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Cathode Materials

W Q Wang, Z J Yao, X L Wang, X H Xia, C D Gu, J P Tu
Exploring high performance cathode materials is of great means for the development of bi-functional electrochromic energy storage devices. Herein, Nb-doped WO3 mesoporous films as integrated high-quality cathode are successfully constructed via a facile sol-gel method. Chemical state and crystallinity of the WO3 based films are significantly influenced by doping concentration. Compared with the pure WO3 , the optimal Nb-doped film shows improved optical-electrochemical properties with high specific capacity (74...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
M Manoj, C Muhamed Ashraf, M Jasna, K M Anilkumar, B Jinisha, V S Pradeep, S Jayalekshmi
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) cells are emerging as the dominant constituents of the next generation battery technology, offering high theoretical capacity around 1675 mA h g-1 and the additional advantages of low cost and non-toxic nature. Activated carbon, derived from natural resources is being extensively investigated for applications as electrode materials in high power supercapacitors and for making composite electrodes for designing high energy density electrochemical cells. The present work is aimed at introducing the potential of the composite cathode of sulfur with the biomass-derived, steam activated carbon (AC) along with the free-standing and flexible film of carbon nanotubes as the interlayer for designing efficient Li-S cells...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Hua-Yu Shi, Yin-Jian Ye, Kuan Liu, Yu Song, Xiaoqi Sun
Rechargeable aqueous zinc batteries are promising energy storage systems for grid applications. The highly conductive polyaniline (PANI) is a potential cathode, but it tends to deactivate in low acidic electrolytes (i.e. pH > 1) due to the de-protonation of the polymer. Herein, we synthesized a sulfo self-doped PANI electrode by a facile electrochemical copolymerization process. The -SO₃¯ self-dopant functions as an internal proton reservoir to ensure locally high acidic environment and facilitate the redox process in the weak acidic ZnSO₄ electrolyte...
October 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Xuan-Manh Pham, Duc Tung Ngo, Hang T T Le, Pravin N Didwal, Rakesh Verma, Chan-Woo Min, Choong-Nyeon Park, Chan-Jin Park
In this study, a self-encapsulated Sb-C nanocomposite as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) was successfully synthesised using an SbCl3-citrate complex precursor, followed by a drying and calcination process under an inert N2 atmosphere. When the molar ratio of SbCl3 to citric acid was varied from 1 : 1 to 1 : 4, the Sb-C nanocomposite with a molar ratio of 1 : 3 (Sb-C3) exhibited the highest specific surface area (265.97 m2 g-1) and pore volume (0.158 cm3 g-1). Furthermore, the Sb-C3 electrode showed a high reversible capacity of 559 mA h g-1 at a rate of C/10 and maintained a high reversible capacity of 430 mA h g-1 even after 195 cycles at a rate of 1C...
October 11, 2018: Nanoscale
Daniel Alonso-Domínguez, María Pilar Pico, Inmaculada Álvarez-Serrano, María Luisa López
New iron-oxide-based anodes are prepared by an environmentally-friendly and low-cost route. The analysis of the composition, structure, and microstructure of the samples reveals the presence of a major hematite phase, which is accompanied by a certain concentration of an oxyhydroxide phase, which can act as a "lithium-reservoir". By using sodium alginate as a binder, the synthesized anodes display superior electrochemical response, i.e., high specific capacity values and high stability, not only versus Li but also versus a high voltage cathode in a full cell...
October 9, 2018: Nanomaterials
Christina Schneidermann, Christian Kensy, Pascal Otto, Steffen Oswald, Lars Giebeler, Desiree Leistenschneider, Sven Grätz, Susanne Doerfler, Stefan Kaskel, Lars Borchardt
Nitrogen-doped carbons were synthesized by a solvent-free mechanochemically-induced one-pot synthesis, by using renewable biomass waste. In particular, we used three solid materials: sawdust as a carbon source, urea and/or melamine as a nitrogen source and potassium carbonate as an activation agent. The resulting nitrogen-doped porous carbons offer a very high specific surface area of up to 3000 m2 g-1 and a large pore volume up to 2 cm3 g-1. Also, a high nitrogen content of 4 wt.% (urea only) up to 12 wt.% (melamine only) was generated, depending on the used nitrogen and carbon source...
October 10, 2018: ChemSusChem
Jiaqi Dai, Chunpeng Yang, Chengwei Wang, Glenn Pastel, Liangbing Hu
Lithium-metal batteries are considered one of the most promising energy-storage systems owing to their high energy density, but their practical applications have long been hindered by significant safety concerns and poor cycle stability. Solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) are expected to improve not only the safety but also the energy density of Li-metal batteries. The key challenge for solid-state Li-metal batteries lies in the low ionic conductivity of the SSEs and moreover the interface contact between the electrode and SSE...
