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Francesco Carulli, Guido Scavia, Elisa Lassi, Mariacecilia Pasini, Francesco Galeotti, Sergio Brovelli, Umberto Giovanella, Silvia Luzzati
In this work a novel combination of side chain functionalities, alkyl-phosphonate (EP) and alkyl-ammonium bromide (NBr) groups, on a polyfluorene backbone (PF-NBr-EP) was studied as cathode interfacial material (CIM) in polymer-based solar cells. The devices were made with a conventional geometry, with PTB7:PC71 BM as active layer and aluminum as metal electrode. The CIM showed good solubility in ethanol and film forming ability onto the active layer so that its deposition could be finely tuned. The interface engineering imparted by this CIM was assessed and discussed through kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), impedance spectroscopy, charge recombination and electron transport characterizations...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Dongqing Wu, Fan Jing, Xin Xi, Lie Ma, Deng Lu, Peng Yang, Ruili Liu
An acid-pasting approach is developed in this work to fabricate the composite of perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) and carbon black in concentrated sulfuric acid. Different from traditional mechanical mixing, the solution-based fabrication strategy enables the sufficient blending of PTCDI as active component and carbon black as conductive agent in the PTCDI/CB composite. Serving as the cathode material, the PTCDI/CB composite shows excellent electrochemical performances in both lithium ion battery (137 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and 110 mAh g-1 at 2000 mA g-1 ) and sodium ion battery (134 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and 99 mAh g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 ), which are comparable to the state-of-art organic/inorganic cathode materials...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Olivia Dennison, Jie Gao, Lee Wei Lim, Charlotte J Stagg, Luca Aquili
BACKGROUND: Dopaminergic activity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been implicated in the control of cognitive flexibility. Much of the evidence for a causative relationship between cognitive flexibility and dopamine has come from animal studies, whilst human data have largely been correlational. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The current study examines whether changes in dopamine levels through tyrosine administration and suppression of dlPFC activity via cathodal tDCS could be causally related to cognitive flexibility as measured by task switching and reversal learning...
December 7, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Xiao Li, Cuiping Zeng, Yaobin Lu, Guangli Liu, Haiping Luo, Renduo Zhang
The aim of this study was to investigate the development of cathodic biofilm and its effect on methane production in a single-chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The MEC with 1 g/L acetate was successfully operated within 31 cycles (∼2400 h). The maximum methane production rate and average current capture efficiency in the MEC reached 93 L/m3 ·d and 82%, respectively. Distinct stratification of Methanobacteriaceae within cathodic biofilm was observed after 9 cycles of operation. The relative abundance of Methanobacteriaceae in the microbial community increased from 45...
December 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Oliver Bärenbold, Amadou Garba, Daniel G Colley, Fiona M Fleming, Ayat A Haggag, Reda M R Ramzy, Rufin K Assaré, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Jean B Mbonigaba, Victor Bucumi, Biruck Kebede, Makoy S Yibi, Aboulaye Meité, Jean T Coulibaly, Eliézer K N'Goran, Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté, Pauline Mwinzi, Jürg Utzinger, Penelope Vounatsou
BACKGROUND: Intervention guidelines against Schistosoma mansoni are based on the Kato-Katz technique. However, Kato-Katz thick smears show low sensitivity, especially for light-intensity infections. The point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) is a promising rapid diagnostic test detecting antigen output of living worms in urine and results are reported as trace, 1+, 2+, and 3+. The use of POC-CCA for schistosomiasis mapping, control, and surveillance requires translation of the Kato-Katz prevalence thresholds into POC-CCA relative treatment cut-offs...
December 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Radwa Galal Diab, Rasha Fadly Mady, Mona Meshaal Tolba, Rasha Abdel Mawla Ghazala
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate three non- invasive assays for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni in an Egyptian village. METHODS: Urine was collected for the detection of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and cell free parasite DNA (cfpd) by Point-of-contact (POC)-cassette assay and PCR respectively. These tests were compared to Kato Katz (KK) fecal thick smear for detection of Schistosoma mansoni eggs. RESULTS: Disease prevalence by POC-CCA assay was 86%; by PCR it was was 39% versus 27% by KK...
