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diabetes model

Shih-Yung Su, Wen-Chung Lee
BACKGROUND: Projections on liver diseases mortality can provide a basis for evaluating the World Health Organization's "25 by 25" goal and can help health care systems design appropriate control strategies. This study evaluated whether the 25 by 25 goal can be achieved in Taiwan and discussed possible future control strategies. METHODS: Age-period-cohort models are used to estimate the mortality trends of liver diseases from 1981 to 2016 and project these trends to 2035...
December 16, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Kazuhiko Mizukami, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Eisuke Nozawa, Koichi Wada, Tohru Ugawa
Prostaglandins (PGs) are important lipid mediators of numerous physiologic and pathophysiologic processes in the kidney. PGE2 , the most abundant renal PG, plays a major role in renal physiology, including renin release and glomerular hemodynamics. We investigated the renoprotective properties of the novel PGE2 EP4 receptor-selective antagonist ASP7657 in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, a chronic kidney disease (CKD) model. Eight weeks of repeated administration of ASP7657 (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) dose-dependently and significantly reduced urinary protein excretion and attenuated the development of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage, including fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration, without affecting blood pressure...
December 15, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Patrick Kuhlman, Scott Isom, Timothy S Pardee, Cynthia Burns, Bernard Tawfik, Zanetta S Lamar, Bayard L Powell, Heidi D Klepin
PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of hyperglycemia and glycemic variability during intensive acute myeloid leukemia therapy (AML) on outcomes by age. METHODS: Retrospective study of 262 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed AML hospitalized for intensive induction. Hyperglycemia was assessed by mean blood glucose (BG) (mg/dL) during hospitalization and glycemic variability was determined by the standard deviation (SD) of mean BG. Outcomes were complete remission ± incomplete count recovery (CR + CRi), and overall survival (OS)...
December 15, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Sami Gabbouj, Teemu Natunen, Hennariikka Koivisto, Kimmo Jokivarsi, Mari Takalo, Mikael Marttinen, Rebekka Wittrahm, Susanna Kemppainen, Reyhaneh Naderi, Adrián Posado-Fernández, Simo Ryhänen, Petra Mäkinen, Kaisa M A Paldanius, Gonçalo Doria, Pekka Poutiainen, Orfeu Flores, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Heikki Tanila, Mikko Hiltunen
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Human AD brains show reduced glucose metabolism as measured by [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Here, we used 14-month-old wild-type (WT) and APPSwe /PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice to investigate how a single dose of intranasal insulin modulates brain glucose metabolism using FDG-PET and affects spatial learning and memory. We also assessed how insulin influences the activity of Akt1 and Akt2 kinases, the expression of glial and neuronal markers, and autophagy in the hippocampus...
November 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Ryan J Gagnon, Barry A Garst, Jasmine A Townsend
RATIONALE: Medical specialty camps play a significant role in the lives of the youth they serve. These camps have been found to improve self-determination in campers, to develop camper skills in managing a disability or coping with a diagnosis, and to provide campers with respite/escape from the challenges associated with their disability or diagnosis. Youth attending medical specialty camps are often funded through full or partial scholarships, mitigating a significant constraint to their participation...
December 10, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Rory Sayres, Ankur Taly, Ehsan Rahimy, Katy Blumer, David Coz, Naama Hammel, Jonathan Krause, Arunachalam Narayanaswamy, Zahra Rastegar, Derek Wu, Shawn Xu, Scott Barb, Anthony Joseph, Michael Shumski, Jesse Smith, Arjun B Sood, Greg S Corrado, Lily Peng, Dale R Webster
OBJECTIVE: To understand the impact of deep learning diabetic retinopathy (DR) algorithms on physician readers in computer-assisted settings. DESIGN: Evaluation of diagnostic technology PARTICIPANTS: 1,796 retinal fundus images from 1,612 diabetic patients. METHODS: 10 ophthalmologists (5 general ophthalmologists, 4 retina specialists, 1 retina fellow) read images for DR severity based on the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy disease severity scale in one of 3 conditions: Unassisted, Grades Only, or Grades + Heatmap...
