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model of type 2 diabetes

Stephanie C Rigters, Marc P van der Schroeff, Grigorios Papageorgiou, Robert J Baatenburg de Jong, André Goedegebure
We quantified changes in the auditory acuity of 675 aging adults (mean age 71.1 years, 52.0% female, mean follow-up 4.4 years ± 0.2) of an ongoing cohort study with a pure-tone audiogram and a speech-in-noise test. Generalized estimating equation models were used to study the association between hearing loss and the progression with age, sex, education, cognition, BMI, blood pressure, having type 2 diabetes mellitus, cholesterol ratio, smoking and alcohol consumption. The mean progression of hearing loss was 0...
December 11, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
Shanshan Wu, Le Gao, Andrea Cipriani, Yi Huang, Zhirong Yang, Jun Yang, Shuqing Yu, Yuan Zhang, Sanbao Chai, Zilu Zhang, Feng Sun, Siyan Zhan
AIM: To evaluate the comparative effects of incretin-based therapies, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is), on beta-cell function and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library and were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with duration≥4 weeks. Network meta-analysis was performed, followed by subgroup analysis and meta-regression...
December 9, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Qing Zhao, Xin Wang, Qiaosheng Hu, Ridong Zhang, Yong Yin
OBJECTIVES: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributed to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), while TLR4 is reported to mediate the LPS-induced inflammation in macrophages. However, the potential molecular mechanisms for TLR4-mediated macrophages activation in T2D have not yet to be fully clarified. METHODS: Type 2 diabetes models in C57BL/6J mice were generated by a combination administration of streptozotocin (STZ) and a high-fat diet (HFD)...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Anna R Kahkoska, Jamie Crandell, Kimberly A Driscoll, Jessica C Kichler, Michael Seid, Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis, David M Maahs
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and correlates of non-severe hypoglycemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and suboptimal glycemic control, an understudied topic in this group. METHODS: Seven days of blinded continuous glucose monitor data were analyzed in 233 adolescents at baseline of the Flexible Lifestyle Empowering Change (FLEX) trial (13-16 years, type 1 diabetes duration >1 year, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 8-13% [64-119 mmol]). Incidence of clinical hypoglycemia (54-69 mg/dL) and clinically serious hypoglycemia (<54 mg/dL) was defined as number of episodes ≥15 min...
December 10, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Naseer Ahmed, Shazia Fatima, Muhammad Adnan Saeed, Muhammad Zia, Javaid Irfan Ullah
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of diabetic foot osteomyelitis is crucial and challenging for the proper management of diabetic foot. 99m Tc labelled Ceftizoxime was used as a non-invasive diagnostic agent for diabetic foot osteomyelitis. METHODS: Ceftizoxime [CFT], a third generation cephalosporin, was used in a simple and direct method for the synthesis of 99m TcO4 - labelled infection imaging agent with stannous chloride as reducing agent. Its radiochemical purity was checked by thin Layer chromatography...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Shan Huang, Yong Xu, Wen-Fang Peng, Jie Cheng, Hui-Hua Li, Li-Sha Shen, Li-Li Xia
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) plays a vital role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and has been shown as a potential marker for various disease, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). However, the correlation between ADMA and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and obesity has not been studied. A total of 195 subjects were involved in our study. The characteristics of the subjects in the study cohort were measured and analyzed. We found that the serum ADMA and C-reactive protein levels were significantly increased in IGT and diabetic patients, whereas the levels of lipoprotein A and adiponectin were decreased, especially in diabetic patients with obesity...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
M Li, Y Guo, X-J Wang, B-H Duan, L Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR on hepatic insulin resistance and to explore the possible underlying mechanism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Liver tissues of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) patients, healthy controls, C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat diet and db/db mice were harvested. Meanwhile, the expressions of HOTAIR and SIRT1 were detected. Subsequently, We HepG2 cells were treated with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and the insulin resistance model was constructed in vitro...
November 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Judith J Stephenson, Jay P Bae, Amit D Raval, David M Kern
INTRODUCTION: Complex or personalized insulin regimens challenge traditional adherence measures. Our objective was to develop an improved basal insulin (BI) adherence measure using both patient-reported and administrative claims data, resulting in a more complete measure. METHODS: Patients' self-reported BI utilization over the previous 12 months was linked with their claims data for the same period. Hybrid medication possession ratio (MPR) was derived by calculating expected days of insulin supply [total dispensed insulin units from claims over 12 months divided by self-reported total daily dose (TDD)]...
December 7, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Mengyi Li, Yang Liu, Lan Jin, Wei Wang, Na Zeng, Lixue Wang, Kaixin Zhao, Wei Xu, Zhongtao Zhang, Jigang Yang
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become an increasingly popular metabolic surgical procedure. Alteration in motor gastric function is a fundamental feature following LSG but still remains controversial. PURPOSE: To determine the gastric emptying time 3 month after LSG, correlations between gastric emptying time and body weight, weight loss, and glycemia levels, alongside determining predictive factors of weight loss at the 3-month follow-up...
December 8, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Samuel J P Malkin, Monika Russel-Szymczyk, Girtel Liidemann, Vallo Volke, Barnaby Hunt
INTRODUCTION: Once-weekly semaglutide is a novel glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that was associated with greater reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI) versus once-daily GLP-1 analogue liraglutide in a recent network meta-analysis (NMA). The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of once-weekly semaglutide 1 mg versus liraglutide 1.2 mg in Estonia. METHODS: Outcomes were projected over patient lifetimes using the IQVIA CORE Diabetes Model (version 9...
