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David Boyda, Danielle McFeeters, Katie Dhingra, Laura Rhoden
OBJECTIVE: One potential mechanism that has received limited attention in psychosis research is early maladaptive schemas (EMS). Our aim was to examine whether EMS acts as a potential mediating pathway between early trauma and psychotic symptomology. METHODS: A quantitative survey was conducted online. N = 302 participants took part. The analysis used a multiple mediation framework. RESULTS: Analysis demonstrated significant specificity effects...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Michael Moutoussis, Nitzan Shahar, Tobias U Hauser, Raymond J Dolan
Learning-based therapies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, are used worldwide, and their efficacy is endorsed by health and research funding agencies. However, the mechanisms behind both their strengths and their weaknesses are inadequately understood. Here we describe how advances in computational modeling may help formalize and test hypotheses regarding how patients make inferences, which are core postulates of these therapies. Specifically, we highlight the relevance of computations with regard to the development, maintenance, and therapeutic change in psychiatric disorders...
February 2018: Computational psychiatry
F M Nimbi, F Tripodi, C Simonelli, P J Nobre
The Questionnaire of Cognitive Schema Activation in Sexual Context (QCSASC) is a validated and widespread used measure to assess the self-schemas elicited during sexual negative events in both men and women. The current study aimed to test the psychometric characteristics of the Italian version of the QCSASC in both heterosexual men and women. After linguistic translation, the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and discriminant validity) were evaluated in 1038 participants (435 men and 603 women, 767 healthy and 271 clinicals complaining of sexual problems)...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
Thomas Reese, Noa Segall, Paige Nesbitt, Guilherme Del Fiol, Rosalie Waller, Brekk C Macpherson, Joseph E Tonna, Melanie C Wright
Introduction: Many electronic health records fail to support information uptake because they impose low-level information organization tasks on users. Clinical concept-oriented views have shown information processing improvements, but the specifics of this organization for critical care are unclear. Objective: To determine high-level cognitive processes and patient information organization schema in critical care. Methods: We conducted an open card sort of 29 patient data elements and a modified Delphi card sort of 65 patient data elements...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Faye T Nitschke, Barbara M Masser, Blake M McKimmie, Maddison Riachi
Jurors often negatively evaluate complainants making allegations of rape when those complainants were intoxicated at the time of the assault. It is, therefore, essential that legal practitioners have effective methods of ensuring that jurors use evidence of intoxication for the legally permissible purpose, which is to determine the complainant's cognitive capacity to consent. This study examines whether providing judicial instructions about how jurors should make use of complainant intoxication evidence assists jurors to use this evidence appropriately...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Giulio Sandini, Vishwanathan Mohan, Alessandra Sciutti, Pietro Morasso
The next generation of robot companions or robot working partners will need to satisfy social requirements somehow similar to the famous laws of robotics envisaged by Isaac Asimov time ago (Asimov, 1942). The necessary technology has almost reached the required level, including sensors and actuators, but the cognitive organization is still in its infancy and is only partially supported by the current understanding of brain cognitive processes. The brain of symbiotic robots will certainly not be a "positronic" replica of the human brain: probably, the greatest part of it will be a set of interacting computational processes running in the cloud...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Yiqun Yao, Jiaming Xu, Jing Shi, Bo Xu
Most current textual reasoning models cannotlearn human-like reasoning process, and thus lack interpretability and logical accuracy. To help address this issue, we propose a novel reasoning model which learns to activate logic rules explicitly via deep reinforcement learning. It takes the form of Memory Networks but features a special memory that stores relational tuples, mimicking the "Image Schema" in human cognitive activities. We redefine textual reasoning as a sequential decision-making process modifying or retrieving from the memory, where logic rules serve as state-transition functions...
July 3, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Jinlong Su, Yanjie Su
For centuries, scholars have been puzzled by the distinct human prosociality. A variety of explanations have been proposed to unveil the mystery of it and nearly all these explanations have focused on the role of complex cognitive processes. In this paper, we propose a novel hypothesis that human prosociality is touch-scaffolded. We argue that early tactile stimulation such as maternal touch serves as the basic component that enables the emergence of nascent human prosociality. During this process, C-tactile afferents along with many neuropeptides, such as oxytocin and endogenous opioids, play pivotal roles in the touch - prosociality connection by facilitating the formation of an intimate caregiver-infant bond and the development of a positive social schema...
September 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Koichi Otani, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata
The present study examined the interrelations among negative core beliefs, attachment anxiety and low self-directedness, to test if the central constructs of depression vulnerabilities in cognitive, attachment and psychobiological personality theories are integrated into negative self-image. The subjects were 410 healthy Japanese medical students and staff. Negative core beliefs, attachment anxiety and self-directedness were evaluated by the Brief Core Schema Scales, Experiences in Close Relationships and Temperament and Character Inventory, respectively...
June 30, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Samuel B Hunley, Stella F Lourenco
Findings from diverse fields of study, including neuroscience, psychology, zoology, and sociology, demonstrate that human and non-human primates maintain a representation of the space immediately surrounding the body, known as peripersonal space (PPS). However, progress in this field has been hampered by the lack of an agreed upon definition of PPS. Since the beginning of its formal study, scientists have argued that PPS plays a crucial role in both defensive and non-defensive actions. Yet consensus is lacking about the cognitive and neural instantiation of these functions...