November 28, 2018: Ophthalmology
Lucie Desmoulins, Chloé Chrétien, Romain Paccoud, Stephan Collins, Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Anne Galinier, Fabienne Liénard, Aurore Quinault, Sylvie Grall, Camille Allard, Claire Fenech, Lionel Carneiro, Thomas Mouillot, Audren Fournel, Claude Knauf, Christophe Magnan, Xavier Fioramonti, Luc Pénicaud, Corinne Leloup
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic glucose sensing (HGS) initiates insulin secretion (IS) via a vagal control, participating in energy homeostasis. This requires mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) signaling, dependent on mitochondrial fission, as shown by invalidation of the hypothalamic DRP1 protein. Here, our objectives were to determine whether a model with a HGS defect induced by a short, high fat-high sucrose (HFHS) diet in rats affected the fission machinery and mROS signaling within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH)...
November 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Riccardo Bertolo, Giuseppe Simone, Juan Garisto, Georges Nakhoul, Sherif Armanyous, Jose Agudelo, Manuela Costantini, Gabriele Tuderti, Michele Gallucci, Jihad Kaouk
INTRODUCTION: Aim of the study was to compare perioperative, functional and oncological outcomes after off-clamp vs on-clamp robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent off-clamp or on-clamp (warm ischemia) RPN were extracted from 2 institutional prospectively-maintained databases. 123 patients who underwent off-clamp RPN at one institution were excluded, so that each institution contributed with unselected patients (institution 1:on-clamp RPN vs institution 2:off-clamp)...
December 9, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Phyllis Yeboah, Fang-Chi Hsu, Alain G Bertoni, Joseph Yeboah
Weight management is highly recommended to patients with diabetes mellitus. However, this prescription is often characterized by weight fluctuations. It remains unclear the effects of weight fluctuations on outcomes in diabetes mellitus. We used the public use dataset from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial to assess the effects of baseline weight, change in weight, and body weight variability (BWV) on outcomes. The ACCORD trial participant's weights were documented annually during the trial...
December 3, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Chikara Sato, Toshiko Yamazawa, Akiko Ohtani, Yuusuke Maruyama, Nassirhadjy Memtily, Mari Sato, Yuri Hatano, Takashi Shiga, Tatsuhiko Ebihara
Neural networking, including axon targeting and synapse formation, is the basis of various brain functions, including memory and learning. Diabetes-mellitus affects peripheral nerves and is known to cause fatty liver disease. Electron microscopy (EM) provides the resolution required to observe changes in fine subcellular structures caused by such physiological and pathological processes, but samples are observed in vacuum. Environmental capsule EM can directly observe cells in a more natural aqueous environment, but the size-limited capsules restrict cell culturability...
November 23, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Mathieu D Squires, Nicholas Spina, Ashley Neese, Yue Zhang, William Ryan Spiker, Brandon Lawrence, Darrel S Brodke
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Diabetes is a highly prevalent comorbid condition among patients undergoing spine surgery. Several studies have used legacy patient-reported outcome measures to implicate diabetes as a predictor of increased disability, pain, and decreased physical function and quality of life following spine surgery. The effect of diabetes on postoperative physical function has not yet been studied using the PROMIS® Physical Function Computer Adaptive Test (PF CAT). PURPOSE: To understand the effect of diabetes on physical function outcomes among patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery, as reported by the PF CAT...
December 12, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
A Sampath Kumar, Arun G Maiya, B A Shastry, K Vaishali, N Ravishankar, Animesh Hazari, Shubha Gundmi, Radhika Jadhav
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a determining factor in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Exercise is known to improve insulin resistance, but a systematic review of the literature is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis focused on identifying evidence for the effectiveness of a structured exercise intervention program for insulin resistance in T2DM. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, CINHAL, Scopus and Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for reports of studies on fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (Homa-IR), fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and body mass index in patients with T2DM and healthy controls that were published between 1990 and 2017...
December 13, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Joseph Tibaldi, Martin Hadley-Brown, Andreas Liebl, Steffen Haldrup, Viktor Sandberg, Michael Lyng Wolden, Helena W Rodbard
AIMS: To compare the real-world effectiveness of insulin degludec (degludec) and glargine 300 units/mL (glargine U300) in insulin-naïve adult patients with type 2 diabetes in routine US clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CONFIRM is a non-interventional comparative effectiveness study following US patients across the continuum of care, through electronic medical records from multiple health systems and integrated delivery networks. Propensity-score matching controlled for confounding...