October 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
Zheng-Long Xu, Shenghuang Lin, Nicolas Onofrio, Limin Zhou, Fangyi Shi, Wei Lu, Kisuk Kang, Qiang Zhang, Shu Ping Lau
Lithium sulfur batteries with high energy densities are promising next-generation energy storage systems. However, shuttling and sluggish conversion of polysulfides to solid lithium sulfides limit the full utilization of active materials. Physical/chemical confinement is useful for anchoring polysulfides, but not effective for utilizing the blocked intermediates. Here, we employ black phosphorus quantum dots as electrocatalysts to overcome these issues. Both the experimental and theoretical results reveal that black phosphorus quantum dots effectively adsorb and catalyze polysulfide conversion...
October 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Zhen-Ming Xu, Shou-Hang Bo, Hong Zhu
Sulfide-type solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are capturing more and more attentions. However, the electronegativity difference between oxygen and sulfur element makes sulfide-type solid-state electrolytes chemically incompatible with the conventional LiCoO2 cathode. In this work, we proposed a series of chalcopyrite-structured sulfide-type materials, and systematically assessed their performances as the cathode materials in ASSLIBs by first-principles calculations. All the five metallic LiMS2 (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) materials are superionic conductors with extremely small lithium ion migration barriers in the range of 43 to 99 meV, much lower than most of oxide- and even sulfide-type cathodes...
October 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chen Peng, Haoying Lyu, Lu Wu, Tengfei Xiong, Fangyu Xiong, Ziang Liu, Qinyou An, Liqiang Mai
As a novel and potential transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC), NbSe2 has low ion diffusion barrier when applied in energy storage systems, such as the traditional lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and the novel magnesium ion batteries (MIBs). In this work, we have developed a novel hexagonal NbSe2 material with nanosized surface via a facile microwave-hydrothermal method. Li+ storage mechanism of NbSe2 with surface conversion and internal intercalation is thoroughly revealed by in-situ XRD, ex-situ HRTEM and ex-situ SEM...
October 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Robert Pipes, Amruth Bhargav, Arumugam Manthiram
The lithium - carbon dioxide (Li-CO2) battery has garnered significant interest over the past five years as a next-generation energy storage device. In this letter, we report a nanocomposite of anatase titania nanoparticles (TiO2-NP), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and carbon nanofibers (CNF) as a freestanding gas diffusion cathode (GDC) for Li-CO2 batteries. Nanostructured anatase TiO2 is demonstrated as a low-cost, easy-to-synthesize catalyst for CO2 capture and utilization. With the developed composite electrode, we confirm the successful reversibility of the carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CDRR) and evolution reaction (CDER) at the cathode, and demonstrate improved Li-CO2 cell performance, through a variety of materials and electrochemical characterization techniques...
October 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ying Li, Nichols A Romero, Kah Chun Lau
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries offer higher energy densities than most reported lithium-ion batteries. However, our understanding of Li-S battery is still largely unknown at the level of the nanoscale. The structural properties of Li-S materials were investigated via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the ReaxFF force field. everal Li-S nanoparticles with different Li:S composition ratios (2:1 and 2:8) and various structures are studied. Our MD simulations show that, among the four structures we constructed for Li2 S8 nanoparticles, the core-shell structure is the most thermodynamically stable one during the charging (delithiation) process...
October 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Michael Salama, Ran Attias, Baruch Hirsch, Reut Yemini, Yosef Gofer, Malachi Noked, Doron Aurbach
Rechargeable magnesium batteries (RMB) have attracted a lot of attention in recent decades, due to the theoretical properties of these systems in terms of energy density, safety, and price. Nevertheless, to date, fully rechargeable magnesium battery prototypes with sufficient longevity and reversibility were realized only with low voltage and low capacity intercalation cathode materials based on Cheverel phases. The community is therefore actively looking for high capacity cathodes that can work with metallic magnesium anodes in viable RMB systems...
October 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lu-Lu Zhang, Di Ma, Tao Li, Jing Liu, Xiao-Kai Ding, Yunhui Huang, Xue-Lin Yang
Nitrogen-doped carbon covered Na3V2(PO4)2F3 (NVPF/C-PDPA) composite has been successfully prepared by self-polymerization of dopamine on the NVPF surface and subsequent sintering. The XRD results show the NVPF/C-PDPA has good crystallinity and introducing dopamine does not affect the lattice structure of NVPF. And the HRTEM and HAADF images and EDS analysis reveal that the NVPF/C-PDPA particles are covered by a complete and uniform coating layer, which is effective at preventing corrosion of NVPF in electrolyte to greatly increase cycling stability...
