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Ian D Colley, Manuel Varlet, Jennifer MacRitchie, Peter E Keller
Music presents a complex case of movement timing, as one to several dozen musicians coordinate their actions at short time-scales. This process is often directed by a conductor who provides a visual beat and guides the ensemble through tempo changes. The current experiment tested the ways in which audio-motor coordination is influenced by visual cues from a conductor's gestures, and how this influence might manifest in two ways: movements used to produce sound related to the music, and movements of the upper-body that do not directly affect sound output...
October 8, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Gerd Carling, Filip Larsson, Chundra A Cathcart, Niklas Johansson, Arthur Holmer, Erich Round, Rob Verhoeven
Feature stability, time and tempo of change, and the role of genealogy versus areality in creating linguistic diversity are important issues in current computational research on linguistic typology. This paper presents a database initiative, DiACL Typology, which aims to provide a resource for addressing these questions with specific of the extended Indo-European language area of Eurasia, the region with the best documented linguistic history. The database is pre-prepared for statistical and phylogenetic analyses and contains both linguistic typological data from languages spanning over four millennia, and linguistic metadata concerning geographic location, time period, and reliability of sources...
2018: PloS One
E Poch, L Rodas, M Blasco, A Molina, L Quintana
Tolvaptan is an orally active antagonist of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone [ADH]) V2 receptors. By blocking water reabsorption in kidney collecting ducts, it prompts renal free-water excretion and has been used for the treatment of hyponatremia, both euvolemic due to the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, and hypervolemic due to liver cirrhosis and congestive heart failure. In the past few years, it has been shown that vasopressin and its second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) play an important role in the pathogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)...
September 2018: Drugs of Today
Ragab Esmail Abou-Zeid, Ramzi Khiari, Davide Beneventi, Alain Dufresne
3D printed scaffolds were prepared by partial crosslinking of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibril/alginate hydrogel using calcium ions for printing the hydrogel while maintaining its shape, fidelity and preventing collapse of the filaments. The prepared scaffolds were fully crosslinked using calcium ions immediately after printing to provide the rigidity of the hydrogel and give it long-term stability. The composition of the prepared pastes was optimized based on the characterization of the hydrogel and 3D printing experiments...
October 9, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Peng Lu, Ren Liu, Xin Liu, Min Wu
Cellulose hydrogels are often prepared from native cellulose through a direct cellulose dissolution approach that often involves tedious process and solvent recovery problems. A self-supporting cellulose hydrogel was prepared by gelation of the TEMPO-oxidized bagasse cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) triggered by strong crosslinking between carboxylate groups and Zn2+ . TEMPO process was used to generate negatively charged carboxylate groups on CNF surface to provide a high binding capability to Zn2+ . Three TEMPO-oxidized CNFs of different carboxylate contents were prepared and characterized...
October 8, 2018: Nanomaterials
Gregory E Dwulet, Douglas L Gin
An ordered, nanoporous, TEMPO-based polymer resin formed from lyotropic liquid crystal monomers catalyzes the hetereogeneous oxidation of alcohols with high activity and substrate size selectivity under transition-metal-free, aerobic conditions.
October 8, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Min Jung Kong, Sang Hong Bak, Ki-Hwan Han, Jee In Kim, Jeen-Woo Park, Kwon Moo Park
The primary cilium, which protrudes from the cell surface, is associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases, including acute kidney injury (AKI). Primary cilium length dynamically changes during the progression of diseases. However, its relevance in disease and the underlying mechanism are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of primary cilia in AKI induced by cisplatin, an effective anticancer drug, and the underlying mechanisms. In addition, we evaluated the usefulness of length alteration and deciliation of primary cilia into the urine for the diagnosis of AKI...
September 25, 2018: Redox Biology
Ruilin Tang, Zhiming Yu, Scott Renneckar, Yang Zhang
This study reports coupling methods of chitosan (CTS) and TEMPO-oxidized nanofibrilliated cellulose (TONCs). Coupling chitosan, a cationic polysaccharide, to anionic TONCs is preformed through physical crosslinking via ionic bond formation at room temperature and carefully controlled pH and mass ratio. After heating, the carboxyl group of TONCs and the ammonium group of chitosan react into an amide covalent bond linkage CONH. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, 13 C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, are used to confirm the bonds...
December 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Shaojie Liu, Huazhe Liang, Tingting Sun, Desheng Yang, Meng Cao
Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers of G1.0 and 2.0 were synthesized by the repeated Michael addition and ester aminolysis of ethylenediamine and methyl acrylate. Through the reductive amination reaction of primary amines in PAMAM and carbonyl groups in 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (4-oxo-TEMPO), the water-soluble PAMAM immobilized TEMPO (PAMAM-TEMPO) was successfully prepared. The obtained PAMAM-TEMPO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis)...
December 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
A Ajoy, R Nazaryan, K Liu, X Lv, B Safvati, G Wang, E Druga, J A Reimer, D Suter, C Ramanathan, C A Meriles, A Pines
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has enabled enormous gains in magnetic resonance signals and led to vastly accelerated NMR/MRI imaging and spectroscopy. Unlike conventional cw -techniques, DNP methods that exploit the full electron spectrum are appealing since they allow direct participation of all electrons in the hyperpolarization process. Such methods typically entail sweeps of microwave radiation over the broad electron linewidth to excite DNP but are often inefficient because the sweeps, constrained by adiabaticity requirements, are slow...
