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Jamie Douglas, Simon Pearson, Angus Ross, Mike McGuigan
Douglas, J, Pearson, S, Ross, A, and McGuigan, M. Effects of accentuated eccentric loading on muscle properties, strength, power, and speed in resistance-trained rugby players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of slow and fast tempo resistance training incorporating accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) compared with traditional resistance training (TRT) in trained rugby players. Fourteen subjects (19.4 ± 0.8 years, 1.82 ± 0.05 m, 97.0 ± 11.6 kg, and relative back squat 1 repetition maximum [1RM]: 1...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Aaron O'Dea, Brigida De Gracia, Blanca Figuerola, Santosh Jagadeeshan
The breadth of habitat occupied by a species, and the rate at which a species can expand into new habitats has important ecological and evolutionary consequences. Here we explore when extant species of free-living cupuladriid bryozoans expanded into new benthic Caribbean habitats that emerged during the final stages of formation of the Isthmus of Panama. Habitat breadth was estimated using the abundances of over 90,000 colonies in ten cupuladriid species, along with the ecological and sedimentary characteristics of the samples in which they occurred...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liang Liu, Maryam Borghei, Zhiguo Wang, Junhua Xu, Yimin Fan, Orlando J Rojas
This study is aimed at facilitating the use of ocean biomass for the isolation and use of derived nanostructures. Specifically, cationic and anionic nanochitins were produced from never-dried crab shells followed by partial deacetylatation (PD-NCh) or TEMPO-oxidization (TO-NCh). The effect of different electrolyte types (NaCl, CH3COONa, Na2CO3, CaCl2, AlCl3, NH4Cl) is investigated with regards to fractionation (via colloidal destabilization and precipitation), drying and ultimate redispersion of the nanochitins...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Vincenzo Calabrese, Marcelo A da Silva, Julien Schmitt, Juan C Muñoz-Garcia, Valeria Gabrielli, Janet L Scott, Jesus Angulo, Yaroslav Z Khimyak, Karen J Edler
Zwitterionic cellulose nanofibrils (ZCNFs) with an isoelectric point of 3.4 were obtained by grafting glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride onto TEMPO/NaBr/NaOCl-oxidised cellulose nanofibrils. The ZCNF aqueous dispersions were characterized via transmission electron microscopy, rheology and small angle neutron scattering, revealing a fibril-bundle structure with pronounced aggregation at pH 7. Surfactants were successfully employed to tune the stability of the ZCNF dispersions. Upon addition of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, the ZCNF dispersion shows individualized fibrils due to electrostatic stabilization...
August 15, 2018: Soft Matter
Camille Dumon, Diabe Diabira, Ilona Chudotvorova, Francesca Bader, Semra Sahin, Jinwei Zhang, Christophe Porcher, Gary Wayman, Igor Medina, Jean-Luc Gaiarsa
Brain computations rely on a proper balance between excitation and inhibition which progressively emerges during postnatal development in rodent. g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission supports inhibition in the adult brain but excites immature rodent neurons. Alterations in the timing of the GABA switch contribute to neurological disorders, so unveiling the involved regulators may be a promising strategy for treatment. Here we show that the adipocyte hormone leptin sets the tempo for the emergence of GABAergic inhibition in the newborn rodent hippocampus...
August 14, 2018: ELife
Kevin J Romero, Matthew S Galliher, Derek A Pratt, Corey R J Stephenson
Free radical intermediates have intrigued chemists since their discovery, and an ever-increasing appreciation for their unique reactivity has resulted in the widespread utilization of these species throughout the field of chemical synthesis. This is most evident from the recent surge in the application of intermolecular radical reactions that feature in complex molecule syntheses. This tutorial review will discuss the diverse methods utilized for radical generation and reactivity to form critical bonds in natural product total synthesis...