December 14, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
P T Hoekstra, M Casacuberta Partal, A S Amoah, L van Lieshout, P L A M Corstjens, S Tsonaka, R K Assaré, K D Silué, A Meité, E K N'Goran, Y K N'Gbesso, M Roestenberg, S Knopp, J Utzinger, J T Coulibaly, G J van Dam
BACKGROUND: Large scale administration of the anthelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to at-risk populations is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control, although persisting high prevalence of infections in some areas and growing concerns of PZQ resistance have revealed the limitations of this strategy. Most studies assessing PZQ efficacy have used relatively insensitive parasitological diagnostics, such as the Kato-Katz (KK) and urine-filtration methods, thereby overestimating cure rates (CRs)...
December 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Soroush Almassi, Zhao Li, Wenqing Xu, Changcheng Pu, Teng Zeng, Brian P Chaplin
This study focused on synthesis and characterization of Ti4O7 reactive electrochemical membranes (REMs) amended with powder activated carbon (PAC) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). These composite REMs were evaluated for simultaneous adsorption and electrochemical reduction of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). The carbon-Ti4O7 composite REMs had high electrical conductivities (1832 to 2991 S m-1), where carbon and Ti4O7 were in direct electrical contact. Addition of carbonaceous materials increased the residence times of NDMA in the REMs by a factor of 3...
December 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Wei Zhou, Xiaoxiao Meng, Ljiljana Rajic, Yunfei Xue, Shuai Chen, Yani Ding, Kaikai Kou, Yan Wang, Jihui Gao, Yukun Qin, Akram N Alshawabkeh
The performance of the Electro-Fenton (EF) process for contaminant degradation depends on the rate of H2 O2 production at the cathode via 2-electron dissolved O2 reduction. However, the low solubility of O2 (≈1×10-3 mol dm-3 ) limits H2 O2 production. Herein, a novel and practical strategy that enables the synergistic utilization of O2 from the bulk electrolyte and ambient air for efficient H2 O2 production is proposed. Compared with a conventional "submerged" cathode, the H2 O2 concentration obtained using the "floating" cathode is 4...
November 2018: Electrochemistry Communications
Jung Hyun Kim, Jung Su Kang, Kyu Chang Park
We fabricated carbon nanotube (CNT) cold cathode emitters with enhanced and stable electron emission properties and long-time stability with electrical aging as a post-treatment. Our CNT field emitters showed improved electrical properties by electrical aging. We set the applied bias for effective electrical aging, with the bias voltage defined at the voltage where Joule heating appeared. At the initial stage of aging, the electron emission current started to increase and then was saturated within 3 h. We understood that 5 h aging time was enough at proper aging bias...
December 7, 2018: Micromachines
Bochuan Tan, Shengtao Zhang, Hongyan Liu, Yuwan Guo, Yujie Qiang, Wenpo Li, Lei Guo, Chunliu Xu, Shijin Chen
Food flavors of 2-isobutylthiazole (ITT) and 1-(1,3-Thiazol-2-yl)ethanone (TEO) for the corrosion inhibition of X65 steel in H2 SO4 were studied by electrochemical methods, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and theoretical calculations. Electrochemical experiments show that ITT and TEO can effectively inhibit the corrosion of cathode and anode of X65 steel, and they are mixed-type corrosion inhibitors. Surface topography analysis (SEM and AFM) also visually demonstrate that ITT and TEO form an effective barrier film on the X65 steel surface to isolate the corrosive medium...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yong-Por Ong, Li-Ngee Ho, Soon-An Ong, Johar Banjuraizah, Abdul Haqi Ibrahim, Sin-Li Lee, Noradiba Nordin
Photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) is considered as a sustainable green technology which could degrade organic pollutant and generate electricity simultaneously. A synergistic double-sided ZnO/BaTiO3 loaded carbon plate heterojunction photoanode was fabricated in different ratios by using simple ultrasonication and mixed-annealed method. The double-sided design of photoanode allowed the lights irradiated at both sides of the photoanode. The ferroelectricity fabricated photoanode was applied in a membraneless PFC with platinum-loaded carbon as the cathode...
December 4, 2018: Chemosphere
Mengqi Zhu, Songmei Li, Bin Li, Shubin Yang
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been regarded as a promising candidate for energy storage owing to their ultrahigh theoretical capacity and low cost. However, the commercial application of Li-S batteries has been plagued by the huge volume change of sulfur, the insulative nature of solid active materials (S and Li2S) and the polysulfide shuttle. Here, a uniform sulfur-gallium core-shell structure (S@Ga) with an ultrathin liquid gallium shell was prepared by harnessing the reaction between sulfur and gallium via a facile mixing process...