October 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
George Lee-Harris, Daniel Blackburn, Renee Timmers, Nigel Humberstone
There are currently many types of music sold commercially that are branded as "relaxation aids." However, the claims that the music can induce psychological and physical relaxation are rarely validated on an empirical basis. This study investigated the effectiveness of a particular type of "relaxation" music that we call Meditative Binaural Music (MBM), which incorporates binaurally recorded sounds, binaural beats, a slow tempo, and gradual changes. The effect of listening to MBM with and without binaural beats on self-reported emotion state and measured physiological arousal was compared to the effect of listening to classical music previously categorized as "low" or "high" in emotional arousal...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Music Therapy
Cuibo Qiu, Kunkun Zhu, Weixing Yang, Yi Wang, Lina Zhang, Feng Chen, Qiang Fu
In this work, super strong all-cellulose multifilaments were obtained from cellulose dissolved in LiOH/urea system by inducing nanofiber formation, and were simultaneously reinforced by the introduction of TEMPO-oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with mean diameter of 20nm. The all-cellulose composite filaments (CF) containing only 3 wt% NFC exhibits a high orientation that Herman's parameter is 0.89. Importantly, the NFC can simultaneously reinforce and toughen the CF, with a tensile strength and elongation at break of 3...
September 28, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Mateu Servera, Belén Sáez, G Leonard Burns, Stephen P Becker
This study (a) determined whether clinical elevations of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom distributions in a large community sample of children would allow for identifying SCT-only, ADHD-only, and SCT + ADHD clinical groups; (b) examined co-occurrence of clinically elevated SCT and ADHD; (c) evaluated whether these clinical groups differed in their gender distribution, co-occurring mental health symptoms, or impairment in academic and social functioning; and (d) explored patterns of independence and overlap when clinically elevated depressive symptoms were considered in tandem with SCT and ADHD...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Tatsuya Hirasawa, Shigeru Kuratani
While skeletal evolution has been extensively studied, the evolution of limb muscles and brachial plexus has received less attention. In this review, we focus on the tempo and mode of evolution of forelimb muscles in the vertebrate history, and on the developmental mechanisms that have affected the evolution of their morphology. Tetrapod limb muscles develop from diffuse migrating cells derived from dermomyotomes, and the limb-innervating nerves lose their segmental patterns to form the brachial plexus distally...
2018: Zoological Letters
Manuel Varlet, Rohan Williams, Cécile Bouvet, Peter E Keller
Rhythmic movements produced by humans become spontaneously entrained to auditory rhythms in the environment. Evidence suggests that synchronisation to external auditory rhythms can contribute to the stabilisation of movements in time and space, opening new perspectives for motor training and rehabilitation. Here we compared the effects of single (1:1) and double (1:2) metronomes (i.e., one or two stimulations per preferred movement cycle) on spontaneous movement entrainment and stabilisation. We examined the spontaneous entrainment of self-paced hand-held pendulum swinging when single or double metronomes were presented either at the participant's preferred tempo or slightly slower or faster (± 10%)...
September 25, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Jennifer Kasbohm, Blair Schoene
Flood basalts, the largest volcanic events in Earth history, are thought to drive global environmental change because they can emit large volumes of CO2 and SO2 over short geologic time scales. Eruption of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) has been linked to elevated atmospheric CO2 and global warming during the mid-Miocene climate optimum (MMCO) ~16 million years (Ma) ago. However, a causative relationship between volcanism and warming remains speculative, as the timing and tempo of CRBG eruptions is not well known...
September 2018: Science Advances
Yihan Wang, Weimei Jiang, Wenqing Ye, Chengxin Fu, Matthew A Gitzendanner, Pamela S Soltis, Douglas E Soltis, Yingxiong Qiu
BACKGROUND: Tetrastigma hemsleyanum is of great medicinal importance and used as a model system to address the evolutionary history of warm-temperate evergreen (WTE) forest biomes in East Asia over Neogene time scales. However, further studies on the neutral and adaptive divergence processes of T. hemsleyanum are currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. In this study, we de novo assembled and annotated a reference transcriptome for two cpDNA lineages (Central-South-East vs. Southwest) of T...
September 24, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Ryan N Felice, Marcela Randau, Anjali Goswami
Phenotypic integration and modularity are ubiquitous features of complex organisms, describing the magnitude and pattern of relationships among biological traits. A key prediction is that these relationships, reflecting genetic, developmental, and functional interactions, shape evolutionary processes by governing evolvability and constraint. Over the last 60 years, a rich literature of research has quantified patterns of integration and modularity across a variety of clades and systems. Only recently has it become possible to contextualize these findings in a phylogenetic framework to understand how trait integration interacts with evolutionary tempo and mode...
September 23, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Jefferson Honorio Franco, Sidney Aquino Neto, David P Hickey, Shelley D Minteer, Adalgisa R de Andrade
MWCNT-COOH, TEMPO-modified linear poly(ethylenimine), and alcohol (ADH) and aldehyde (AldDH) dehydrogenase immobilization on electrode surfaces yields a hybrid, tri-catalytic architecture that can catalyze complete ethanol electro-oxidation. The chromatographic results obtained for the tri-catalytic hybrid electrode system show that ethanol is totally oxidized to CO2 after 12 h of electrolysis, confirming that organic oxidation catalysts combined with enzymatic catalysts enable collection of up to 12 electrons from ethanol...
December 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Akihiro Hirakawa, Toshihiro Hatakeyama, Daisuke Kobayashi, Chika Nishiyama, Akiko Kada, Takeyuki Kiguchi, Takashi Kawamura, Taku Iwami
BACKGROUND: The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel affects patient outcomes after cardiac arrest. A CPR feedback device with an accelerometer mounted on a defibrillator can monitor the motion of the patient's sternum to display and record CPR quality in real time. To evaluate the utility of real-time feedback, debriefing, and retraining using a CPR feedback device outside of the hospital, an open-label, cluster randomized controlled trial will be conducted in five municipalities of Osaka Prefecture, Japan...
September 20, 2018: Trials
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