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Christopher Baldassano, Uri Hasson, Kenneth A Norman
Understanding movies and stories requires maintaining a high-level situation model that abstracts away from perceptual details to describe the location, characters, actions, and causal relationships of the currently unfolding event. These models are built not only from information present in the current narrative, but also from prior knowledge about schematic event scripts, which describe typical event sequences encountered throughout a lifetime. We analyzed fMRI data from 44 human subjects (male and female) presented with sixteen three-minute stories, consisting of four schematic events drawn from two different scripts (eating at a restaurant or going through the airport)...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
René Pelletier, Daniel Bourbonnais, Johanne Higgins, Maxime Mireault, Michel Alain Danino, Patrick G Harris
The Left Right Judgement Task (LRJT) involves determining if an image of the body part is of the left or right side. The LRJT has been utilized as part of rehabilitation treatment programs for persons with pain associated with musculoskeletal injuries and conditions. Although studies often attribute changes and improvement in LRJT performance to an altered body schema, imaging studies suggest that the LRJT implicates other cortical regions. We hypothesized that cognitive factors would be related to LRJT performance of hands and feet and that sensory, motor, and pain related factors would be related to LRJT in the affected hand of participants with wrist/hand pain...
2018: Rehabilitation Research and Practice
Molly Memel, Cindy B Woolverton, Kyle Bourassa, Elizabeth L Glisky
Aging adults experience declines in working memory and episodic memory, however, it is unclear how these declines operate over time. Decreased working memory may be associated with early changes in episodic memory, by reducing older adults' ability to meaningfully integrate new information into pre-existing schemas and recall information without the assistance of cues. Given the increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease, and concerns based on subjective memory changes, it is important to understand how these processes interact over time...
September 18, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Anna S Mitchell, Rafal Czajkowski, Ningyu Zhang, Kate Jeffery, Andrew J D Nelson
Retrosplenial cortex is a region within the posterior neocortical system, heavily interconnected with an array of brain networks, both cortical and subcortical, that is, engaged by a myriad of cognitive tasks. Although there is no consensus as to its precise function, evidence from both human and animal studies clearly points to a role in spatial cognition. However, the spatial processing impairments that follow retrosplenial cortex damage are not straightforward to characterise, leading to difficulties in defining the exact nature of its role...
2018: Brain and Neuroscience Advances
Gabriel Nudelman, Shoshana Shiloh
Background: The traditional approach to health behavior research uses a single model to explain one behavior at a time. However, health behaviors are interrelated and different factors predict certain behaviors better than others. Purpose: To conceptualize groups of health behaviors as memory events that elicit various beliefs. A connectionist approach was used to examine patterns of construct activation related to expectations to engage in health behavior clusters...
September 13, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Kennedy Amone-P'Olak, Ask Elklit
The pathways from war experiences to mental health problems are poorly understood. The current study aims to assess the role of interpersonal sensitivity in the relations between war experiences and mental health problems based on data from the W ar- A ffected Y outh S urvey cohort study. The W ar- A ffected Y outh S urvey is an ongoing research project of formerly abducted children in Northern Uganda assessing their war experiences and the risk and protective factors in the development of mental health problems...
September 2018: Traumatology
Rotem Kahalon, Nurit Shnabel, Julia C Becker
This paper provides an organizing framework for the experimental research on the effects of state self-objectification on women. We explain why this body of work, which had grown rapidly in the last 20 years, departs from the original formulation of objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts, 1997). We compare the different operationalizations of state self-objectification and examine how they map onto its theoretical definition, concluding that the operationalizations have focused mostly on one component of this construct (concerns about one's physical appearance) while neglecting others (adopting a third-person perspective and treating oneself as a dehumanized object)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Leonidas A A Doumas, Robert G Morrison, Lindsey E Richland
Children's cognitive control and knowledge at school entry predict growth rates in analogical reasoning skill over time; however, the mechanisms by which these factors interact and impact learning are unclear. We propose that inhibitory control (IC) is critical for developing both the relational representations necessary to reason and the ability to use these representations in complex problem solving. We evaluate this hypothesis using computational simulations in a model of analogical thinking, Discovery of Relations by Analogy/Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogy (DORA/LISA; Doumas et al...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Douglas P Larsen
Educational systems are rarely designed for long-term retention of information. Strong evidence has emerged from cognitive psychology and applied education studies that repeated retrieval of information significantly improves retention compared to repeated studying. This effect likely emerges from the processes of memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Consolidation and reconsolidation are the means by which memories are organized into associational networks or schemas that are created and recreated as memories are formed and recalled...
August 2018: Seminars in Neurology
David Boyda, Danielle McFeeters, Katie Dhingra, Laura Rhoden
OBJECTIVE: One potential mechanism that has received limited attention in psychosis research is early maladaptive schemas (EMS). Our aim was to examine whether EMS acts as a potential mediating pathway between early trauma and psychotic symptomology. METHODS: A quantitative survey was conducted online. N = 302 participants took part. The analysis used a multiple mediation framework. RESULTS: Analysis demonstrated significant specificity effects...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Michael Moutoussis, Nitzan Shahar, Tobias U Hauser, Raymond J Dolan
Learning-based therapies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, are used worldwide, and their efficacy is endorsed by health and research funding agencies. However, the mechanisms behind both their strengths and their weaknesses are inadequately understood. Here we describe how advances in computational modeling may help formalize and test hypotheses regarding how patients make inferences, which are core postulates of these therapies. Specifically, we highlight the relevance of computations with regard to the development, maintenance, and therapeutic change in psychiatric disorders...
