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Bio Fuels

Emre Cevik, Mustafa Buyukharman, Huseyin Bekir Yildiz
In this study, gold electrodes (GE) were coated with conducting polymers to obtain high photocurrent using cyanobacteria from a novel bio-electrochemical fuel cell. For this purpose, an electropolymerization process was carried out by using 4- (4H-Dithieno [3,2-b: 2 ', 3'-d] pyrrol-4-yl) aniline, 5-(4H-dithieno [3,2-b:2,'3'-d]pyrol-4-yl) naphtalene-1-amine, monomers onto the gold electrodes. After that, gold nanoparticles (AuNP) were specifically modified by 2-mercaptoethane sulfonic acid and p-aminothiophenol in order attach to the electrode surface...
December 5, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Zehua Li, Qinghua Zhang, Qinrui Jiang, Guoqiang Zhan, Daping Li
To address the issue of insufficient electrons during denitrification, an iron fuel cell (IFC) bioreactor using iron as abiotic anode was designed. The nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) of IFC (2.54 ± 0.016%) was significantly lower than microbial fuel cell (MFC) (32.58 ± 0.033%) with same bio-cathode under autotrophic conditions, which was due to the permeation of acetate on proton exchange membrane (PEM) affected the process of enriching autotrophic denitrifying bacteria by MFC. When used in heterotrophic conditions, the NRE of the closed-circuits of IFC was 29...
November 20, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ruth Saiz-Rubio, María Balseiro-Romero, Juan Antelo, Elena Díez, Sarah Fiol, Felipe Macías
Pyrolysis of waste materials to produce biochar is an excellent and suitable alternative supporting a circular bio-based economy. One of the properties attributed to biochar is the capacity for sorbing organic contaminants, which is determined by its composition and physicochemical characteristics. In this study, the capacity of waste-derived biochar to retain volatile fuel organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and fuel oxygenates (FO)) from artificially contaminated water was assessed using batch-based sorption experiments...
November 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nishat Khan, Mohammad Danish Khan, Mohd Yusuf Ansari, Anees Ahmad, Mohammad Zain Khan
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (TCP) was bioelectrochemically treated in anodic and cathodic compartments of two identical dual chambered microbial fuel cells MFC-A and MFC-B under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively, and energy was recovered in the form of electricity. It was observed that MFC-B with bio-cathodic treatment of TCP outcompeted the MFC-A with bio-anodic treatment. The maximum power density for MFC-A with bio-anode was found to be 446.76 mW/m2 while for MFC-B with bio-cathode it was 1059.58 mW/m2 ...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Judit Sandquist, Roman Tschentscher, Gonzalo Del Alamo Serrano
Increasing the overall carbon and energy efficiency by integration of thermal processes with biological ones has gained considerable attention lately, especially within biorefining. A technology that is capable of processing wet feedstock with good energy efficiency is advantageous. Such a technology, exploiting the special properties of hot compressed water is called hydrothermal liquefaction. The reaction traditionally considered to take place at moderate temperatures (200-350 °C) and high pressures (10-25 MPa) although recent findings show the benefits of increased pressure at higher temperature regions...
November 24, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Linfang Zhang, Guokai Fu, Zhi Zhang
High-salinity mustard tuber wastewater (MTWW) was utilized to obtain effluent treatment and recover bio-energy simultaneously in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Since the long-term performance of MFCs in MTWW remains unclear, this study examined electricity generation and the microbial community that developed over a 195-day test. The MFC produced electricity over the entire testing period, with stable power output obtained on days 32-120. In the stable phase, a maximum power density of 12.43 W·m-3 was observed, and the internal resistance, open circuit voltage, and columbic efficiency (CE) were 148 Ω, 756 mV and 36...
November 16, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Jiao Ma, Lei Zhang, Lan Mu, Kongyun Zhu, Aimin Li
Recently, bio-drying is becoming a promising method to treat the slurry-type food waste together with recovering refused derived fuels (RDFs). In practice, however, conventional process frequently encountered low temperature and inefficient drying performance due to the low microbial activity and organics degradability. In order to improve bio-drying performance, in this study, an externally thermal assistant strategy was proposed to increase water evaporation and stimulate microbial degradability. Based on this idea, a series of experiments were conducted to establish, evaluate and optimize the thermally assisted bio-drying system...
