M Bermejo, Bricia López-Plaza, Samara Palma-Milla, Natalia García-Vázquez, Carmen Gómez-Candela
Individualized parenteral nutrition is the most specialized type of nutritional support in the hospital setting. The composition and prescribing patterns for parenteral nutrition have evolved due to new emerging scientific evidence. In the last few years, there has been a tendency to increase the nitrogen and lipid content and decrease the carbohydrate content. To assess the prescribing pattern in a tertiary referral hospital in Spain, the nutritional composition of individualized parenteral nutrition was evaluated retrospectively from January to December of 2016...
August 13, 2018: Nutrients
A Nadjar
Microglia phagocytosis is an essential process to maintain lifelong brain homeostasis and clear potential toxic factors from the neuropil. Microglia can engulf cells or part of cells through the expression of specific receptors at their surface and activation of downstream signaling pathways to engulf material. Microglia phagocytosis is finely regulated and is under the dependence of many factors, including environmental cues such as dietary lipids. Yet, the molecular mechanisms implicated are still largely unknown...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Adrienne Clermont, Stephen R Kodish, Amadou Matar Seck, Aichatou Salifou, Joseph Rosen, Rebecca F Grais, Sheila Isanaka
Nutritional status in pregnancy is a key determinant of birth outcomes. In low-income countries, maternal diets are often limited, and daily nutrient supplements are recommended to fill nutrient gaps. As a result, it is important to understand the factors influencing acceptability and utilization of nutrient supplements in these settings. Qualitative data (individual interviews and focus group discussions with pregnant women, household members, and study staff) and quantitative data (unannounced household spot checks) were collected in 24 villages in the Maradi region of south-central Niger...
August 12, 2018: Nutrients
Marilena Vitale, Maria Masulli, Ilaria Calabrese, Angela Albarosa Rivellese, Enzo Bonora, Stefano Signorini, Gabriele Perriello, Sebastiano Squatrito, Raffaella Buzzetti, Giovanni Sartore, Anna Carla Babini, Giovanna Gregori, Carla Giordano, Gennaro Clemente, Sara Grioni, Pasquale Dolce, Gabriele Riccardi, Olga Vaccaro
This study evaluates the relation of a Mediterranean dietary pattern and its individual components with the cardiovascular risk factors profile, plasma glucose and body mass index (BMI) in people with type 2 diabetes. We studied 2568 participants at 57 diabetes clinics. Diet was assessed with the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) questionnaire, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated with the relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED). A high compared to a low score was associated with a better quality of diet and a greater adherence to the nutritional recommendations for diabetes...
August 10, 2018: Nutrients
Mariana Daniel Tango, Maria Lúcia Calijuri, Paula Peixoto Assemany, Eduardo de Aguiar do Couto
The present study evaluated the cultivation of microalgae in a photobioreactor using effluents from the meat-processing industry, which had been previously treated at the primary and secondary levels. Scenedesmus sp. was the dominant genus in the phytoplankton community in both of the evaluated effluents. The different nutritional conditions affected the production of biomass, which reached 1,160 mg/L of volatile suspended solids (VSS) and 371 mg/L of VSS with cultivation in the primary (PE) and secondary effluents (SE), respectively...
August 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kaniz Jannat, Luby P Stephen, Leanne Unicomb, Mahbubur Rahman, Peter J Winch, Parvez M Sarker, Kishor K Das, Elli Leontsini, Pavani K Ram, Christine P Stewart
Inappropriate complementary feeding contributes to linear growth faltering in early childhood. Behaviour change interventions have been effective at improving practice, but few studies have investigated the effects of multicomponent integrated interventions. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh in which geographic clusters were randomized into seven arms: water treatment (W), sanitation (S), handwashing (H), water, sanitation, and handwashing (WSH), improved nutrition with infant and young child feeding messages and lipid-based nutrient supplementation for 6- to 24-month olds (N), N+WSH, and control...
