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Marcelo de Andrade Barbosa, Rener Luciano de Sousa Ferraz, Edson Luiz Mendes Coutinho, André Mendes Coutinho Neto, Marcio Silveira da Silva, Carolina Fernandes, Everlon Cid Rigobelo
Soil management systems, as well as the long-term application of nitrogen fertilization, might promote changes in soil quality (SQ). The knowledge of how agronomic practices influence SQ is the main factor in the development of most sustainable management systems. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of long-term management systems on SQ through the analysis of 10 soil quality indicators (SQIs), to select the most sensitive SQIs through principal components analysis (PCA) and to propose a mathematical model that could estimate the activities of enzymes based on SQI values with simple and low-cost procedures in relation to enzyme measurement...
December 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Stéphanie Bessette, Andrea Paolella, Chisu Kim, Wen Zhu, Pierre Hovington, Raynald Gauvin, Karim Zaghib
Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) using a focused ion-beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) is a promising and economical technique for lithium detection and quantification in battery materials because it overcomes the limitations with detecting low Li content by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In this work, an experimental calibration curve was produced, which to our best knowledge allowed for the first time, the quantification of lithium in standard nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC-532) cathodes using 20 nm resolution...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
He Zhu, Chao Yang, Qiang Li, Yang Ren, Joerg C Neuefeind, Lin Gu, Huibiao Liu, Longlong Fan, Jun Chen, Jinxia Deng, Na Wang, Jiawang Hong, Xianran Xing
Ceria has conventionally been thought to have a cubic fluorite structure with stable geometric and electronic properties over a wide temperature range. Here we report a reversible tetragonal (P42 /nmc) to cubic (Fm-3m) phase transition in nanosized ceria, which triggers negative thermal expansion in the temperature range of -25 °C-75 °C. Local structure investigations using neutron pair distribution function and Raman scatterings reveal that the tetragonal phase involves a continuous displacement of O2- anions along the fourfold axis, while the first-principles calculations clearly show oxygen vacancies play a pivotal role in stabilizing the tetragonal ceria...
November 29, 2018: Nature Communications
Michael Rivera, Bao Ha, Leili Zamini, Sonja Gamby, Demar Pitter, Clare N Muhoro
We report on the rates of decomposition of a group of N-methylcarbamate (NMC) pesticides (carbaryl, carbofuran and propoxur) under pre-determined tropical field conditions. Rates of decomposition for three NMCs were determined at pH 7.08 and T = 20 °C and pH 7.70 and T = 33 °C respectively, as follows: carbaryl (78 days and 69 days); carbofuran (143 days and 83 days) and propoxur (116 days and 79 days). Investigation on methods for removal of NMCs and their phenolic decomposition products shows that activated charcoal outperforms zeolite, alumina, diatomaceous earth, cellulose and montmorillonite clay in the removal of both NMCs and phenols from aqueous solution...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Alan Glasper
Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses the recently published set of educational standards for the training of nursing associates in England.
November 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Wei Lu, Xiaoli Cui, Xinxin Xu, Jin Chen, Qiang Wang
H2 is confirmed as a perfect substitute for traditional fossil energy, which can be obtained through hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) after electrocatalytic H2 O decomposition. High-performance electrocatalysts play a significant role in HER. Here, with coordination complex-modified Standberg-type polyoxometalate and peach juice as precursors, MoP-based electrocatalysts with N-doped mesoporous carbon as a matrix (MoP@NMC) were obtained. Remarkably, during synthesis, the extremely poisonous PH3 and highly explosive H2 were avoided...
November 30, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Robin Niklaus, Lukas Neudert, Juliane Stahl, Peter J Schmidt, Wolfgang Schnick
We report on the structure and properties of the lithium oxonitridosilicate oxide Li4 Sr4 [Si4 O4 N6 ]O:Eu2+ obtained from solid-state metathesis. The crystal structure was solved and refined from single-crystal X-ray data in the space group P42 / nmc (No. 137) [ Z = 2, a = 7.4833(6), c = 9.8365(9) Å, and R1(obs) = 0.0477]. The structure of Li4 Sr4 [Si4 O4 N6 ]O:Eu2+ is built up from a layered 2D network of SiN3 O tetrahedra and exhibits stacking disorder. The results are supported by transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as well as lattice energy, charge distribution, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations...
