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Intravascular Imaging

Ayodeji Dina, Peter Barlis, William van Gaal
Chest pain and troponin elevation may be due to an acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis, acute cardiomyopathy, or other less common conditions. Management differs depending on the aetiology, and the pathophysiologic diagnosis has direct implications on treatment and patient outcomes. History and clinical examination is supplemented by selected investigations including the electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and even myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging...
2018: Case Reports in Cardiology
Debarghya China, Alfredo Illanes, Prabal Poudel, Michael Friebe, Pabitra Mitra, Debdoot Sheet
Ultrasound (US) is a widely used as a low-cost alternative to computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MRI) and primarily for preliminary imaging. Since speckle intensity in US images is inherently stochastic, readers are often challenged in their ability to identify the pathological regions in a volume of a large number of images. This paper introduces a generalized approach for volumetric segmentation of structures in US images and volumes. We employ an iterative random walks (IRW) solver, random forest (RF) learning model, and a gradient vector flow (GVF) based inter-frame belief propagation technique for achieving cross-frame volumetric segmentation...
August 15, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Sunish J Mathews, Callum Little, Christopher D Loder, Roby D Rakhit, Wenfeng Xia, Edward Z Zhang, Paul C Beard, Malcolm C Finlay, Adrien E Desjardins
Intravascular imaging in percutaneous coronary interventions can be an invaluable tool in the treatment of coronary artery disease. It is of significant interest to provide molecular imaging contrast that is complementary to structural contrast provided by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS). In this study, we developed a dual-modality intravascular imaging probe comprising a commercial OCT catheter and a high sensitivity fiber optic ultrasound sensor, to provide both photoacoustic (PA) and OCT imaging...
September 2018: Photoacoustics
Simon Liang, Bahman Lashkari, Sung Soo Sean Choi, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Andreas Mandelis
The Grüneisen parameter is an essential factor in biomedical photoacoustic (PA) diagnostics. In most PA imaging applications, the variation of the Grüneisen parameter with tissue type is insignificant. This is not the case for PA imaging and characterization of lipids, as they have a very distinct Grüneisen parameter compared with other tissue types. One example of PA applications involving lipids is the imaging and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is a promising diagnostic tool that can evaluate both plaque severity and composition...
September 2018: Photoacoustics
Danielle Nichole O'Hara, Vikram Chabra, Sahar Ahmad
Fluid retention is the most common risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular complications in patients with volume-overloaded disease states. The extent of diuresis or fluid removal is frequently determined by physical examination which is subject to inaccuracies. Bedside ultrasound (US) is a portable tool that brings real-time diagnostic imaging to the patient's bedside. This versatile modality makes it possible for the clinician to investigate patients' extravascular and intravascular volume states. The extravascular volume, particularly in the case of pulmonary edema, can be quantitatively assessed by US of the anterior chest...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Thanh Dinh Nguyen, Gaoke Feng, Xin Yi, Yongnan Lyu, Zhiyuan Lan, Jinggang Xia, Tim Wu, Xuejun Jiang
Objective Using coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound methods to evaluate the performance of the novel fully bioabsorbable scaffold (NFBS) composed of poly-L-lactic acid/amorphous calcium phosphate (PLLA/ACP) at six-month follow-up by comparing with PLLA scaffolds Methods Twelve PLLA/ACP scaffolds and 12 PLLA scaffolds were implanted into the coronary arteries of 12 miniature pigs. Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) was used to measure the reference vessel diameter (RVD), mean lumen diameter (MLD) and late lumen loss (LLL)...
August 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Salman Khalid, Young Jin Youn, Michael Azrin, Juyong Lee
May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) refers to venous outflow obstruction caused by extrinsic compression of the left common iliac vein (LCIV) by the overlying pulsatile right common iliac artery against lumbar vertebrae. The classic clinical presentation is acute unilateral left leg painful swelling due to deep venous thrombosis in a young woman in the second or third decade of life. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman who presented with late-onset left leg swelling caused by nonthrombotic venous hypertension due to degenerative lumbar disc bulge leading to LCIV compression against the left common iliac artery which was confirmed by computed tomography and intravascular ultrasound...
