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Tanja Legenbauer, Anne Kathrin Radix, Nick Augustat, Sabine Schütt-Strömel
Eating disorders (EDs) are characterized by marked cognitive distortions and maladaptive schemas. Cognitive models of EDs highlight the direct impact of cognitive dysfunctions on eating-related disturbances, insofar as specific cognitive contents such as thoughts about diet rules and food or loss of control may trigger disturbed eating behavior. Moreover, early maladaptive schemas that reflect perfectionist standards and relate to achievement and performance seem to be associated with disturbed eating, e.g...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jack S Fogarty, Robert J Barry, Genevieve Z Steiner
This study compared the ERP components and behavior associated with the auditory equiprobable and classic oddball tasks, to relate the cognitive processing stages in those paradigms and continue the development of the sequential processing schema. Target and nontarget ERP data were acquired from 66 healthy young adults (Mage = 20.1, SD = 2.4 years, 14 male) who completed both equiprobable (target p = 0.5) and oddball tasks (target p = 0.3). Separate temporal PCAs were used to decompose the ERP data in each task and condition, and the similarity of the components identified in each condition was examined between tasks...
November 19, 2018: Psychophysiology
Á Romero-Martínez, G Hidalgo-Moreno, L Moya-Albiol
INTRODUCTION: Caring for a family member with a long-term illness is a significant source of chronic stress that might significantly accelerate the cognitive ageing of informal caregivers. Nevertheless, the absence of a defined theoretical body of literature on the neuropsychology of this population makes it difficult to understand what the characteristic neuropsychological deficits of these caregivers are. AIMS: The main aim of this study is to carry out a systematic review of studies of cognitive deficits present in informal caregivers of people with several chronic pathologies, and analyse the effects of cognitive-behavioural interventions on caregivers' cognition...
November 18, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Christina M Rodriguez, Paul J Silvia, Doris F Pu
Parents' cognitive schemas about parenting, personal vulnerabilities, and personal resources may affect their risk of engaging in parent-child aggression (PCA). This longitudinal study examined predictors of change in mothers' and fathers' PCA risk across the transition to parenthood, comparing trajectories of parents evidencing high versus low sociodemographic risk. Potential predictors involved parenting-relevant schemas (consistent with Social Information Processing theory, including approval of PCA, negative attributions of child behavior, and knowledge of nonphysical discipline options), personal vulnerabilities (psychopathology, intimate partner violence, substance use issues), and resources (problem-focused coping, emotion regulation, social support, and partner satisfaction)...
October 27, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Tatsuo Saigo, Masaki Hayashida, Jun Tayama, Sayaka Ogawa, Peter Bernick, Atsushi Takeoka, Susumu Shirabe
High harm avoidance (HA) scores on the temperament and character inventory appear to be a risk factor for depressive disorders and suicide. Since 2012, we have conducted group cognitive behavioral therapy (G-CBT) interventions for students at Nagasaki University with high HA and without depressive disorders, with the aim of preventing depression. Here, we report on the effects of the G-CBT at 1-year follow-up for the 2012 to 2015 period.Forty-two participants with high HA were included in the final analysis...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Muhammad Atif, Quratulain Saleem, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar, Shane Scahill
Background and objectives : Improved quality of life (QoL) and life expectancy of elderly diabetic patients revolves around optimal glycemic control. Inadequate glycemic control may lead to the development of diabetes-associated complications (DAC), which not only complicate the disease, but also affect morbidity and mortality. Based on the available literature, the aim was to elucidate the vicious cycle underpinning the relationship between diabetes complications and glycemic control. Materials and Methods : A comprehensive literature search was performed to find eligible studies published between 1 January 2000 and 22 September 2018 pertaining to diabetes complications and glycemic control...
October 15, 2018: Medicina
Yuri I Alexandrov, Alexey A Sozinov, Olga E Svarnik, Alexander G Gorkin, Evgeniya A Kuzina, Vladimir V Gavrilov
Despite the years of studies in the field of systems neuroscience, functions of neural circuits and behavior-related systems are still not entirely clear. The systems description of brain activity has recently been associated with cognitive concepts, e.g. a cognitive map, reconstructed via place-cell activity analysis and the like, and a cognitive schema, modeled in consolidation research. The issue we find of importance is that a cognitive unit reconstructed in neuroscience research is mainly formulated in terms of environment...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
Roberto Viviani, Jacqueline S Mahler, Julia E Bosch, Lisa Dommes, Julia Eberhardt, Petra Beschoner, Zrinka Sosic-Vasic
BACKGROUND: Increasing recognition is being given to the importance of cognitions observed in posttraumatic conditions. These cognitions may reflect the activation of negative schemas. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of the scrambled-sentences task (SST) to assess individual differences in attributions commonly observed after traumas. Originally developed to assess the tendency to activate negative cognitions in individuals predisposed to depression, the SST is a laboratory task the outcome of which has been shown to predict depression relapse and is associated with depressiveness...