February 2018: Computational psychiatry
F M Nimbi, F Tripodi, C Simonelli, P J Nobre
The Questionnaire of Cognitive Schema Activation in Sexual Context (QCSASC) is a validated and widespread used measure to assess the self-schemas elicited during sexual negative events in both men and women. The current study aimed to test the psychometric characteristics of the Italian version of the QCSASC in both heterosexual men and women. After linguistic translation, the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and discriminant validity) were evaluated in 1038 participants (435 men and 603 women, 767 healthy and 271 clinicals complaining of sexual problems)...
October 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
Thomas Reese, Noa Segall, Paige Nesbitt, Guilherme Del Fiol, Rosalie Waller, Brekk C Macpherson, Joseph E Tonna, Melanie C Wright
Introduction: Many electronic health records fail to support information uptake because they impose low-level information organization tasks on users. Clinical concept-oriented views have shown information processing improvements, but the specifics of this organization for critical care are unclear. Objective: To determine high-level cognitive processes and patient information organization schema in critical care. Methods: We conducted an open card sort of 29 patient data elements and a modified Delphi card sort of 65 patient data elements...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Faye T Nitschke, Barbara M Masser, Blake M McKimmie, Maddison Riachi
Jurors often negatively evaluate complainants making allegations of rape when those complainants were intoxicated at the time of the assault. It is, therefore, essential that legal practitioners have effective methods of ensuring that jurors use evidence of intoxication for the legally permissible purpose, which is to determine the complainant's cognitive capacity to consent. This study examines whether providing judicial instructions about how jurors should make use of complainant intoxication evidence assists jurors to use this evidence appropriately...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Giulio Sandini, Vishwanathan Mohan, Alessandra Sciutti, Pietro Morasso
The next generation of robot companions or robot working partners will need to satisfy social requirements somehow similar to the famous laws of robotics envisaged by Isaac Asimov time ago (Asimov, 1942). The necessary technology has almost reached the required level, including sensors and actuators, but the cognitive organization is still in its infancy and is only partially supported by the current understanding of brain cognitive processes. The brain of symbiotic robots will certainly not be a "positronic" replica of the human brain: probably, the greatest part of it will be a set of interacting computational processes running in the cloud...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Yiqun Yao, Jiaming Xu, Jing Shi, Bo Xu
Most current textual reasoning models cannotlearn human-like reasoning process, and thus lack interpretability and logical accuracy. To help address this issue, we propose a novel reasoning model which learns to activate logic rules explicitly via deep reinforcement learning. It takes the form of Memory Networks but features a special memory that stores relational tuples, mimicking the "Image Schema" in human cognitive activities. We redefine textual reasoning as a sequential decision-making process modifying or retrieving from the memory, where logic rules serve as state-transition functions...
October 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Jinlong Su, Yanjie Su
For centuries, scholars have been puzzled by the distinct human prosociality. A variety of explanations have been proposed to unveil the mystery of it and nearly all these explanations have focused on the role of complex cognitive processes. In this paper, we propose a novel hypothesis that human prosociality is touch-scaffolded. We argue that early tactile stimulation such as maternal touch serves as the basic component that enables the emergence of nascent human prosociality. During this process, C-tactile afferents along with many neuropeptides, such as oxytocin and endogenous opioids, play pivotal roles in the touch - prosociality connection by facilitating the formation of an intimate caregiver-infant bond and the development of a positive social schema...
September 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Koichi Otani, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata
The present study examined the interrelations among negative core beliefs, attachment anxiety and low self-directedness, to test if the central constructs of depression vulnerabilities in cognitive, attachment and psychobiological personality theories are integrated into negative self-image. The subjects were 410 healthy Japanese medical students and staff. Negative core beliefs, attachment anxiety and self-directedness were evaluated by the Brief Core Schema Scales, Experiences in Close Relationships and Temperament and Character Inventory, respectively...
October 2018: Psychiatry Research
Samuel B Hunley, Stella F Lourenco
Findings from diverse fields of study, including neuroscience, psychology, zoology, and sociology, demonstrate that human and non-human primates maintain a representation of the space immediately surrounding the body, known as peripersonal space (PPS). However, progress in this field has been hampered by the lack of an agreed upon definition of PPS. Since the beginning of its formal study, scientists have argued that PPS plays a crucial role in both defensive and non-defensive actions. Yet consensus is lacking about the cognitive and neural instantiation of these functions...
July 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Jan Chodkiewicz, Ewa Gruszczynska
Aims: Early maladaptive schemas described by Young theoretically underlie the development of psychopathology, including substance use. The key assumption is that the schemas do not act in isolation but create configurations that are, at least to a certain extent, distinctive for specific disorders. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine whether a schema profile specific to alcohol addiction can be identified when compared to profiles obtained from a non-clinical sample. Short Summary: Early maladaptive schemas are cognitive and behavioral patterns related to a wide spectrum of psychopathology, including alcohol addiction...
July 4, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
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