August 13, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
U Moallem
Mammals can synthesize all of the fatty acids (FA) necessary for proper health and functioning with the exception of FA in the n-3 (omega-3) and n-6 (omega-6) families of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which should be supplied in the diet. The PUFA are the predominant type of lipid in dairy cattle diets; however, common feedstuffs are rich in n-6 FA, whereas the supply of n-3 FA in the intensive dairy industry is mainly limited to flaxseed and fish oils. The n-3 FA are involved in many biological systems and processes, and therefore their dietary supplementation is of special interest in dairy cattle...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Andrei Mocan, Atanas G Atanasov
The current study aimed to identify and analyze the 100 most cited papers on the topic of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Scopus database was searched to extract bibliometric data. Two-thirds of the 100 most cited papers were reviews. Papers were mostly published in food science and nutrition journals, and one-third were published in seven journals, namely: British Journal of Nutrition (6), Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition (6), Journal of Food Science (5), Trends in Food Science and Technology (5), American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (4), Food Chemistry (4) and Journal of Nutrition (4)...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Assunta Napolitano, Antonietta Cerulli, Cosimo Pizza, Sonia Piacente
Hazelnuts are a popular tree nut used whole or as an ingredient in a variety of bakery, candy and chocolate products. Based on the nutritional value and nutraceutical properties, mainly due to the lipid content, US Food and Drug Administration has recognized hazelnut as "heart-healthy" food. "Nocciola di Giffoni" is a Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) Italian hazelnut largely consumed but lacking of a comprehensive lipid profile. To acquire a detailed characterization of the polar lipids in fresh and roasted "Nocciola di Giffoni" hazelnut, an extensive analysis based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to multiple-stage linear ion-trap and orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/LTQOrbitrap/MS/MSn ) was carried out...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Sofia Shaikh, Jessica L Waxler, Hang Lee, Kathy Grinke, Jamie Garry, Barbara R Pober, Takara L Stanley
OBJECTIVE: We assessed body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), glucose, and lipids in Williams syndrome (WS), a rare microdeletion disorder. DESIGN: Individuals with WS had outpatient assessment at Massachusetts General Hospital. Controls were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2006). PATIENTS: 22 individuals with WS, each matched by age, sex, and race to 4 NHANES controls. MEASUREMENTS: Blood sampling, oral glucose tolerance test, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan...
August 12, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Chao Li, Qian Ni, Yifang Pei, Yi Ren, Yufei Feng
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a meta-analysis of data from recent studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of parenteral nutrition (PN) with structured triglyceride (STG) lipid emulsions compared to medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/long-chain triglyceride (LCT) lipid emulsions in Chinese patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Internet, Wanfang, and VIP were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing STGs with MCTs/LCTs published in English or Chinese between January 1987 and October 2017...
July 25, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Kathiroli Sujithra, Subramani Srinivasan, Dhananjayan Indumathi, Veerasamy Vinothkumar
Therapeutic approaches based on dietary compounds obtained from food products to handle diabetes involving oxidative stress and inflammation. Garlic is a common spice and has a long history as a folk remedy. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) is a potential garlic-derived organosulfur compound displaying a substantial range of optimistic actions in various diseases. Herein, we investigated the potential role of AMS in ameliorating the effects of oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental rats...
August 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Liyun Yin, Bijuan Chen, Bin Xia, Xiaotao Shi, Keming Qu
Uptake and toxicity of microplastics on marine organisms have been reported elsewhere. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the ecological effects of microplastics on marine organisms. In this study, we investigated the effects of polystyrene microplastics (1 × 106 microspheres per L) on the behavior, energy reserve and nutritional composition of juvenile jacopever (Sebastes schlegelii). Compared to the controls, fish treated by microplastics showed lower sensitivity toward the added food in the tank, and increased foraging time, indicating that microplastics significantly weakened feeding activity of the fish...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Henny-Kristine Korsmo-Haugen, Kjetil Gundro Brurberg, Jim Mann, Anne-Marie Aas
AIMS: This systematic review and meta-analysis compares the effects of low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) on body weight, glycaemic control, lipid profile and blood pressure with those observed on higher carbohydrate diets (HCDs) in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Food Science Source and SweMed+ databases were systematically searched to identify randomised controlled trials (duration ≥ 3 months) investigating the effects of a LCD compared to a HCD in the management of type 2 diabetes...
August 11, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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