November 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Xichuan Liu, Rui Mi, Lei Yuan, Fan Yang, Zhibing Fu, Chaoyang Wang, Yongjian Tang
Recently, "Water-in-salt" electrolyte has been reported to extend the working voltage of aqueous supercapacitor. However, this electrolyte needs the electrode materials possess some good features such as proper pore structure, high electron and ion conductivity. Herein, we fabricated the nitrogen-doped multi-scale porous carbon (NMC) by the simple enriching melamine-resorcinol-formaldehyde xerogels method with integrating triblock copolymer for micro-pores formation. All the results confirmed that our NMC is provided with a very high specific surface area (3,170 m2 g-1 ) and its monoliths are composed of multi-scale porous structure...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Hirofumi Tsukasaki, Wataru Fukuda, Hideyuki Morimoto, Toshihiro Arai, Shigeo Mori, Akitoshi Hayashi, Masahiro Tatsumisago
Lithium-ion batteries are widely used as a power source for portable equipment. However, the use of highly flammable organic solvents in the liquid electrolyte component in these batteries presents a serious safety concern. In this study, the thermal stability of battery cathodes comprising LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) and LiPF6 -based electrolyte solutions have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods. Ex situ TEM measurements revealed that significant structural change occurred in the charged NMC composite after heating at a temperature above the exothermal peaks...
October 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joseph W Bennett, Diamond T Jones, Robert J Hamers, Sara E Mason
Compositional tuning of nanoscale complex metal oxides (CMOs) can lead to enhanced performance and favorable properties for a variety of energy-related applications. However, investigations of the nanoscale CMOs used in energy storage technologies demonstrate that these nanomaterials may have an adverse biological impact, highlighting a fundamental knowledge gap between nanomaterial design and the structure and properties at the end of life. CMO nanomaterials can enter the environment due to improper disposal, where they undergo subsequent (as of yet poorly understood) nanoscale transformations that may affect biological response and, ultimately, environmental fate...
November 5, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Catherine H Bozio, Jeni Vuong, E Kainne Dokubo, Mosoka P Fallah, Lucy A McNamara, Caelin C Potts, John Doedeh, Miatta Gbanya, Adam C Retchless, Jaymin C Patel, Thomas A Clark, Henry Kohar, Thomas Nagbe, Peter Clement, Victoria Katawera, Nuha Mahmoud, Harouna M Djingarey, Anne Perrocheau, Dhamari Naidoo, Mardia Stone, Roseline N George, Desmond Williams, Alex Gasasira, Tolbert Nyenswah, Xin Wang, LeAnne M Fox
BACKGROUND: On April 25, 2017, a cluster of unexplained illnesses and deaths associated with a funeral was reported in Sinoe County, Liberia. Molecular testing identified Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) in specimens from patients. We describe the epidemiological investigation of this cluster and metagenomic characterisation of the outbreak strain. METHODS: We collected epidemiological data from the field investigation and medical records review. Confirmed, probable, and suspected cases were defined on the basis of molecular testing and signs or symptoms of meningococcal disease...
October 15, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Yaqin Wang, Xinxin Xu, Luyao Liu, Jin Chen, Guimei Shi
Zn-air batteries, promising energy storage equipment with high energy density, light weight and a compact structure, are a perfect power source for electric vehicles. For a Zn-air battery, the activity of the air cathode electrocatalyst plays an important role in its performance. Here, employing a coordination polymer as a precursor, a composite material built from Co3O4 and Co-N active centres with nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon as a matrix has been synthesized successfully. This composite material possesses outstanding activity and stability in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) processes...
October 18, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Georg Griesinger, Christophe Blockeel, Gennady T Sukhikh, Ameet Patki, Bharati Dhorepatil, Dong-Zi Yang, Zi-Jiang Chen, Elke Kahler, Claire Pexman-Fieth, Herman Tournaye
STUDY QUESTION: Is oral dydrogesterone 30 mg daily non-inferior to 8% micronized vaginal progesterone (MVP) gel 90 mg daily for luteal phase support in IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oral dydrogesterone demonstrated non-inferiority to MVP gel for the presence of fetal heartbeats at 12 weeks of gestation (non-inferiority margin 10%). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The standard of care for luteal phase support in IVF is the use of MVP; however, it is associated with vaginal irritation, discharge and poor patient compliance...
December 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
Sachiko Kanaji, Jennifer N Orje, Taisuke Kanaji, Yuichi Kamikubo, Yosuke Morodomi, Yunfeng Chen, Alessandro Zarpellon, Jerome Eberhardt, Stefano Forli, Scot A Fahs, Rashmi Sood, Sandra L Haberichter, Robert R Montgomery, Zaverio M Ruggeri
The interaction of platelet glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) with von Willebrand factor (VWF) initiates hemostasis after vascular injury and also contributes to pathological thrombosis. GPIbα binding to the VWF A1 domain (VWFA1) is a target for antithrombotic intervention, but attempts to develop pharmacologic inhibitors have been hindered by the lack of animal models because of the species specificity of the interaction. To address this problem, we generated a knockin mouse with Vwf exon 28-encoding domains A1 and A2 replaced by the human homolog (VWFh28 )...