July 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Jan Chodkiewicz, Ewa Gruszczynska
Aims: Early maladaptive schemas described by Young theoretically underlie the development of psychopathology, including substance use. The key assumption is that the schemas do not act in isolation but create configurations that are, at least to a certain extent, distinctive for specific disorders. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine whether a schema profile specific to alcohol addiction can be identified when compared to profiles obtained from a non-clinical sample. Short Summary: Early maladaptive schemas are cognitive and behavioral patterns related to a wide spectrum of psychopathology, including alcohol addiction...
July 4, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Joanna Szczotka, Bartosz Majchrowicz
Theories of schizophrenia propose numerous mechanisms underlying development of this disorder, yet the account including satisfactory etiological explanation is still lacking. Current trend is to indicate core, basic factors which may further give rise to whole diversity of symptoms. Experimental data and patients' reports show that such key factor may be selfexperience disturbed on a basic, pre-reflective level, which can then lead to many higher-order symptoms. In this article we review and analyze these data, as well as the most influential cognitive theories focusing on mechanisms influencing the clinical picture of schizophrenia and giving rise to the anomalous experience of embodied self...
April 30, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
Aditya Gune, Raffaele De Amicis, Bruno Simoes, Christopher A Sanchez, H Onan Demirel
Effective presentation of data is critical to a users understanding of it. In this manuscript, we explore research challenges associated with presenting large geospatial datasets through a multimodal experience. We also suggest an interaction schema that enhances users cognition of geographic information through a user-driven display that visualizes and sonifies geospatial data.
July 2018: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Farzad Jalali, Alireza Hasani, Seyedeh Fatemeh Hashemi, Seyed Ali Kimiaei, Ali Babaei
Depression is one the most common mental disorders in prisons. People living with HIV are more likely to develop psychological difficulties when compared with the general population. This study aims to determine the efficacy of cognitive group therapy based on schema-focused approach in reducing depression in prisoners living with HIV. The design of this study was between-groups (or "independent measures"). It was conducted with pretest, posttest, and waiting list control group. The research population comprised all prisoners living with HIV in a men's prison in Iran...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Diane Pecher, René Zeelenberg
Grounded theories of cognition claim that concept representation relies on the systems for perception and action. The sensory-motor grounding of abstract concepts presents a challenge for these theories. Some accounts propose that abstract concepts are indirectly grounded via image schemas or situations. Recent research, however, indicates that the role of sensory-motor processing for concrete concepts may be limited, providing evidence against the idea that abstract concepts are grounded via concrete concepts...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Tom H J Saariaho, Anita S I Saariaho, Irma A Karila, Matti I Joukamaa
Background and aims of the study The connection between chronic pain and traumatic experiences in childhood has been established in several studies. The association of emotional maltreatment with chronic pain has been studied, but to a lesser degree. Schema therapy [24] is an extension of cognitive therapy and presents the early maladaptive schema (EMS) concept. EMSs reflect early, mainly emotional maltreatment. The aim of the present study was to examine the existence of EMSs, the association between EMSs and pain variables and EMS driven patterns...
October 1, 2010: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Vishwanathan Mohan, Ajaz Bhat, Pietro Morasso
Emerging trends in neurosciences are providing converging evidence that cortical networks in predominantly motor areas are activated in several contexts related to 'action' that do not cause any overt movement. Indeed for any complex body, human or embodied robot inhabiting unstructured environments, the dual processes of shaping motor output during action execution and providing the self with information related to feasibility, consequence and understanding of potential actions (of oneself/others) must seamlessly alternate during goal-oriented behaviors, social interactions...
April 27, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
Randi P Proffitt Leyva, Sarah E Hill
OBJECTIVE: The current research examined whether cognitive schemas that emerge in the context of early life stress predict psychological and behavioral outcomes that increase obesity risk. Three studies tested this hypothesis, predicting that having an unpredictability schema-which is a mindset characterized by the belief that the world and the people in it are unpredictable and unreliable-would predict low body awareness and eating in the absence of hunger. METHOD: Self-report measures of early life environment, unpredictability schema, body awareness, and eating habits were used in Studies 1-3...
July 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Charmaine Ruling Lim, Joanna Barlas, Roger Chun Man Ho
Background : Recent studies have shown that not every depressed patient responds to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and some of those who do relapse upon termination. Due to its dual focus on the past and present, Schema Model (SM) represents a promising alternative model to understand depression. However, studies examining SM often operationalize the same construct differently, resulting in inconsistent evidence of change. There is no known review clarifying (1) how best to assess schema constructs; and (2) the relevant pathways to depression, without which, the empirical basis for SM cannot be examined...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Isabel C Martínez, Silvia A Español, Diana I Pérez
According to the theory of conceptual metaphor, image-schemas and primary metaphors are preconceptual structures configured in human cognition, based on sensory-motor environmental activity. Focusing on the way both non-conceptual structures are embedded in early social interaction, we provide empirical evidence for the interactive and intersubjective ontogenesis of image-schemas and primary metaphors. We present the results of a multimodal image-schematic microanalysis of three interactive infant-directed performances (the composition of movement, touch, speech, and vocalization that adults produce for-and-with the infants)...
June 2, 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
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