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Cathode Materials

Ya You, Andrei Dolocan, Wangda Li, Arumugam Manthiram
Undesired reactions between layered sodium transition-metal oxide cathodes and air impede their utilization in practical sodium-ion batteries. Consequently, a fundamental understanding of how layered oxide cathodes degrade in air is of paramount importance, but it has not been fully understood yet. Here a comprehensive study on a model material NaNi0.7Mn0.15Co0.15O2 reveals its reaction chemistry with air and the dynamic evolution of the degradation species upon air exposure. We find that besides the extraction of Na+ ions from the crystal lattice to form NaOH, Na2CO3, and Na2CO3•H2O in contact with air, nickel ions gradually dissolve from the bulk to form NiO and accumulate on the particle surface as revealed by sub-nanometer surface sensitive time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy...
December 5, 2018: Nano Letters
Weiyuan Huang, Jiangtao Hu, Luyi Yang, Wenguang Zhao, Ziqi Wang, Hongbin Wang, Zheng Guo, Yiwei Li, Jiajie Liu, Kai Yang, Feng Pan
The commercial application of LiMnxFe1-xPO4 materials has always been a great challenge due to its unsatisfactory structure stability during cycling and the safety issue. Herein, single-particle (SP) electrodes, where aggregated LiMnxFe1-xPO4 is dispersed into SPs so they can distribute homogeneously in the carbon-nanotube networks, has been prepared and characterized to probe its degradation mechanism for the first time. Compared with conventionally prepared cathode, the SP LiMnxFe1-xPO4 cathode shows prominent capacity fading with cycle numbers, which can be attributed to the formation of the MnF2 nanocrystals on the surface of LiMnxFe1-xPO4 due to the reaction between F- and dissolved Mn2+ at the interface between the electrolyte and LiMnxFe1-xPO4...
December 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Vaibhav Vibhu, Matthew R Suchomel, Nicolas Penin, François Weill, Jean-Claude Grenier, Jean-Marc Bassat, Aline Rougier
Compositions in the La2-xPrxNiO4+δ series offer an attractive balance of chemical stability and electrochemical performance for use as cathode materials in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). A detailed crystallographic study of this system has been performed, combining both high resolution synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction data, in order to investigate structural details of the series as a function of composition, temperature and oxygen over-stoichiometry. The monoclinic structure (space group F2/m) of ambient temperature Pr-rich compositions for 1...
December 5, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yingjie Li, Bolong Huang, Yingjun Sun, Mingchuan Luo, Yong Yang, Yingnan Qin, Lei Wang, Chunji Li, Fan Lv, Weiyu Zhang, Shaojun Guo
The development of cost-efficient, active, and stable electrode materials as bifunctional catalysts for electrochemical water splitting is crucial to high-performance renewable energy storage and conversion devices. In this work, the synthesis of Co-based multi-metal borides nanochains with amorphous structure is reported for boosting the oxygen evolution (OER) and hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) by one-pot NaBH4 reduction of Co2+ , Ni2+ , and Fe2+ under ambient temperature. In all the investigated Co-based metal borides, NiCoFeB nanochains show the excellent OER performance with a low overpotential of 284 mV at 10 mA cm-2 and Tafel slope of 46 mV dec-1 , respectively, together with excellent catalytic stability, and robust HER performance with an overpotential of 345 mV at 10 mA cm-2 ...
December 5, 2018: Small
Stéphanie Bessette, Andrea Paolella, Chisu Kim, Wen Zhu, Pierre Hovington, Raynald Gauvin, Karim Zaghib
Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) using a focused ion-beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) is a promising and economical technique for lithium detection and quantification in battery materials because it overcomes the limitations with detecting low Li content by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In this work, an experimental calibration curve was produced, which to our best knowledge allowed for the first time, the quantification of lithium in standard nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC-532) cathodes using 20 nm resolution...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jan Binder, Sean P Culver, Ricardo Pinedo, Dominik A Weber, Markus Friedrich, Katharina Gries, Kerstin Volz, Wolfgang G Zeier, Jürgen Janek
Advanced lithium-ion batteries are of great interest for consumer electronics and electric vehicle applications, however they still suffer from drawbacks stemming from cathode active material limitations (e.g. insufficient capacities and capacity fading). One approach for alleviating such limitations and stabilizing the active material structure may be anion doping. In this work, fluorine and nitrogen are investigated as potential dopants in Li1.02 (Ni0.8 Co0.1 Mn0.1 )0.98 O2 (NCM-811) as a prototypical nickel-rich cathode active material...