August 13, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Joan E Foley, Nilam Ram, Elizabeth J Susman, Marsha Weinraub
We examined relations between sleep-wake behaviors and pubertal development from age 8.5 through 15.5 years in a US-based sample of 488 boys (75% White) and 478 girls (78% White). Applying conditional nonlinear growth models to 7-waves of longitudinal data, we examined how sleep-wake behaviors are related to individual differences in the developmental timing and tempo of secondary sex characteristics. For girls, results supported the hypothesis that circadian changes in bedtimes, wake times, sleep duration, and eveningness preference were uniquely related to development of discrete aspects of secondary sex characteristics...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Martha M Muñoz, Yinan Hu, Philip Sl Anderson, S N Patek
The influence of biomechanics on the tempo and mode of morphological evolution is unresolved, yet is fundamental to organismal diversification. Across multiple four-bar linkage systems in animals, we discovered that rapid morphological evolution (tempo) is associated with mechanical sensitivity (strong correlation between a mechanical system's output and one or more of its components). Mechanical sensitivity is explained by size: the smallest link(s) are disproportionately affected by length changes and most strongly influence mechanical output...
August 9, 2018: ELife
Christopher Parish, Peter Niedbalski, Andhika Kiswandhi, Lloyd Lumata
Hyperpolarization of 13 C-enriched biomolecules via dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has enabled real-time metabolic imaging of a variety of diseases with superb specificity and sensitivity. The source of the unprecedented liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic or imaging signal enhancements of >10 000-fold is the microwave-driven DNP process that occurs at a relatively high magnetic field and cryogenic temperature. Herein, we have methodically investigated the relative efficiencies of 13 C DNP of single or double 13 C-labeled sodium acetate with or without 2 H-enrichment of the methyl group and using a 4-oxo-TEMPO free radical as the polarizing agent at 3...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
P P Bawol, P Reinsberg, C J Bondue, A A Abd-El-Latif, P Königshoven, H Baltruschat
The reversibility of current Li-O2 batteries suffers from high charging overpotentials. To address this problem, the use of redox mediators has been proposed, which are supposed to improve the sluggish reaction kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction via a solution mediated oxidation of lithium peroxide. In this study, we present a new thin layer cell for battery related differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) experiments, which exhibits a high electrode surface area to electrolyte volume ratio which is closer to the situation in batteries other approaches/cells with their usually large electrolyte excess...
August 8, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Alina German, Mishael Shmoish, Jay Belsky, Zeev Hochberg
BACKGROUND: The relationship between pubertal onset and tempo and pubertal growth is controversial. We hypothesized that the age at onset of girls' puberty predicts pubertal tempo and the rate of pubertal progression. METHODS: We analysed the data of 380 girls from the prospective Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), who were recruited in the USA from 1991-2006 and followed from birth to age 15.5 years. We used the following indicators: thelarche age (Tanner stage B2), pubarche age (P2), menarche age (M), the age when breast (B5) and pubic hair (P5) became fully mature, pubertal growth, pubertal duration (time from B2 to B5), pubertal progression (time from B2 to M)...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Nisar Ahmed, Saira Khatoon
Facile intramolecular amination of unactivated alkenes has been achieved by using electricity as a catalyst that helps to generate an intermediate and accelerates formation of cyclic ureas in high yields. Using this method, no metal catalysts were used. During electrolysis, a nitrogen radical was formed at the urea substrate that cyclised with the alkene and generated a terminal carbon radical which further formed a bond with the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine- N -oxyl radical (TEMPO). This method of electrolysis not only gives cyclic ureas but also functionalises terminal unactivated alkenes...
August 2018: ChemistryOpen
Trevor McPherson, Dorita Berger, Sankaraleengam Alagapan, Flavio Fröhlich
Rhythmic entrainment-defined as a stable temporal relationship between external periodic signals and endogenous rhythmic processes-allows individuals to coordinate with environmental rhythms. However, the impact of inter-individual differences on entrainment processes as a function of the tempo of external periodic signals remain poorly understood. To better understand the effects of endogenous differences and varying tempos on rhythmic entrainment, 20 young healthy adults participated in a spontaneous motor tempo (SMT) task and synchronization-continuation tasks at three experimental tempos (50, 70, and 128 bpm; 1200, 857, and 469 ms inter onset interval (IOI))...
August 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zijian Li, Yan Liu, Xing Kang, Yong Cui
A chiral porous metal-organic framework (MOF) decorated with radicals has been successfully constructed by cocrystallizing achiral (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO)-substituted tricarboxylate and enantiopure VO(salen)-derived dipyridine ligands. The chiral MOF can function as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the sequential alcohol oxidation/asymmetric cyanation of aldehyde reactions with enhanced activity and enantioselectivity compared to the homogeneous counterpart.