December 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
S C Danhauer, G A Brenes, B J Levine, L Young, H A Tindle, E L Addington, R B Wallace, M J Naughton, L Garcia, M Safford, M M Kim, E S LeBlanc, B M Snively, L G Snetselaar, S Shumaker
AIMS: To examine (1) the prevalence of depressive symptoms in women with Type 2 diabetes, (2) the associations between depressive symptoms and the following dependent variables: sleep disturbance; physical activity; physical health-related; and global quality of life, and (3) the potential moderating effects of antidepressants and optimism on the relationship between depressive symptoms and dependent variables. METHODS: Participants in the Women's Health Initiative who had Type 2 diabetes and data on depressive symptoms (N=8895) were included in the analyses...
December 15, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Jing An, Jiao Zhao, Shi Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Insufficiency of interstitial cells of cajal (ICC) in the muscular plexus of colon has been proved in diabetic mice. Electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 can accelerate ICC supplement in the colon of diabetic mice, but the source of increased ICC has not been clearly explored. Bone marrow cells (BMCs) possess the potential of migration and differentiation into ICC of the intestine. Our aim is to explore the effects of EA on variations of bone marrow derived ICC in the colon of diabetic mice as well as its mechanism...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Hiroto Oshima, Takayuki Miki, Atsushi Kuno, Masashi Mizuno, Tatsuya Sato, Masaya Tanno, Toshiyuki Yano, Kei Nakata, Yukishige Kimura, Koki Abe, Wataru Ohwada, Tetsuji Miura
BACKGROUND: Mechanism by which sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce cardiac events in diabetic patients remains unclear. Here we examined effects of an SGLT2 inhibitor on the acute survival rate after myocardial infarction (MI) in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and possible involvement of modification of cardiac metabolomes and anti-oxidative proteins. METHODS AND RESULTS: MI was induced in DM rats (OLETF) and control rats (LETO)...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Kaiqing Liu, Wensai Yu, Wei Wei, Xinbao Zhang, Ye Tian, Melak Sherif, Xin Liu, Chao Dong, Wangjun Wu, Lifan Zhang, Jie Chen
In obesity and diabetes, intramuscular fat (IMF) content correlates markedly with insulin sensitivity, which makes IMF manipulation an area of therapeutic interest. Melatonin, an important circadian rhythm-regulating hormone, reportedly regulates fat deposition, but its effects on different types of adipose vary. Little is known about the role of melatonin in IMF deposition. Here, using intramuscular preadipocytes in pigs, we investigated whether melatonin affects or regulates IMF deposition. We found that melatonin greatly inhibited porcine intramuscular preadipocyte proliferation...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Wael M Osman, Herbert F Jelinek, Guan K Tay, Ahsan H Khandoker, Kinda Khalaf, Wael Almahmeed, Mohamed H Hassan, Habiba S Alsafar
OBJECTIVES: Within the Emirati population, risk factors and genetic predisposition to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) have not yet been investigated. The aim of this research was to determine potential clinical, laboratory and reported genetic loci as risk factors for DKD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Four hundred and ninety unrelated Emirati nationals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited with and without DKD, and clinical and laboratory data were obtained...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Erika Gucciardo, Sirpa Loukovaara, Petri Salven, Kaisa Lehti
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common diabetic microvascular complication and major cause of blindness in working-age adults. According to the level of microvascular degeneration and ischemic damage, DR is classified into non-proliferative DR (NPDR), and end-stage, proliferative DR (PDR). Despite advances in the disease etiology and pathogenesis, molecular understanding of end-stage PDR, characterized by ischemia- and inflammation-associated neovascularization and fibrosis, remains incomplete due to the limited availability of ideal clinical samples and experimental research models...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vicky Van Stappen, Julie Latomme, Greet Cardon, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Mina Lateva, Nevena Chakarova, Jemina Kivelä, Jaana Lindström, Odysseas Androutsos, Esther González-Gil, Pilar De Miguel-Etayo, Anna Nánási, László R Kolozsvári, Yannis Manios, Marieke De Craemer
This study investigated barriers towards health behaviours (physical activity, limiting sedentary behaviour and healthy dietary habits) experienced by young European families living in vulnerable areas, from multiple perspectives (parents, teachers, local community workers). Focus groups were conducted in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, Greece and Spain). In each country, three focus groups were conducted with parents, one with teachers and one with local community workers. Data were analysed using a deductive framework approach with a manifest content analysis using the software NVivo...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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