2018: Psychopathology
Christopher Baldassano, Uri Hasson, Kenneth A Norman
Understanding movies and stories requires maintaining a high-level situation model that abstracts away from perceptual details to describe the location, characters, actions, and causal relationships of the currently unfolding event. These models are built not only from information present in the current narrative, but also from prior knowledge about schematic event scripts, which describe typical event sequences encountered throughout a lifetime. We analyzed fMRI data from 44 human subjects (male and female) presented with 16 three-minute stories, consisting of four schematic events drawn from two different scripts (eating at a restaurant or going through the airport)...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
René Pelletier, Daniel Bourbonnais, Johanne Higgins, Maxime Mireault, Michel Alain Danino, Patrick G Harris
The Left Right Judgement Task (LRJT) involves determining if an image of the body part is of the left or right side. The LRJT has been utilized as part of rehabilitation treatment programs for persons with pain associated with musculoskeletal injuries and conditions. Although studies often attribute changes and improvement in LRJT performance to an altered body schema, imaging studies suggest that the LRJT implicates other cortical regions. We hypothesized that cognitive factors would be related to LRJT performance of hands and feet and that sensory, motor, and pain related factors would be related to LRJT in the affected hand of participants with wrist/hand pain...
2018: Rehabilitation Research and Practice
Molly Memel, Cindy B Woolverton, Kyle Bourassa, Elizabeth L Glisky
Aging adults experience declines in working memory and episodic memory, however, it is unclear how these declines operate over time. Decreased working memory may be associated with early changes in episodic memory, by reducing older adults' ability to meaningfully integrate new information into pre-existing schemas and recall information without the assistance of cues. Given the increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease, and concerns based on subjective memory changes, it is important to understand how these processes interact over time...
September 18, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Anna S Mitchell, Rafal Czajkowski, Ningyu Zhang, Kate Jeffery, Andrew J D Nelson
Retrosplenial cortex is a region within the posterior neocortical system, heavily interconnected with an array of brain networks, both cortical and subcortical, that is, engaged by a myriad of cognitive tasks. Although there is no consensus as to its precise function, evidence from both human and animal studies clearly points to a role in spatial cognition. However, the spatial processing impairments that follow retrosplenial cortex damage are not straightforward to characterise, leading to difficulties in defining the exact nature of its role...
2018: Brain and Neuroscience Advances
Gabriel Nudelman, Shoshana Shiloh
Background: The traditional approach to health behavior research uses a single model to explain one behavior at a time. However, health behaviors are interrelated and different factors predict certain behaviors better than others. Purpose: To conceptualize groups of health behaviors as memory events that elicit various beliefs. A connectionist approach was used to examine patterns of construct activation related to expectations to engage in health behavior clusters...
September 13, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Kennedy Amone-P'Olak, Ask Elklit
The pathways from war experiences to mental health problems are poorly understood. The current study aims to assess the role of interpersonal sensitivity in the relations between war experiences and mental health problems based on data from the W ar- A ffected Y outh S urvey cohort study. The W ar- A ffected Y outh S urvey is an ongoing research project of formerly abducted children in Northern Uganda assessing their war experiences and the risk and protective factors in the development of mental health problems...
September 2018: Traumatology
Rotem Kahalon, Nurit Shnabel, Julia C Becker
This paper provides an organizing framework for the experimental research on the effects of state self-objectification on women. We explain why this body of work, which had grown rapidly in the last 20 years, departs from the original formulation of objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts, 1997). We compare the different operationalizations of state self-objectification and examine how they map onto its theoretical definition, concluding that the operationalizations have focused mostly on one component of this construct (concerns about one's physical appearance) while neglecting others (adopting a third-person perspective and treating oneself as a dehumanized object)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Leonidas A A Doumas, Robert G Morrison, Lindsey E Richland
Children's cognitive control and knowledge at school entry predict growth rates in analogical reasoning skill over time; however, the mechanisms by which these factors interact and impact learning are unclear. We propose that inhibitory control (IC) is critical for developing both the relational representations necessary to reason and the ability to use these representations in complex problem solving. We evaluate this hypothesis using computational simulations in a model of analogical thinking, Discovery of Relations by Analogy/Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogy (DORA/LISA; Doumas et al...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Douglas P Larsen
Educational systems are rarely designed for long-term retention of information. Strong evidence has emerged from cognitive psychology and applied education studies that repeated retrieval of information significantly improves retention compared to repeated studying. This effect likely emerges from the processes of memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Consolidation and reconsolidation are the means by which memories are organized into associational networks or schemas that are created and recreated as memories are formed and recalled...
August 2018: Seminars in Neurology
David Boyda, Danielle McFeeters, Katie Dhingra, Laura Rhoden
OBJECTIVE: One potential mechanism that has received limited attention in psychosis research is early maladaptive schemas (EMS). Our aim was to examine whether EMS acts as a potential mediating pathway between early trauma and psychotic symptomology. METHODS: A quantitative survey was conducted online. N = 302 participants took part. The analysis used a multiple mediation framework. RESULTS: Analysis demonstrated significant specificity effects...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Michael Moutoussis, Nitzan Shahar, Tobias U Hauser, Raymond J Dolan
Learning-based therapies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, are used worldwide, and their efficacy is endorsed by health and research funding agencies. However, the mechanisms behind both their strengths and their weaknesses are inadequately understood. Here we describe how advances in computational modeling may help formalize and test hypotheses regarding how patients make inferences, which are core postulates of these therapies. Specifically, we highlight the relevance of computations with regard to the development, maintenance, and therapeutic change in psychiatric disorders...
February 2018: Computational psychiatry
F M Nimbi, F Tripodi, C Simonelli, P J Nobre
The Questionnaire of Cognitive Schema Activation in Sexual Context (QCSASC) is a validated and widespread used measure to assess the self-schemas elicited during sexual negative events in both men and women. The current study aimed to test the psychometric characteristics of the Italian version of the QCSASC in both heterosexual men and women. After linguistic translation, the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and discriminant validity) were evaluated in 1038 participants (435 men and 603 women, 767 healthy and 271 clinicals complaining of sexual problems)...
October 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
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