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Rock Engineering

Kasparas Spokas, Catherine A Peters, Laura Pyrak-Nolte
Fractures present environmental risks for subsurface engineering activities, such as geologic storage of greenhouse gases, because of the possibility of unwanted upward fluid migration. The risks of fluid leakage may be exacerbated if fractures are subjected to physical and chemical perturbations that alter their geometry. This study investigated this by constructing a 2D fracture model to numerically simulate fluid flow, acid-driven reactions, and mechanical deformation. Three rock mineralogies were simulated: a limestone with 100% calcite, a limestone with 68% calcite, and a banded shale with 34% calcite...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Changbin Tian, Zhengfang Wang, Qingmei Sui, Jing Wang, Yanan Dong, Yijia Li, Mingjuan Han, Lei Jia, Hanpeng Wang
The measurement accuracy of the intelligent flexible morphological sensor based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) structure was limited in the application of geotechnical engineering and other fields. In order to improve the precision of intellisense for displacement, an FBG implantable flexible morphological sensor was designed in this study, and the classification morphological correction method based on conjugate gradient method and extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm was proposed. This study utilized finite element simulations and experiments, in order to analyze the feasibility of the proposed method...
July 19, 2018: Sensors
Nilesh Kolhe, Smita Zinjarde, Celin Acharya
There is a strong interest in knowing how various microbial systems respond to the presence of uranium (U), largely in the context of bioremediation. There is no known biological role for uranium so far. Uranium is naturally present in rocks and minerals. The insoluble nature of the U(IV) minerals keeps uranium firmly bound in the earth's crust minimizing its bioavailability. However, anthropogenic nuclear reaction processes over the last few decades have resulted in introduction of uranium into the environment in soluble and toxic forms...
July 12, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Swambabu Varanasi, Uthpala Garusinghe, George P Simon, Gil Garnier, Warren Batchelor
Inspired by the natural precipitation of minerals in soil and rocks, a novel, simple and industrially scalable in-situ precipitation process to produce low permeability porous composites is presented. This process relies on capillary flow in wettable porous composites to absorb and store liquid. In this process, a porous composite first absorbs a salt solution, after which the composite is dipped in a second salt solution. Salts are selected such as they react to form an insoluble precipitate. As big pores absorb more liquid than small pores, the precipitated particles are formed specifically for each pore...
July 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andreas Dechant, Shin-Ichi Sasa
We derive a bound on generalized currents for Langevin systems in terms of the total entropy production in the system and its environment. For overdamped dynamics, any generalized current is bounded by the total rate of entropy production. We show that this entropic bound on the magnitude of generalized currents imposes power-efficiency tradeoff relations for ratchets in contact with a heat bath: Maximum efficiency-Carnot efficiency for a Smoluchowski-Feynman ratchet and unity for a flashing or rocking ratchet-can only be reached at vanishing power output...
June 2018: Physical Review. E
John T Denny, Sagar S Mungekar, Benjamin R Landgraf, Zoe M Rocke, Valerie A McRae, Christian P McDonough, James T Tse, Scott J Mellender, Geza K Kiss
We report an unusual case of endotracheal tube failure. It was due to a manufacturing defect in the internal white plastic piece that is normally depressed by the luer-lock syringe within the blue pilot balloon. Prior to use, the endotracheal tube was tested and functioned normally. A 64-year-old patient in the intensive care unit with a history of hypertension was being mechanically ventilated after uneventful abdominal surgery. After several hours in the intensive care unit, he was noted to be suddenly no longer receiving adequate tidal volumes from the ventilator...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Bernhard Geissler, Gerald Steiner, Michael C Mew
Big Data, blockchains, and cloud computing have become ubiquitous in today's mass media and are universally known terms used in everyday speech. If we look behind these often misused buzzwords, we find at least one common element, namely data. Although we hardly use these terms in the "classic discipline" of mineral economics, we find various similarities. The case of phosphate data bears numerous challenges in multiple forms such as uncertainties, fuzziness, or misunderstandings. Often simulation models are used to support decision-making processes...