December 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qinghua Liang, Yun Zheng, Chengfeng Du, Yubo Luo, Jin Zhao, Hao Ren, Jianwei Xu, Qingyu Yan
The emerging sodium ion batteries (SIBs) are believed to be prospective substitutes of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for the wide distribution of sodium resources. However, to compensate for the sluggish reaction kinetics and higher intrinsic potential of Na+ than Li+, cost-effective, reliable, and sustainable electrode materials are required to be urgently explored for practical applications. Herein, 2D ternary tin thiophosphate (SnP2S6) nanosheets (~10 nm thickness) grown on graphene (denoted as SPS/G hybrid) are demonstrated as intriguing anodes for SIBs...
December 3, 2018: ACS Nano
Hang Dong, Guobiao Liu, Shaomin Li, Sixu Deng, Yanhua Cui, Heng Liu, Hao Liu, Xueliang Sun
Recently, LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 has drawn much attention due to its high energy density. Here 3D-porous LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 and one with residual carbon have been synthesized using a resorcinol-formaldehyde assisted sol-gel approach. SEM images verify that the synthesized LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 possesses a 3D-porous morphology. XPS analysis and TEM-mapping images indicate the existence of residual carbon in the secondary particle of 3D-porous LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2. Furthermore, 3D-porous LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 with residual carbon exhibits outstanding electrochemical properties...
December 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhiqian Wang, Xianyang Meng, Kun Chen, Somenath Mitra
The development of printable composite electrodes embedded with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for flexible nickel-zinc batteries is presented. The cathode and the anode comprised of Ni(OH)2 -CNT and ZnO-CNT respectively are prepared by coprecipitation of the metal oxides on CNTs. High loading ratio of electroactive materials increases the amount of active materials in electrode, but causes a lower material utilization efficiency due to decrease in overall electrode conductivity. The direct loading of active materials onto CNTs enhances contact where the CNTs serve the pathways for electron transport leading to higher performance than physical mixing of active ingredients...
February 22, 2018: Advanced Materials Interfaces
Zhenyou Li, Xiaoke Mu, Zhirong Zhao-Karger, Thomas Diemant, R Jürgen Behm, Christian Kübel, Maximilian Fichtner
Rechargeable magnesium batteries are one of the most promising candidates for next-generation battery technologies. Despite recent significant progress in the development of efficient electrolytes, an on-going challenge for realization of rechargeable magnesium batteries remains to overcome the sluggish kinetics caused by the strong interaction between double charged magnesium-ions and the intercalation host. Herein, we report that a magnesium battery chemistry with fast intercalation kinetics in the layered molybdenum disulfide structures can be enabled by using solvated magnesium-ions ([Mg(DME)x ]2+ )...
November 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Hui Xia, Xiaohui Zhu, Jizi Liu, Qi Liu, Si Lan, Qinghua Zhang, Xinyu Liu, Joon Kyo Seo, Tingting Chen, Lin Gu, Ying Shirley Meng
Sodium transition metal oxides with layered structures are attractive cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries due to their large theoretical specific capacities. However, these layered oxides suffer from poor cyclability and low rate performance because of structural instability and sluggish electrode kinetics. In the present work, we show the sodiation reaction of Mn3 O4 to yield crystal water free NaMnO2-y-δ (OH)2y , a monoclinic polymorph of sodium birnessite bearing Na/Mn(OH)8 hexahedra and Na/MnO6 octahedra...
November 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Parakandy Muzhikara Pratheeksha, Jayabalan Sri Rajeshwari, Paul Joseph Daniel, Tata Narasinga Rao, Srinivasan Anandan
In the present study, we have developed a simple and cost-effective approach for the synthesis of carbon coated LiFePO₄ wherein different carbon precursors were used to find out the suitable precursor for carbon coating. Initially, the appropriate amount of Li, Fe, and P precursors and carbon source (glucose/sucrose/fructose) were dissolved in ethanol solution followed by hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C to obtain carbon coated LiFePO₄. The structure and morphological analysis of In-Situ carbon coated LiFePO₄ revealed the formation of thin and homogeneous carbon layer on crystalline single-phase LiFePO₄ particles with fructose used as carbon precursor...
May 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Ilbok Lee, Jaekwang Kim, Kee Bum Hwang, Hyosung Kim, Joong Ho Bae, Nayeong Kim, Songhun Yoon
Herein, Ni0.8 Co0.15 Al0.05 (OH)₂ materials, a by-product in the preparation of the precursor of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, were employed as supercapacitor electrodes. The reaction time was changed from 2 to 48 h to produce hydroxide products, which were analyzed using physical and electrochemical methods. The hydroxide material reacted for 2 h exhibited a good average particle strength of 34.3 MPa with a particle size of 7 μ m. When used as a supercapacitor electrode, the 2 h-reacted hydroxide electrode presented a high capacitance of 244...