October 2018: Waste Management
M A Rahman
In this investigation, the effect of operating parameters on product distribution for the conversion of water hyacinth into most valuable product bio oil as well as char and gases are investigated. To observe the parametric effect on product distribution, the temperature was varied 300-600 °C, heating rate 10-50 °C/min, particle size of the feed <0.5-2.5 mm and carrier gas nitrogen flow rate 0-12 lpm. The highest bio-oil yield of 44.9 wt% was obtained at 350 °C, 30 °C/min, particle feed size less than 0...
October 2018: Waste Management
Maurizio Volpe, Dominik Wüst, Fabio Merzari, Michela Lucian, Gianni Andreottola, Andrea Kruse, Luca Fiori
An olive waste stream mixture, coming from a three phase-continuous centrifugation olive oil mill industry, with a typical wet basis mass composition of olive pulp 39 wt%, kernels 5 wt% and olive mill waste water 56 wt%, was subjected to hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) at 180, 220 and 250 °C for a 3-hour residence time in a 2-litre stainless steel electrically heated batch reactor. The raw feedstock and corresponding hydrochars were characterised in terms of proximate and ultimate analyses, higher heating values and energy properties...
October 2018: Waste Management
Fanqiang Meng, Xiaoyu Zhu, Ting Nie, Fengxia Lu, Xiaomei Bie, Yingjian Lu, Frances Trouth, Zhaoxin Lu
Pullulanase plays an important role as a starch hydrolysis enzyme in the production of bio-fuels and animal feed, and in the food industry. Compared to the methods currently used for pullulanase production, synthesis by Bacillus subtilis would be safer and easier. However, the current yield of pullulanase from B. subtilis is low to meet industrial requirements. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the yield of pullulanase by B. subtilis . In this study, we mined 10 highly active promoters from B. subtilis based on transcriptome and bioinformatic data...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Guang Yang, Jie Wang, Hongwei Zhang, Hui Jia, Yang Zhang, Fei Gao
In this study, a novel manner of bio-electric field (BEF) which generated by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-microbial fuel cell (MFC) integrated system facilitated iron-carbon micro-electrolysis in blast furnace dusting ash (BFDA) was proposed for the reinforcement of anaerobic digestion in UASB. The responses of COD removal efficiency and biogas production with (0.1-0.4 V) BEF catalyzed 5 g BFDA(RMFC-5gBFDA-UASB ) were much higher than the other tests, and maximum reached 86% and 240 ml/d respectively...
November 2, 2018: Water Research
Shusheng Pang
Biomass has been recognised as a promising resource for future energy and fuels. The biomass, originated from plants, is renewable and application of its derived energy and fuels is close to carbon-neutral by considering that the growing plants absorb CO2 for photosynthesis. However, the complex physical structure and chemical composition of the biomass significantly hinder its conversion to gaseous and liquid fuels. This paper reviews recent advances in biomass thermochemical conversion technologies for energy, liquid fuels and chemicals...
November 14, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Magnus Falk, Sergey Shleev
In the last few years, there have been an increasing number of reports where different energy harvesters are directly combined with charge storing devices, based on dual-function electrodes able to convert and store electrical energy in the same volume. This includes (bio)fuel cells harvesting chemical energy, (bio)solar cells harvesting solar energy, tribo- and piezoelectric devices harvesting mechanical energy, and thermoelectrics harvesting thermal energy, which now have been intimately combined with batteries and electrochemical capacitors...
October 31, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Chun Chen, Ruoyu Fan, Wanbing Gong, Haimin Zhang, Guozhong Wang, Huijun Zhao
Water is inevitably associated with the production of bio-derived platform molecules, but most supported metallic catalysts have poor water compatibility. Although there have been a great number of investigations regarding the hydrogenation of bio-derived unsaturated compounds in the organic phase, the reactions that proceed in water are still quite challenging. Herein, we report the synthesis of a supported nickel catalyst (Ni-LN650) by the reduction of the perovskite-type oxide LaNiO3 precursor at 650 °C...