August 9, 2018: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Manolis Vavuranakis, Theodore G Papaioannou, Dimitrios Vrachatis, Michael Katsimboulas, Elias A Sanidas, Sophia Vaina, George Agrogiannis, Efstratios Patsouris, Ioannis Kakadiaris, Christodoulos Stefanadis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
OBJECTIVE: Neoangiogenesis is pathophysiologically related to atherosclerotic plaque growth and vulnerability. We examined the in vivo performance of a computational method using contrast-enhanced intravascular ultrasound (CE-IVUS) to detect and quantify aortic wall neovascularization in rabbits. We also compared these findings with histological data. METHODS: Nine rabbits were fed with a hyperlipidemic diet. IVUS image sequences were continuously recorded before and after the injection of a contrast agent...
August 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Yongcheol Kim, Youngkeun Ahn, Inna Kim, Doo Hwan Lee, Min Chul Kim, Doo Sun Sim, Young Joon Hong, Ju Han Kim, Myung Ho Jeong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Feasibility of coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) via left snuffbox approach is still concerned. We aimed to investigate efficacy and safety of the left snuffbox approach for CAG and PCI. METHODS: Left snuffbox approach was tried in 150 patients who planned to perform CAG or PCI for suspected myocardial ischemia between 1 November 2017 and 31 March 2018. RESULTS: Success rate of radial artery (RA) cannulation via snuffbox approach was 88...
August 6, 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
Alessandra Russo, Corrado Lettieri, Salvatore Ivan Caico, Giuseppe Musumeci, Roberta Rossini, Battistina Castiglioni
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-atherosclerotic coronary artery pathology and an important cause of coronary artery disease in young women with an average age of 40 to 50 years with few or no cardiovascular risk factors. There has been a surge in the diagnosis of SCAD due to an increased use of coronary angiography and the clinical availability and application of high-resolution intracoronary imaging. SCAD is due to the separation of coronary wall layers with the formation of intramural hematoma, compression of the true lumen and secondary myocardial ischemia...
September 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Georgia S Karanasiou, Nikolaos S Tachos, Antonios Sakellarios, Lampros K Michalis, Claire Conway, Elazer R Edelman, Dimitrios I Fotiadis
Coronary stents are expandable scaffolds that are used to widen occluded diseased arteries and restore blood flow. Because of the strain they are exposed to and forces they must resist as well as the importance of surface interactions, material properties are dominant. Indeed, a common differentiating factors amongst commercially available stents is their material. Several performance requirements relate to stent materials including radial strength for adequate arterial support post-deployment. This study investigated the effect of the stent material in three finite element models using different stents made of: (i) Cobalt-Chromium (CoCr), (ii) Stainless Steel (SS316L), and (iii) Platinum Chromium (PtCr)...
October 2017: Proceedings
Sanjeev K Bhoi, Suprava Naik, Jayantee Kalita, Usha K Misra
Lead poisoning following retained gunshot pellets resulting in recurrent episodes of encephalomyeloneuropathy is rare and association of intracranial aneurysm with lead poisoning is interesting. The case report describes about a 58-year ayurvedic doctor who was hospitalized for recurrent abdominal pain and limb weakness appearing spontaneously and improving in a few days to weeks. He had 20 such attacks in last 30 years starting at 25 years after the gunshot wound that resulted in retention of 2 lead pellets in his skull...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Samuel A Merrill, Rakhi Naik, Michael B Streiff, Satish Shanbhag, Sophie Lanzkron, Evan M Braunstein, Alison M Moliterno, Robert A Brodsky
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a highly fatal, hyperinflammatory syndrome in adults triggered by an underlying illness in most cases. As such, suspicion of HLH dictates further investigation to identify the HLH trigger and determine treatment. HLH is clinically challenging due to diverse presentations and underlying triggers, provider unfamiliarity, and bleeding complications. Clinically, we observed diagnostic error from incorrect testing and cognitive biases (interleukin-2 confused with soluble interleukin-2 receptor and natural killer cell quantification confused with functional assays)...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Catherine Gebhard, David Rhainds, Gang He, Josep Rodés-Cabau, Shahar Lavi, J David Spence, Lawrence Title, Simon Kouz, Philippe L L'Allier, Jean Grégoire, Reda Ibrahim, Mariève Cossette, Marie-Claude Guertin, Robert Beanlands, Eric Rhéaume, Jean-Claude Tardif
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), a key enzyme in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), has been associated with atheroprotection. However, its relation to plaque characteristics has not been confirmed to date. We aimed to determine the relationship between plasma LCAT mass concentration and plaque burden in a multi-center imaging study. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-seven patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) imaging...