December 7, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Jowy Y H Seah, Woon-Puay Koh, Jian-Min Yuan, Rob M van Dam
PURPOSE: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing in Asian populations. White rice is a common staple food in these populations and results from several studies suggest that high white rice consumption increases T2D risk. We assessed whether rice, noodles and bread intake was associated with T2D risk in an ethnic Chinese population. METHODS: We included data from 45,411 male and female Chinese participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study cohort aged 45-74 years at baseline...
December 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Jordan Rowlands, Nikita Walz, Joanne E Rowles, Kevin N Keane, Rodrigo Carlessi, Philip Newsholme
In type 2 diabetes, prolonged dysregulation of signalling and β-cell metabolic control leads to β-cell dysfunction, and is increasingly associated with abnormal metabolic states which disrupt normal cellular physiology. Utilization of appropriate β-cell models enables a systematic approach to understand the impact of perturbations to the biological system. The BRIN-BD11 β-cell line is a useful, pre-clinical cell model for β-cell dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes, among other metabolic disorders...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Paul C Guest
The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, produced originally by selective inbreeding for a hyperglycemic trait. These rats are characterized as having insulin resistance and an insulin secretory defect. Pancreatic islets from these mice show abnormal morphology in the distribution of glucagon-secreting α cells and insulin-secreting β cells, which may affect paracrine functions involved in the secretory response. This chapter describes the characterization of GK rat islets using immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot analyses to demonstrate the effects on islet architecture and how this translates to changes in expression of predominant islet proteins...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Paul C Guest, Hassan Rahmoune
This chapter presents characterization of the db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes. The protocol describes generation of the mice along with measurements of physical characteristics such as body weight and body composition, and behaviours including food and water consumption. Such a procedure can also be used for omics-based analyses of brain tissues to investigate the potential use of db/db mouse model in neuropsychiatric research. In addition, we present measurement of blood glucose and plasma insulin levels which tend to be elevated in this model and can modulated post treatment with anti-diabetic agents...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Asghar Ghasemi
In 1976, an animal model of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) was described by Cameron et al. using injection of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in KK mice during the neonatal period. Some years later, similar models have been developed by various doses and durations and the main of these models exhibited obesity and features of diabetes mellitus, including glycosuria, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Studies indicated that MSG treatment of newborn animals generates necrosis of neuronal cells of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus and arcuate nucleus...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Graham R McClure, Emilie P Belley-Cote, John Harlock, Andre Lamy, Michael Stacey, P J Devereaux, Richard P Whitlock
PURPOSE: Postoperative infection, particularly in cardiac surgery, results in significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare cost. Identification of novel predictors of postoperative infection can target high-risk populations for prophylactic intervention. METHODS: Steroids in cardiac surgery (SIRS) was a multi-centre randomized-controlled trial assessing intraoperative administration of methylprednisone during cardiac surgery, which enrolled 7,507 patients across 80 centres in 18 countries...
December 10, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Stella Nikolaou, Shengyang Qiu, Francesca Fiorentino, Shahnawaz Rasheed, Paris Tekkis, Christos Kontovounisios
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the commonest cancers in Western society with a poor prognosis in patients with advanced disease. Targeted therapy is of increasing interest and already, targeted hormone treatment for breast and prostate cancer has improved survival. The aim of this literature review is to summarise the role of hormones in CRC prognosis and treatment. A literature review of all human and animal in vivo and in vitro studies in the last 20 years, which assessed the role of hormones in CRC treatment or prognosis, was carried out...
December 10, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha, Shamsul Haque, Hemanath Swarna Nantha
Background: There has been a shift in worldwide disease burden from infections to non-communicable diseases, especially type 2 diabetes (T2D). Behavioural change and self-management are key to optimal T2D control. Several universal models of diabetic care have been proposed to help explain the dimensions of T2D self-care such as medication adherence, physical activity, diet and patient-doctor interaction. These models do not allow an objective and quantifiable measurement of the problems faced by patients in terms of medication compliance...
December 10, 2018: Family Practice
Nouf M Aloudah, Neil W Scott, Hisham S Aljadhey, Vera Araujo-Soares, Khalid A Alrubeaan, Margaret C Watson
OBJECTIVE: Oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) are highly effective in managing Type 2 diabetes if taken appropriately. This study assessed adherence to OHAs among patients with Type 2 diabetes and explored factors associated with adherence behaviour. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Mixed methods were used comprising a cross-sectional study using the Arabic version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale followed by semi-structured interviews using the Theoretical Domain Framework to explore key determinants of adherence...
2018: PloS One
Qin-Fen Chen, Dan Cao, Ting-Ting Ye, Hui-Hui Deng, Hong Zhu
Background: The present study is undertaken to investigate the fibrinogen levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its relation to peripheral artery disease (PAD) based on a more accurate and applied noninvasive measurements of duplex ultrasonography. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study including 1096 T2DM patients (474 males and 622 females). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were presented to show the association between PAD and fibrinogen in the subjects divided by fibrinogen levels quarterly...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
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