May 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Martin Winter, Brian Barnett, Kang Xu
This Review covers a sequence of key discoveries and technical achievements that eventually led to the birth of the lithium-ion battery. In doing so, it not only sheds light on the history with the advantage of contemporary hindsight but also provides insight and inspiration to aid in the ongoing quest for better batteries of the future. A detailed retrospective on ingenious designs, accidental discoveries, intentional breakthroughs, and deceiving misconceptions is given: from the discovery of the element lithium to its electrochemical synthesis; from intercalation host material development to the concept of dual-intercalation electrodes; and from the misunderstanding of intercalation behavior into graphite to the comprehension of interphases...
November 30, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Martin Eckert, Willi Peters, Jean-Francois Drillet
This work reports on the synthesis of layered manganese oxides (δ-MnO₂) and their possible application as cathode intercalation materials in Al-ion and Zn-ion batteries. By using a one-pot microwave-assisted synthesis route in 1.6 M KOH (MnVII :MnII = 0.33), a pure layered δ-MnO₂ birnessite phase without any hausmannite traces was obtained after only a 14 h reaction time period at 110 °C. Attempts to enhance crystallinity level of as-prepared birnessite through increasing of reaction time up to 96 h in 1...
November 28, 2018: Materials
You Zhou, Ming Zhao, Zhi Wen Chen, Xiang Mei Shi, Qing Jiang
Sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) and potassium-ion batteries (KIBs) have attracted increasing attention due to the high cost and finite abundance of lithium. Here, by using first-principles calculations, monolayer β-GeSe has been found to be a promising anode material with a capacity of 353.65 mA h g-1 for both NIBs and KIBs. Additionally, the diffusions of Na and K over the monolayer β-GeSe are ultrafast with small energy barriers of 0.080/0.125 eV and 0.052/0.047 eV for the Ge/Se side, respectively, indicating excellent rate performance...
November 28, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Félix Urbain, PengYi Tang, Nina M Carretero, Teresa Andreu, Jordi Arbiol, Joan R Morante
The present study outlines the important steps to bring electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) closer to commercial viability by using a large-scale metallic foam electrode as highly conductive catalyst scaffold. Due to its versatility, it was possible to specifically tailor three-dimensional copper foam through coating with silver dendrite catalysts by electrodeposition. The requirements of high yield CO2 conversion to carbon monoxide (CO) were met by tuning the deposition parameters towards a homogeneous coverage of the copper foam with nanosized dendrites, which additionally featured crystallographic surface orientations favoring CO production...
November 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Feng Wu, Qing Li, Lai Chen, Yun Lu, Yuefeng Su, Liying Bao, Renjie Chen, Shi Chen
Nickel-rich cathode material is one of the most promising cathode materials for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. However, the structure stability, thermodynamic stability, cycle and rate performances of Ni-rich materials still need to be further improved. In this research, rare earth element Ce is employed to reinforce the interface of Ni-rich cathode material both internally and externally. It has been determined that high valence state Ce4+ can easily cause the oxidization of Ni2+ to Ni3+ when being doped into the material due to its strong oxidation performance, thus reducing Li+/Ni2+ mixing degree...
November 27, 2018: ChemSusChem
Xiaodong Hong, Jun Mei, Lei Wen, Yueyu Tong, Anthony J Vasileff, Liqun Wang, Ji Liang, Ziqi Sun, Shi Xue Dou
Present mobile devices, transportation tools, and renewable energy technologies are more dependent on newly developed battery chemistries than ever before. Intrinsic properties, such as safety, high energy density, and cheapness, are the main objectives of rechargeable batteries that have driven their overall technological progress over the past several decades. Unfortunately, it is extremely hard to achieve all these merits simultaneously at present. Alternatively, exploration of the most suitable batteries to meet the specific requirements of an individual application tends to be a more reasonable and easier choice now and in the near future...
November 27, 2018: Advanced Materials
Shiqiang Luo, Weiwei Sun, Jianhuang Ke, Yiqi Wang, Shuangke Liu, Xiaobin Hong, Yujie Li, Yufang Chen, Wei Xie, Chunman Zheng
Constructing an interlinked three-dimensional conductive carbon structure as a sulfur host is considered to be an effective strategy for suppressing the capacity decay over long-term cycling and improving the rate performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, because it can not only facilitate rapid electronic and ionic transportation in the cathode, but also be conducive to confine lithium polysulfide (LiPS) dissolution and shuttling. In this report, we designed a novel 3D conductive network structure (CNTs/Co-NC), which is composed of Co-NC (cobalt embedded in an N-doped porous carbon composite) derived from ZIF-67 polyhedra and inserted carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and applied it as a sulfur host for Li-S batteries...
November 27, 2018: Nanoscale
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