July 19, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Xiaoyang Liu, Hyun-Jung Jang, Korosh Khalili, Tae Kyoung Kim, Mostafa Atri
Contrast material-enhanced US is recognized increasingly as a useful tool in a wide variety of hepatic and nonhepatic applications. The modality recently was approved for limited use for liver indications in adult and pediatric patients in the United States. Contrast-enhanced US uses microbubbles of gas injected intravenously as a contrast agent to demonstrate blood flow and tissue perfusion. The growing worldwide application of contrast-enhanced US in multiple organ systems is due largely to its advantages, including high contrast resolution (sensitivity to the contrast agent), real-time imaging, lack of nephrotoxicity, the purely intravascular property of microbubble contrast agents that allows the use of disruption-replenishment techniques, and repeatability during the same examination...
July 30, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Brittany O Aicher, Subhradip Mukhopadhyay, Xin Lu, Selen C Muratoglu, Dudley K Strickland, Areck A Ucuzian
Aortic aneurysm and dissection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the population and can be highly lethal. While animal models of aortic disease exist, in vivo imaging of the vasculature has been limited. In recent years, micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT) has emerged as a preferred modality for imaging both large and small vessels both in vivo and ex vivo. In conjunction with a method of vascular casting, we have successfully used micro-CT to characterize the frequency and distribution of aortic pathology in β-aminopropionitrile-treated C57/Bl6 mice...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
J X Hing, J K Ch'ng, K H Tay, T T Chong
BACKGROUND: Incidence of Nellix stent migration is uncommon despite absence of a proximal fixation mechanism. We present a case of intraoperative Nellix stent migration to highlight the potential complications. Our patient had renal artery occlusion and threatened limb stent perfusion as a result of intraoperative stent migration, with resultant prolapse of the Nellix endobag. We also present a successful salvage procedure to deploy an additional stent to restore limb stent flow. CASE: A 71 year old Chinese gentleman with symptomatic concomitant infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and bilateral common iliac aneurysms was discussed at a multidisciplinary meeting and deemed suitable for endovascular sealing of the aneurysms (EVAS) with the Nellix device...
July 24, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Peter L M Kerkhof, Irina Khamaganova
Cardiology, dermatology, and rheumatology form a fascinating triad. Many skin and joint disorders are associated with cardiovascular comorbidities because they share etiologic elements. Female predominance is often remarkable and likely related to autoimmune pathology. Although studies have shown that X-encoded genes may be involved in the differences in immunity between males and females, other studies have also shown that sex chromosomes are irrelevant and that estrogens and androgens are responsible for the differences...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kei Yamanaka, Takuya Okata, Yoshiki Sambongi, Ikumi Yamanaka, Kazuki Tanimoto, Tetsuro Ago, Takanari Kitazono, Jiro Kitayama
We report a 35-year-old woman who suddenly developed left hemiparesis and dysarthria at 13 days after treatment with intrathecal and intravenous methotrexate for intravascular large B cell lymphoma with possible central nervous system infiltration. Seven hours after onset, she developed further right hemiparesis and aphasia. However, the majority of neurologic symptoms disappeared spontaneously and completely by 34 hours. We also recorded the dynamic progression and regression of abnormal signals in the bilateral corona radiata on diffusion-weighted imaging, in parallel with neurologic symptoms...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Jovana Janjic, Mingliang Tan, Verya Daeichin, Emile Noothout, Chao Chen, Zhao Chen, Zu-Yao Chang, Robert H S H Beurskens, Gijs van Soest, Antonius F W van der Steen, Martin Verweij, Michiel A P Pertijs, Nico de Jong
Intravascular ultrasound is an imaging modality used to visualize atherosclerosis from within the inner lumen of human arteries. Complex lesions like chronic total occlusions require forward-looking intravascular ultrasound (FL-IVUS), instead of the conventional side-looking geometry. Volumetric imaging can be achieved with 2D array transducers, which present major challenges in reducing cable count and device integration. In this work we present an 80-element lead zirconium titanate (PZT) matrix ultrasound transducer for FL-IVUS imaging with a front-end application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) requiring only 4 cables...
July 25, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
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