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model of type 2 diabetes

Å Bakke, A T Tran, I Dalen, J G Cooper, K F Løvaas, A K Jenum, T J Berg, T V Madsen, K Nøkleby, B Gjelsvik, T Claudi, S Skeie, S Carlsen, S Sandberg, G Thue
AIMS: To assess population, general practitioner (GP) and practice characteristics associated with the performance of microvascular screening procedures and to propose strategies to improve Type 2 diabetes care. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey in Norway (281 GPs from 77 practices) identified 8246 people with a Type 2 diabetes duration of 1 year or more. We used multilevel regression models with either the recording of at least two of three recommended screening procedures (albuminuria, monofilament, eye examination) or each procedure separately as dependent variable (yes/no), and characteristics related to the person with diabetes, GP or practice as independent variables...
October 21, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
W R Powell, C L Christiansen, D R Miller
AIM: To examine the risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events associated with adding vs switching to second-line therapies in a comparative safety study of people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using an as-treated analysis of people served by the Veterans Health Administration who were on metformin and subsequently augmented this treatment or switched to other oral glucose-lowering treatments between 1998 and 2012...
October 21, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Tao Zhang, Jie Xu, Shengxu Li, Lydia A Bazzano, Jiang He, Paul K Whelton, Wei Chen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to characterise longitudinal profiles of BMI from childhood and to examine the impact of level-independent childhood BMI trajectories on adult type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The longitudinal cohort consisted of 2449 adults (1613 white and 836 black) who had their BMI measured between four and 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years) and fasting glucose measured in adulthood. Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BMI at childhood age points were calculated in 1-year intervals using growth-curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively...
October 20, 2018: Diabetologia
Di Yan, Richard Ahn, Stephen Leslie, Wilson Liao
INTRODUCTION: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic, inflammatory arthritis that affects an estimated 30% of patients with psoriasis. PsA is underdiagnosed in primary care and dermatology clinics due to a variety of reasons, including failure of healthcare providers to ask about symptoms, overlap of symptoms and signs with other rheumatologic conditions, and lack of a specific diagnostic test. A delay in PsA diagnosis and treatment, even as short as 6 months, can lead to decreased quality of life, increased joint damage, and worse long-term physical function...
October 20, 2018: Dermatology and Therapy
Jinjiang Fan, Enrico Campioli, Vassilios Papadopoulos
Translocator protein (TSPO) is a high-affinity cholesterol- and drug-binding mitochondrial protein. Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 1 or steroidogenic factor 1 (Nr5a1)-Cre mice were previously used to generate steroidogenic cell-specific Tspo gene conditional knockout (cKO) mice. TSPO-depleted homozygotes showed no response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in stimulating adrenal cortex corticosterone production but showed increased epinephrine synthesis in the medulla. No other phenotype was observed under normal growth conditions...
October 18, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Tsai-Chung Li, Chia-Ing Li, Chiu-Shong Liu, Wen-Yuan Lin, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Sing-Yu Yang, Cheng-Chieh Lin
This study aims to develop a risk score system for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with type 2 diabetes using the Taiwan National Diabetes Care Management Program database. This retrospective cohort study included 31,723 Chinese patients who had type 2 diabetes, aged 30-84 years. Participants were randomly grouped into derivation and validation sets in 2:1 ratio. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to identify the risk factors of HCC in the derivation set. Discrimination ability of the model was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve and performance was expressed as the c statistic, assessed internally on validation data sets...
October 17, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Li-Jie Xiang, Yan Wang, Guo-Yuan Lu, Qin Huang
OBJECTIVE: Microangiopathy is common after a long duration in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Pregnancies with end-age vascular complications are a big challenge to multidisciplinary physicians. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of microangiopathy for adverse pregnancy outcome in T1DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant articles appearing in the literature up to October 1, 2017. Analysis of cohort studies were performed with Review Manager 5...
October 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Yimeng Hu, Jie Liu, Yin Yuan, Jing Chen, Siyuan Cheng, Huawei Wang, Yancheng Xu
Sodium butyrate (NaB), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, has been reported to attenuate hyperglycemia in rats. Our objective was to explore the effect and underlying mechanism of NaB on islet β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) rats. T2DM models were induced by the combination of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) and high-fat-diet, while NaB (500 mg/kg/d) was intraperitoneally injected for 6 weeks in experimental groups. Our results suggested NaB mitigated hyperglycemia, lowered the levels of serum cholestenone (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), prevented body weight loss, and enhanced insulin resistance and glucose tolerance...
September 6, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Xin-Yong Wang, Xian-Zhao Zhang, Feng Li, Qing-Rong Ji
Vascular calcification is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), one of the most common chronic diseases with high morbidity and mortality. In recent years, microRNAs have been widely reported as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of T2DM. We hypothesized that miR-128-3p is associated with cardiovascular calcification and insulin resistance (IR) in rats with T2DM by targeting ISL1 via the Wnt pathway. Microarray analysis was adopted to identify differentially expressed genes related to T2DM...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
An-Ru Wang, Xue-Qin Yan, Cai Zhang, Cai-Qi Du, Wen-Jun Long, Di Zhan, Jie Ren, Xiao-Ping Luo
Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP1), a member of the CCN family, is increasingly being recognized as a potential target for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have shown that WISP1 can regulate low-grade inflammation in obese mice, and circulating WISP1 levels are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Herein, we measured serum WISP1 levels in obese youth and explored its relationships with pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 18 (IL-18) and other metabolic indexes...