November 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hanxun Wang, Bin Zhang, Xueliang Bai, Lei Shi
In general, exploitation of rock materials, such as limestone or granite exploitation, can cause serious damage to the environment near a mine area. With economic development and the ever-increasing demand for ore resources, mining activities have induced very serious environmental issues in China. Therefore, environmental restoration work around mines in China is urgently required. This study explores the Chuankou open-pit limestone quarry in Tongchuan City, Shaanxi Province, Northwest China, as the engineering case...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Xuhui Zheng, Lei Liu, Jinzhong Sun, Gao Li, Fubiao Zhou, Jiemin Xu
Geological and hydrogeological conditions in karst areas are complicated from the viewpoint of engineering. The construction of underground structures in these areas is often disturbed by the gushing of karst water, which may delay the construction schedule, result in economic losses, and even cause heavy casualties. In this paper, an innovative method of multichannel transient Rayleigh wave detecting is proposed by introducing the concept of arrival time difference phase between channels (TDP). Overcoming the restriction of the space-sampling law, the proposed method can extract the phase velocities of different frequency components from only two channels of transient Rayleigh wave recorded on two adjacent detecting points...
2018: PloS One
Yiming Zhao, Nong Zhang, Guangyao Si, Xuehua Li
Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) measuring bolts, as a useful tool to evaluate the behaviors of steel bolts in underground engineering, can be manufactured by gluing the FBG sensors inside the grooves, which are usually symmetrical cuts along the steel bolt rod. The selection of the cut shape and the glue types could perceivably affect the final supporting strength of the bolts. Unfortunately, the impact of cut shape and glue type on bolting strength is not yet clear. In this study, based on direct tension tests, full tensile load⁻displacement curves of rock bolts with different groove shapes were obtained and analyzed...
June 2, 2018: Sensors
Cecilia S N Cheung, Donald J Weidner, Li Li, Philip G Meredith, Haiyan Chen, Matthew Whitaker, Xianyin Chen
We report detailed procedures for performing compression experiments on rocks and mineral aggregates within a multi-anvil deformation apparatus (D-DIA) coupled with synchrotron X-radiation. A cube-shaped sample assembly is prepared and compressed, at room temperature, by a set of four X-ray transparent sintered diamond anvils and two tungsten carbide anvils, in the lateral and the vertical planes, respectively. All six anvils are housed within a 250-ton hydraulic press and driven inward simultaneously by two wedged guide blocks...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Brian M Wieliczka, Alexey L Kaledin, William E Buhro, Richard A Loomis
The synthesis of epitaxial CdSe/PbS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) is reported. The PbS shell grows in a rock salt structure on the zinc blende CdSe core, thereby creating a crystal structure mismatch through additive growth. Absorption and photoluminescence (PL) band edge features shift to lower energies with increasing shell thickness, but remain above the CdSe bulk band gap. Nevertheless, the profiles of the absorption spectra vary with shell growth, indicating that the overlap of the electron and hole wave functions is changing significantly...
May 25, 2018: ACS Nano
Bo-Hyun Kim, Gabriel Walton, Mark K Larson, Steve Berry
Characterizing a coal from an engineering perspective for design of mining excavations is critical in order to prevent fatalities, as underground coal mines are often developed in highly stressed ground conditions. Coal pillar bursts involve the sudden expulsion of coal and rock into the mine opening. These events occur when relatively high stresses in a coal pillar, left for support in underground workings, exceed the pillar's load capacity causing the pillar to rupture without warning. This process may be influenced by cleating, which is a type of joint system that can be found in coal rock masses...