October 9, 2018: Blood Advances
Jacqueline Leigh, Debbie Roberts
Following its consultation with key stakeholder groups the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) has launched Future nurse: standards of proficiency for registered nurses ( NMC, 2018a ). These compulsory new standards will be available for use in curricula by approved education institutions (AEIs) from the end of January 2019. In this article, the authors provide their personal perspectives on the potential impact of the new standards, particularly focusing on those relating to supporting and assessing students from within the practice environment...
October 4, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Liang Yin, Gerard S Mattei, Zhou Li, Jianming Zheng, Wengao Zhao, Fredrick Omenya, Chengcheng Fang, Wangda Li, Jianyu Li, Qiang Xie, Ji-Guang Zhang, M Stanley Whittingham, Ying Shirley Meng, Arumugam Manthiram, Peter G Khalifah
Although the determination of site occupancies is often a major goal in Rietveld refinement studies, the accurate refinement of site occupancies is exceptionally challenging due to many correlations and systematic errors that have a hidden impact on the final refined occupancy parameters. Through the comparison of results independently obtained from neutron and synchrotron powder diffraction, improved approaches capable of detecting occupancy defects with an exceptional sensitivity of 0.1% (absolute) in the class of layered NMC (Li[Nix Mny Coz ]O2 ) Li-ion battery cathode materials have been developed...
September 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Andrew Clifton, Jo Higman, John Stephenson, Alfonso R Navarro, Nikki Welyczko
The UK nursing workforce is facing a crisis. More nurses are leaving than entering the profession, and there are tens of thousands of unfilled vacancies. Political factors are having a significant impact on numbers, in particular the decision to withdraw bursaries for nursing undergraduates, and a steep decline in EU nurses registering to work in the UK post-Brexit. Against this backdrop, there is a stark gender imbalance in the workforce, with only around 11% of registered nurses being male. We surveyed UK higher education institutions to try to identify whether the gendered nature of nursing was considered a concern and whether steps were being taken to address it...
September 19, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Hamid R Sohrabi, Michael Weinborn, Christoph Laske, Kristyn A Bates, Daniel Christensen, Kevin Taddei, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Belinda M Brown, Samantha L Gardener, Simon M Laws, Georgia Martins, Samantha C Burnham, Romola S Bucks, Barry Reisberg, Nicola T Lautenschlager, Jonathan Foster, Ralph N Martins
ABSTRACTBackground:This study investigated the characteristics of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and their association with current and future cognitive functions. METHODS: A cohort of 209 community-dwelling individuals without dementia aged 47-90 years old was recruited for this 3-year study. Participants underwent neuropsychological and clinical assessments annually. Participants were divided into SMCs and non-memory complainers (NMCs) using a single question at baseline and a memory complaints questionnaire following baseline, to evaluate differential patterns of complaints...
October 2, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Mirco Ruttert, Florian Holtstiege, Jessica Hüsker, Markus Börner, Martin Winter, Tobias Placke
In this work, silicon/carbon composites are synthesized by forming an amorphous carbon matrix around silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs) in a hydrothermal process. The intention of this material design is to combine the beneficial properties of carbon and Si, i.e., an improved specific/volumetric capacity and capacity retention compared to the single materials when applied as a negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). This work focuses on the influence of the Si content (up to 20 wt %) on the electrochemical performance, on the morphology and structure of the composite materials, as well as the resilience of the hydrothermal carbon against the volumetric changes of Si, in order to examine the opportunities and limitations of the applied matrix approach...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Brenda A Kwambana-Adams, Rahab C Amaza, Catherine Okoi, Murtala Rabiu, Archibald Worwui, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Bernard Ebruke, Abdul K Sesay, Madikay Senghore, Abdullahi S Umar, Rabi Usman, Adamu Atiku, Garba Abdullahi, Yahaya Buhari, Rabiu Sani, Husaini U Bako, Bashir Abdullahi, Alliyu I Yarima, Badaru Sikiru, Aderinola Olaolu Moses, Michael O Popoola, Eme Ekeng, Adebola Olayinka, Nwando Mba, Adamu Kankia, Ibrahim N Mamadu, Ifeanyi Okudo, Mary Stephen, Olivier Ronveaux, Jason Busuttil, Jason M Mwenda, Mohammed Abdulaziz, Sulaiman A Gummi, Adebayo Adedeji, Andre Bita, Linda Omar, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Wondimagegnehu Alemu, Umberto D'Alessandro, Chikwe Ihekweazu, Martin Antonio
After the successful roll out of MenAfriVac, Nigeria has experienced sequential meningitis outbreaks attributed to meningococcus serogroup C (NmC). Zamfara State in North-western Nigeria recently was at the epicentre of the largest NmC outbreak in the 21st Century with 7,140 suspected meningitis cases and 553 deaths reported between December 2016 and May 2017. The overall attack rate was 155 per 100,000 population and children 5-14 years accounted for 47% (3,369/7,140) of suspected cases. The case fatality rate (CFR) among children 5-9 years was 10%, double that reported among adults ≥ 30 years (5%)...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
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