August 6, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Qiongqiong Wan, Suming Chen, Abraham K Badu-Tawiah
The identification of new electrosynthetic pathways enables environmentally friendly synthetic applications. However, the development of miniaturized screening procedures/platforms to expedite the discovery of electrooxidation reactions remains challenging. Herein, we developed an integrated system that serves as a reactor and ion source in a single experimental step using only picomole-scale reactants to monitor electrooxidation in real-time. This reaction screening platform utilizes the intrinsic electrochemical capabilities of nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry...
July 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Maria J Moure, Alexander Eletsky, Qi Gao, Laura C Morris, Jeong-Yeh Yang, Digantkumar Chapla, Yuejie Zhao, Chengli Zong, I Jonathan Amster, Kelley W Moremen, Geert-Jan Boons, James H Prestegard
An enzyme- and click chemistry-mediated methodology for the site-specific nitroxide spin labeling of glycoproteins has been developed and applied. The procedure relies on the presence of single N-glycosylation sites that are present natively in proteins or that can be engineered into glycoproteins by mutational elimination of all but one glycosylation site. Recombinantly expressing glycoproteins in HEK293S (GnT1-) cells results in N-glycans with high-mannose structures that can be processed to leave a single GlcNAc residue...
July 31, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Nicholas Brent Borotto, Kevin M Ileka, Christopher T M B Tom, Brent R Martin, Kristina Hakansson
Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is the primary method for discovering, identifying, and localizing post-translational modifications (PTMs) in proteins. However, conventional positive ion mode collision induced dissociation (CID)-based MS/MS often fails to yield site-specific information for labile and acidic modifications due to low ionization efficiency in positive ion mode and/or preferential PTM loss. While a number of alternative methods have been developed to address this issue, most require specialized instrumentation or indirect detection...
July 31, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Rajpreet Chahal, Veronika Vilgis, Kevin J Grimm, Alison E Hipwell, Erika E Forbes, Kate Keenan, Amanda E Guyer
Patterns of pubertal maturation have been linked to vulnerability for emotion dysregulation disorders in girls, as well as white matter (WM) development, suggestive of a potential mechanism between pubertal maturation and emotional health. Because pubertal processes begin at varying ages (i.e., status, timing) and proceed at varying rates (i.e., tempo), identifying individual differences in the pubertal course associated with subsequent WM microstructure development may reveal clues about neurobiological mechanisms of girls' emotional well-being...
July 26, 2018: NeuroImage
Erica C Jansen, Ling Zhou, Wei Perng, Peter Xk Song, Martha Maria Tellez Rojo, Adriana Mercado, Karen E Peterson, Alejandra Cantoral
Childhood diet has been implicated in timing of sexual maturation. A key limitation of published studies is the focus on individual foods rather than patterns. We hypothesized that dietary patterns characterized by fruits and vegetables during early childhood (age 3 years) would be associated with delayed pubertal timing, whereas energy-dense and meat-based dietary patterns would relate to earlier puberty. The study population included 496 participants of a Mexico City birth cohort. The exposures of interest were dietary patterns derived from principal component analysis of dietary data collected via a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire when the children were 3 years of age, and the outcomes were physician-assessed Tanner stages for pubic hair, breast (girls), genitalia, and testicular volume (boys) between 9 and 18 years, and initiation of menarche (girls)...
August 2018: Nutrition Research
Tian Yu, J V Forrester, Gerard J Graham, Lucia Kuffova
PURPOSE: To re-evaluate the role of the atypical chemokine receptor-2 (ACKR2) in corneal graft rejection and investigate the effect of ACKR2 on inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis using murine orthotopic corneal transplantation. METHODS: Corneal grafts were performed and evaluated in the settings of syngeneic, allogeneic and single antigen (HY-antigen) disparity pairings. Corneal vessels were quantified in whole mounts from WT, ACKR2-/- and F4/80-/- ACKR2-/- mice that received syngeneic or allogeneic grafts using anti-CD31 and anti-Lyve-1 antibodies...
July 27, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
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