May 2018: International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences
Jiang-Fu He, Yun-Pei Liang, Li-Jia Li, Yong-Jiang Luo
Rapid horizontal directional well drilling in hard or fractured formations requires efficient drilling technology. The penetration rate of conventional hard rock drilling technology in horizontal directional well excavations is relatively low, resulting in multiple overgrinding of drill cuttings in bottom boreholes. Conventional drilling techniques with reamer or diamond drill bit face difficulties due to the long construction periods, low penetration rates, and high engineering costs in the directional well drilling of hard rock...
2018: PloS One
Xiao Fu, Chong-Shi Gu, Huai-Zhi Su, Xiang-Nan Qin
Earth-rock dams make up a large proportion of the dams in China, and their failures can induce great risks. In this paper, the risks associated with earth-rock dam failure are analyzed from two aspects: the probability of a dam failure and the resulting life loss. An event tree analysis method based on fuzzy set theory is proposed to calculate the dam failure probability. The life loss associated with dam failure is summarized and refined to be suitable for Chinese dams from previous studies. The proposed method and model are applied to one reservoir dam in Jiangxi province...
April 29, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jie Li, Mohammad Saberian, Bao Thach Nguyen
The low-carbon footprint of using recycled construction and demolition (C&D) aggregates in civil engineering infrastructure applications has been considered to be a significant solution for the replacement of conventional pavement aggregates. Investigations regarding the use of crumb rubber in the base and subbase layers of pavement have been well documented. However, information on the effects of crumb rubber and its size within C&D aggregates as the base/subbase layers is still very limited. In this study, crumb rubber with particle sizes ranging from 400 to 600 μm (fine) to 10-15 mm (coarse), 20 mm recycled crushed concrete (RCC), and 20 mm crushed rock (CR) were used...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Zhang Jinpeng, Liu Limin, Zhang Futao, Cao Junzhi
With cement, bentonite, water glass, J85 accelerator, retarder and water as raw materials, a new composite grouting material used to seal groundwater inflow and reinforce wall rock in deep fractured rock mass was developed in this paper. Based on the reaction mechanism of raw material, the pumpable time, stone rate, initial setting time, plastic strength and unconfined compressive strength of multi-group proportion grouts were tested by orthogonal experiment. Then, the optimum proportion of composite grouting material was selected and applied to the grouting engineering for sealing groundwater inflow and reinforcing wall rock in mine shaft lining...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
John T Halloran, David M Rocke
Percolator is an important tool for greatly improving the results of a database search and subsequent downstream analysis. Using support vector machines (SVMs), Percolator recalibrates peptide-spectrum matches based on the learned decision boundary between targets and decoys. To improve analysis time for large-scale data sets, we update Percolator's SVM learning engine through software and algorithmic optimizations rather than heuristic approaches that necessitate the careful study of their impact on learned parameters across different search settings and data sets...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Miao Yu, Chenhui Wei, Leilei Niu, Shaohua Li, Yongjun Yu
Tensile strength and fracture toughness, important parameters of the rock for engineering applications are difficult to measure. Thus this paper selected three kinds of granite samples (grain sizes = 1.01mm, 2.12mm and 3mm), used the combined experiments of physical and numerical simulation (RFPA-DIP version) to conduct three-point-bending (3-p-b) tests with different notches and introduced the acoustic emission monitor system to analyze the fracture mechanism around the notch tips. To study the effects of grain size on the tensile strength and toughness of rock samples, a modified fracture model was established linking fictitious crack to the grain size so that the microstructure of the specimens and fictitious crack growth can be considered together...
2018: PloS One
Karl A Hujsak, Benjamin D Myers, Jann Grovogui, Vinayak P Dravid
Microstructural analysis by crystal orientation mapping of bulk functional materials is an essential and routine operation in the engineering of material properties. Far and away the most successfully employed technique, Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD), provides high spatial resolution information at the cost of limited angular resolution and a distorted imaging condition. In this work, we demonstrate a stage-rocked electron channeling approach as a low-cost orientation mapping alternative to EBSD...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
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