October 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lixia Guo, Lvlv Ji, Jianying Wang, Shangshang Zuo, Zuofeng Chen
Mo2C@NPC (N,P-doped carbon) electrocatalysts are developed on carbon cloth (CC) as binder-free cathodes for efficient hydrogen evolution through a facile route of electropolymerization followed by pyrolysis. Electropolymerization of pyrrole to form polypyrrole occurs with the homogeneous incorporation of PMo12 driven by Columbic force between the positively charged polymer backbone and PMo12 anions. This electrochemical synthesis is easily scaled up, requiring neither complex instrumentation nor intentionally added electrolyte (PMo12 also acts as electrolyte)...
October 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Akbar Mohammadi Zardkhoshoui, Saied Saeed Hosseiny Davarani
Pseudocapacitive electrode materials employed in supercapacitors may bring in high energy density (ED) and specific capacitance (Csc ), which are critical for their practical applications. Accordingly, logical design of advanced electrode materials is highly demanded to progress high-performance supercapacitors. Here, for the first time, we suggest a straightforward route for the synthesis of NiGa2 S4 -rGO as an advanced cathode material supported on nickel foam (NF) for employed in flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (FSASCs)...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Faxing Wang, Yaping Tao, Chunxia Ding, Deming Tan, Feng Yu
The aqueous lithium (Li) battery is one of the most promising devices for the large-scale grid application. Currently, a key issue for aqueous Li batteries is to develop promising anode materials with favorable electrochemical performance. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate a novel aqueous Li battery that utilizes the reversible redox reaction with hydroxide ion (OH-) in the hematite (Fe2O3) anode and the commercial Li ion intercalation compound in neutral solution as the cathode. With the neutral-alkaline hybrid electrolyte, many excellent anode materials previously only working in alkaline electrolytes can now be successfully combined with commercial cathodes in neutral solutions, which may significantly enrich the species of anode material for aqueous Li batteries...
October 5, 2018: ChemSusChem
Seok Bok Hong, Jae-Min Jeong, Heon Gyu Kang, Donghyuk Seo, Younghyun Cha, Hyeonyeol Jeon, Geun Young Lee, Mobina Irshad, Do Hyun Kim, Sung Yeon Hwang, Jung Won Kim, Bong Gill Choi
The integration of metal oxides and carbon materials provides a great potential for enhancing the high energy and power densities of supercapacitors, but the rational design and scalable fabrication of such composite materials still remain a challenge. Herein, we report a fast, scalable, and one-pot hydrodynamic synthesis for preparing ion conductive and defect-free graphene from graphite and MnO2 /graphene nanocomposites. The use of this hydrodynamic method using Taylor-Couette flow allows us to efficiently fast shear-exfoliate graphite into large quantities of high-quality graphene sheets...
October 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yu Zhong, Xinhui Xia, Shengjue Deng, Dong Xie, Shenghui Shen, Kaili Zhang, Weihao Guo, Xiuli Wang, Jiangping Tu
Development of novel advanced carbon materials is playing a critical role in the innovation of electrochemical energy storage technology. Hierarchical porous spore carbon produced by Aspergillus oryzae is reported, which acts as a biofactory. Interestingly, the spore carbon not only shows a porous maze structure consisting of crosslinked nanofolds, but also is intrinsically N and P dual doped. Impressively, the spore carbon can be further embedded with Ni2 P nanoparticles, which serve as porogen to form a highly porous spore carbon/Ni2 P composite with increased surface area and enhanced electrical conductivity...
October 4, 2018: Advanced Materials
Takayuki Shibata, Yuya Fukuzumi, Yutaka Moritomo
Recently, it was reported that a thermocell can convert temperature into electric energy by using the difference in the thermal coefficient (α = dV/dT) of the redox potential (V) between the cathode and anode materials. Among battery materials, Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) are promising materials for thermocell, because α changes from approximately -0.3 mV/K in Nax Mn[Fe(CN)6 ]0.83 3.5 H2 O (NMF83) to approximately 1.3 mV/K in Nax Co[Fe(CN)6 ]0.9 2,9H2 O (NCF90). In this work, we systematically investigated the thermal efficiency (η) of the NMF83/NCF90 thermocell relative to the difference (ΔT) between low (TL  = 282 K) and high (TH  = 292-338 K) temperatures...
October 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
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