November 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Martta-Kaisa Olkkonen
This paper investigates online moisture measurement of biofuel employing a strip line cavity resonator at approximately 366 MHz, attached above and below the conveyor belt. An existing sensor design is modified for the factory assembly, and the correct operation has been tested prior to this paper with a small number of measurement points and collected reference samples ( n = 67). The purpose is now to concentrate on the accuracy of the measurement and increase the number of measurement points ( n = 367). The measurements were made in 5 different lots, and the thickness and moisture properties of the biomaterial mat were varied between minimum and maximum levels by adjusting the settings of the belt filter press that presses pulp slush into a mat...
November 9, 2018: Sensors
Meng Li, Shaoqi Zhou
Cu(II) ion was employed as an electron-shuttle mediator to enhance bioelectricity output and accelerate reduction rate of Cr(VI) in a dual-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC). In the presence of Cu(II), power density and the Cr(VI) reduction rate were 1235.53 mW m-2 and 1.191 g m-3  h-1 , respectively, which were 1.44 times and 1.17 times than that of MFC in the absence of Cu(II). A series of electrochemical analysis confirmed the presence of Cu(II) can diminish overpotential and diffusional resistance of MFC, further accelerating electrochemical reduction process of Cr(VI) via an indirect mechanism...
October 28, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Shedrack R Nayebare, Omar S Aburizaiza, Azhar Siddique, David O Carpenter, Mirza M Hussain, Jahan Zeb, Abdullah J Aburiziza, Haider A Khwaja
Air pollution remains a major global public health and environmental issue. We assessed the levels of PM2.5 and delineated the major sources in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) sampling was performed from February 26, 2014-January 27, 2015 in four cycles/seasons. Samples were analyzed for black carbon (BC) and trace elements (TEs). PM2.5 source apportionment was performed by computing enrichment factors (EFs) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). Backward-in time trajectories were used to assess the long-range transport...
December 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jian He, Hu Li, Saravanamurugan Shunmugavel, Song Yang
Shifting from petroleum-based resources to non-edible biomass for the production of valuable chemicals and fuels is one of significant aspects in sustainable chemistry for realizing the sustainable development of our society. Various renowned biobased platform molecules, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfrual, furfural, levulinic acid and lactic acid, are successfully accessible from the transformation of bio-based sugars. To achieve the specific reaction routes, heterogeneous nanoporous acidic materials have been served as promising catalysts for bio-sugars conversion in the past decade years...
November 8, 2018: ChemSusChem
Mizuho Yabushita, Nicolás A Grosso-Giordano, Atsushi Fukuoka, Alexander Katz
The separation of aromatic contaminants from sugar-aromatic aqueous mixtures is required in second-generation biorefineries because aromatic compounds deactivate (bio)catalysts typically involved in upgrading lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. This separation remains challenging, however, because of the degree of molecular recognition needed to sequester dilute aromatic impurities from concentrated sugar streams. Herein, we demonstrate that hydrophobic cavities of p- tert-butylcalix[4]arene macrocycles grafted on amorphous silica (calix/SiO2 ) perform this separation selectively and efficiently by acting as selective molecular hosts that adsorb aromatic compounds (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillin, and vanillic acid) while excluding monomeric sugar (glucose chosen as a prototypical model) in aqueous mixtures...
November 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marcelle J van der Waals, Caroline Plugge, Marion Meima-Franke, Pieter de Waard, Paul L E Bodelier, Hauke Smidt, Jan Gerritse
EtBE is a fuel oxygenate that is synthesized from (bio)ethanol and fossil-based isobutylene, and replaces the fossil-based MtBE. Biodegradation of EtBE to harmless metabolites or end products can reduce the environmental and human health risks after accidental release. In this study, an algal-bacterial culture enriched from contaminated groundwater was used to (i) assess the potential for EtBE degradation, (ii) resolve the EtBE degradation pathway and (iii) characterize the phylogenetic composition of the bacterial community involved in EtBE degradation in contaminated groundwater...
October 22, 2018: Water Research
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