December 13, 2018: Nanoscale
Yue Wang, He Zhao, Yeming Mei, Hongli Liu, Shirong Wang, Xianggao Li
The incredible stability of carbon-based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) has aroused enormous concern. However, for the paintable C-PSCs, the fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) remain low, which is because the insufficient contact at the interface between the perovskite and the electrode and the low conductivity of the electrode. In this work, a carbon nanotube (CNT) bridging method is introduced into the devices by adding single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in both perovskite and carbon layers to form a high-quality perovskite/carbon interface...
December 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yue Yang, Sen Qiao, Ruofei Jin, Jiti Zhou, Xie Quan
A novel anaerobic treatment system that combines the impact of applied voltage with membrane filtration over carbon nanotubes hollow fiber membranes (CNTs-HFMs) was developed at low-temperature (15-20 °C) to mitigate membrane fouling, treat wastewater and recover energy (CH4). Herein, electro-assisted CNTs-HFMs served a dual function as the cathode and membrane filtration. In contrast with other two anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs; polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber membranes and CNTs-HFMs without electro-assistance), the CNTs-HFMs with electro-assistance (-1...
December 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Rongbin Dang, Minmin Chen, Qi Li, Kang Wu, Yu Lin Lee, Zhongbo Hu, Xiaoling Xiao
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have shown great superiority for grid-scale storage applications due to the low cost, and the abundance of sodium. P2-type Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 cathode materials have attracted much attention for their high capacities and operating voltages as well as their simple synthesis processes. However, Na+/vacancy ordering and the P2-O2 phase transition are unavoidable during Na+ insertion/extraction, leading to undesired voltage plateaus and deficient battery performances. We show that this defect can be effectually eliminated by coating a moderate Na+ conductor-Na2Ti3O7-with a smart in situ coating approach...
December 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cody O'Meara, Iuliia A Polozhentceva, Mikhail P Karushev, Sajith Dharmasena, Hanna Cho, Benjamin J Yurkovich, Sam Kogan, Jung-Hyun Kim
Systematic physical and electrochemical characterizations revealed unique positive multifunction of a polymeric salen-type nickel(II) complex, poly[Ni(CH3 -Salen)], as an additive for conventional cathodes in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Due to its promising electrochemical and mechanical properties, combined with its unique three-dimensional (3D) web-like electron-network structure, the redox-active-organometallic polymer can eliminate conductive carbon and replace significant portion of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) binder that have been used in conventional LiFePO4 cathodes...
December 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marwa Aa Ragab, Mohamed A Korany, Shereen M Galal, Aya R Ahmed
AIM: Differential pulse polarography was used for the concurrent analysis of the coadministered dantrolene (DAN) and indomethacin (IND) in plasma. MATERIALS & METHODS: DAN and IND, Hanging mercury drop electrode and Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 5 were used. In plasma, cathodic reduction of DAN nitro group and its active metabolite at -0.2 V was done. IND was analyzed after carbonyl group reduction at -1.1 V. RESULTS: Drugs determination in rat plasma with good recoveries and low limit of quantitation was done...
December 12, 2018: Bioanalysis
Matteo Bianchini, Maria Roca-Ayats, Pascal Hartmann, Torsten Brezesinski, Jürgen Janek
LiNiO₂ (LNO) has been introduced as cathode active material (CAM) for Li-ion batteries in 1990. After years of intensive research, it emerged that several instability issues plague the material, so that it was abandoned in favor of isostructural metal-substituted compounds called NCA (for lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide) and NCM (lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide). These sacrifice a certain amount of specific energy in exchange for stability, durability and safety. With few exceptions, NCA and NCM are nowadays the industrial standard when it comes to automotive applications; however, the continuous push towards electric cars with longer driving range is synonym, for these compounds, with increasing the nickel content (which is already beyond 80%), eventually leading back again to LiNiO₂...
December 10, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Binwei Zhang, Tian Sheng, Yunxiao Wang, Shulei Chou, Kenneth Davey, Shi-Xue Dou, Shizhang Qiao
Room-temperature sodium-sulfur (RT-Na/S) batteries hold significant promise for large-scale application because of low cost of both sodium and sulfur. However, the dissolution of polysulfides into the electrolyte limits practical application. Here, we report the design and testing of a new class of sulfur hosts as transition metal (Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanoclusters (~ 1.2 nm) wreathed on hollow carbon nanospheres (S@M-HC) for RT-Na/S batteries. A chemical couple between the metal nanoclusters and sulfur is hypothesized to assist in immobilization of sulfur and to enhance conductivity and activity...
December 9, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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