October 2018: Current medical science
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan, Reginald Paul Sequeira, Abdelaziz Elamin
AIM: Several drugs have been used for treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study is a network meta-analysis of such drugs. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: Randomised clinical trials comparing drug interventions in patients with NAFLD were analysed. OR and weighted mean difference (95 % CI) were the effect estimates for categorical and numerical outcomes, respectively. Random-effects model was used to generate pooled estimates. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve was used to rank the treatments...
October 19, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Vanja Cejvanovic, Laura Kofoed Kjær, Helle Kirstine Mørup Bergholdt, Trine Henriksen, Allan Weimann, Christina Ellervik, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen
AIM: The urinary biomarker for oxidative stress to RNA, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanosine (8-oxoGuo) is associated with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Iron has also been linked to diabetes. In individuals with untreated hereditary iron overload it has been observed that 8-oxoGuo was higher compared to controls. In the current study, we hypothesized that 8-oxoGuo was associated with diagnosis of diabetes, and that iron confounded this association. METHODS: Participants from a general Danish population were included in the study (n=3,567)...
October 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Kazuhiro Kamada, Keita Saku, Takeshi Tohyama, Toru Kawada, Hiroshi Mannoji, Kiyokazu Abe, Takuya Nishikawa, Genya Sunagawa, Takuya Kishi, Kenji Sunagawa, Hiroyuki Tsutsui
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) often show arterial pressure (AP) lability associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Since the arterial baroreflex tightly regulates AP via sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), we investigated the systematic baroreflex function considering the control theory in DM by an open-loop analysis. We used Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF)-Fatty rats as a type 2 DM model. Under general anesthesia, we isolated the carotid sinuses from systemic circulation, changed intra-carotid sinus pressure (CSP), and recorded SNA and AP responses...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Moustafa A Elsaied, Doaa Masallat, Ibrahim A Abdel-Hamid
The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of adiponectin in diabetic patients with and without erectile dysfunction (ED). In addition, the correlations of adiponectin with the scores of international index of erectile function (IIEF) and total testosterone levels were explored in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with ED. The study included three groups: Type 2 Diabetic patients (T2DM) with and without ED and a third nondiabetics with ED group, each of 29 patients. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FI), homeostasis model assessments of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index), testosterone and adiponectin levels were evaluated...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Dan Ye, Guohua Lou, Tianbao Zhang, Fengqin Dong, Yanning Liu
The aberrant expression of Pknox1 is associated with hepatic glucose and lipid dysmetabolism status of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanism causing Pknox1 overexpression in this pathological status remains unclear. By using miRNA target prediction programs, we found that the 3'-UTR of the Pknox1 mRNA sequence contains highly conserved target sites of miR-17 family. In a rat model of streptozotocin and high-fat diet-induced T2DM and NAFLD complication, the increased hepatic expression of Pknox1 was consistent with decreased expressions of miR-17 family, especially miR-17 and miR-20a...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Thomas Reinehr, Christian Ludwig Roth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic inflammation, adipokines, and hepatokines have been identified as basis of insulin resistance and β cell failure in animal models. We present our current knowledge concerning the potential relationship between these cytokines, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Pro-inflammatory cytokines related to insulin resistance and MetS in children are tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, interferon gamma, pigment epithelium-derived factor, chemerin, vaspin, and fetuin A...
October 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
V Lee, R Blew, M Hetherington-Rauth, D Blew, J-P Galons, T Hagio, J Bea, T Lohman, S Going
Objectives: Accumulation of visceral fat (VF) in children increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and measurement of VF in children using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is expensive. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) may provide a low-cost alternative. This study aims to determine if DXA VF estimates can accurately estimate VF in young girls, determine if adding anthropometry would improve the estimate and determine if other DXA fat measures, with and without anthropometry, could be used to estimate VF in young girls...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Rina Amelia
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a type of chronic disease with exceptional medical care for a patient's lifetime, which ultimately requires lifestyle and behavioural adjustments to prevent complications to death. Patients with good self-care behaviour will cause diabetes to be controlled to avoid complications to death and make patients have a better quality of life. AIM: This study aims (1) to determine the model of self-care behaviour in Type 2 diabetes patients in Binjai City (2) to analyse the effect of self-care behaviour on quality of life, metabolic control and lipid control of Type 2 diabetes patients in Binjai City...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Jui-Ming Liu, Tien-Hsing Chen, Heng-Chang Chuang, Chun-Te Wu, Ren-Jun Hsu
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been reported to increase the risk of dementia. Statin use decreases the risk of dementia. This study is aimed to investigate the association of statin use and dementia in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients receiving ADT. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, we conducted a population-based nationwide cohort study of T2DM patients newly diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) between 1998 and 2013...
October 18, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Pedrum Mohammadi-Shemirani, Jennifer Sjaarda, Hertzel C Gerstein, Darin J Treleaven, Michael Walsh, Johannes F Mann, Matthew J McQueen, Sibylle Hess, Guillaume Paré
BACKGROUND: Identifying markers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that occur early in the disease process and are specific to loss of kidney function rather than other underlying causes of disease may allow earlier, more accurate identification of patients who will develop CKD. We therefore sought to identify diagnostic blood markers of early CKD that are caused by loss of kidney function by using an innovative "reverse Mendelian randomization" (MR) approach. METHODS: We applied this technique to genetic and biomarker data from 4147 participants in the Outcome Reduction with Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial, all with known type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, or impaired glucose tolerance...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
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