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Transcranial Ultrasonography

Eun-Ye Lim, Dong-Won Yang, A-Hyun Cho, Yong S Shim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Vascular risk factors and neurovascular dysfunction may be closely related to cognitive impairment and dementia. In this study, we evaluated the association between hemodynamic markers and longitudinal cognitive changes in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Furthermore, we investigated whether hemodynamic markers could predict the risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients with MCI. METHODS: A total of 68 subjects with amnestic MCI were recruited...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jessica C Hodgson, John M Hudson
A relationship between motor control and speech lateralization has long been postulated by researchers and clinicians with an interest in the functional organization of the human brain. Exactly how motor control might be related to speech representation, however, is rarely examined. This chapter examines current issues relating to the organization, development, and measurement of motor control and speech representation. We further consider from neuropsychological, developmental, neurological, and genetic perspectives that speech and fine motor control involve planning and sequencing processes, which are mediated by an integrated neural network localized to the left hemisphere...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Catherine Amlie-Lefond, Jonathan Flanagan, Julie Kanter, William B Dobyns
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common autosomal recessive diseases in humans, occurring at a frequency of 1 in 365 African-American and 1 in 50 sub-Saharan African births. Despite progress in managing complications of SCD, these remain a major health burden worldwide. Stroke is a common and serious complication of SCD, most often associated with steno-occlusive cerebral arteriopathy, but little is known about its pathogenesis. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is currently the only predictive test for future development of stroke in patients with sickle cell anemia and is used to guide preventative treatment...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Valentina Puglisi, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Lanza, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Luisa Vinciguerra, Manuela Pennisi, Lilla Bonanno, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
Introduction: Late-life depression is a well-known risk factor for future dementia. Increasing evidences also show a link between cerebral hypoperfusion and neurodegeneration, although data on Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD)-derived measures in patients with "Vascular Depression" (VD) are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess and correlate TCD parameters with cognitive function and severity of subcortical ischemic vascular disease in a sample of VD patients. Methods: Seventy six patients (mean age 72...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Rejane de Souza Macedo-Campos, Samuel Ademola Adegoke, Maria Stella Figueiredo, Josefina Aparecida Pellegrini Braga, Gisele Sampaio Silva
BACKGROUND: Impairment of vasodilatory capacity reflecting reduced cerebrovascular reserve was previously shown in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and might play a role in the pathophysiology of stroke in such patients. We examined the hypothesis that children with SCD would also have a higher frequency of impaired cerebral vasoreactivity when compared with healthy age- and gender-matched controls. METHODS: Patients were recruited from our hematology outpatient clinic...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Lucy Beishon, Claire A L Williams, Thompson G Robinson, Victoria J Haunton, Ronney B Panerai
Cognitive testing with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) has been used to assess neurovascular coupling (NVC), but few studies address its multiple contributions. Subcomponent analysis considers the relative myogenic (resistance area product, RAP) and metabolic (critical closing pressure (CrCP)) contributors. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in subcomponents that occur with cognitive stimulation with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III) in healthy controls. Healthy volunteers underwent continuous recording of bilateral TCD, heart rate (HR, three-lead ECG), end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2 , capnography), and mean arterial pressure (MAP, Finometer)...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Emanuele Bartolini, Alessandro Napolitano, Monica Mazzoni
Our objective is to highlight that the rare occurrence of limb shaking in transient ischemic attacks may be underpinned by etiologies other than critical internal carotid stenosis/occlusion. We describe a 74 year-old woman with abrupt left arm jerking and normal urgent computed tomography scan, electroencephalography (EEG) as well as carotid and transcranial ultrasound. Two days later she developed an overt ischemic stroke, with left mesencephalon and left cerebellar hemisphere lesions at brain magnetic resonance imaging and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation at Holter-EKG...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Ivana Kekin, Dina Bosnjak, Porin Makaric, Zarko Bajic, Linda Rossini Gajsak, Branko Malojcic, Marina Boban, Martina Rojnic Kuzman
BACKGROUND: Changes in cerebral hemodynamics have been reported in schizophrenia and proposed as underlying the cognitive deficits seen in patients. The objective of our study was to compare changes of the cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) during neurocognitive tasks between the patients with the first episode of psychosis and healthy controls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We recruited 46 patients with the first episode of psychosis (FEP), admitted to the University Hospital Centre Zagreb during 2016-2017 and 41 control subjects...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Wolf-Dirk Niesen, Michael Rosenkranz, Cornelius Weiller
Introduction: Transcranial high-resolution ultrasonography reliably allows diagnosis and monitoring of intracerebral hemorrhage in adults. Sonographic monitoring of subdural hematoma (SDH) has not been evaluated in adults so far. This study investigates the reliability of transcranial gray-scale sonography (TGS) in monitoring acute and chronic SDH in adults. Methods: TGS was performed in 47 consecutive patients with either acute or chronic SDH confirmed by cerebral CT...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Alexander C Wilson, Dorothy V M Bishop
AIM: To test the hypothesis that sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) are associated with reduced left lateralization for language. METHOD: Using a cross-sectional design, language laterality was measured during an animation description task using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Data were available for 75 children with an SCT (47,XXX females [n=26], 47,XXY males [n=25], 47,XYY males [n=24]; mean age 11y 4mo [SD 3y 10mo]) and 132 comparison children with typical karyotypes (69 males, 63 females; mean age 9y 1mo [SD 1y 7mo])...
June 10, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Hubert Lee, Jeffrey J Perry, Shane W English, Fahad Alkherayf, Joanne Joseph, Steven Nobile, Linghong Linda Zhou, Howard Lesiuk, Richard Moulton, Charles Agbi, John Sinclair, Dar Dowlatshahi
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to derive a clinically applicable decision rule using clinical, radiological, and laboratory data to predict the development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients. METHODS Patients presenting over a consecutive 9-year period with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and at least 1 angiographically evident aneurysm were included. Variables significantly associated with DCI in univariate analysis underwent multivariable logistic regression...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Fawaz Al-Mufti, Krishna Amuluru, Nitesh Damodara, Mohammad El-Ghanem, Rolla Nuoman, Naveed Kamal, Sarmad Al-Marsoummi, Nicholas A Morris, Neha S Dangayach, Stephan A Mayer
Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an important cause of further morbidity and mortality after an already devastating condition. Though traditionally attributed to vasospasm of large capacitance arteries and the resulting down-stream disruption of cerebral blood flow, the pathogenesis of DCI has proven to be more complex with early brain injury, blood-brain barrier disruption, microthrombosis, cortical spreading depolarizations, and the failure of cerebral autoregulation as newly elucidated factors...
July 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Silvia De Rosa, Gianluca Villa, Paola Franchi, Aldo Mancino, Federica Tosi, Marina Alessandra Martin, Simona Bazzano, Giorgio Conti, Silvia Maria Pulitanò
INTRODUCTION: The objective of our present study is to evaluate the impact of different PEEP levels on cerebral hemodynamic, gas exchanges and respiratory system mechanics in paediatric patients with post-traumatic brain swelling treated with decompressive craniectomy (DC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective physiologic study was carried out on 14 paediatric patients presenting with severe traumatic brain swelling treated with DC. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was performed on the middle cerebral artery bilaterally after DC...
2018: PloS One
Nobuhiko Akazawa, Ai Hamasaki, Koichiro Tanahashi, Keisei Kosaki, Toru Yoshikawa, Kanae Myoenzono, Seiji Maeda
The age-related decrease in cerebral blood flow velocity increases the risk of cerebrovascular disease. Milk protein-derived bioactive peptides, e.g., lactotripeptide (LTP), have been shown to inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme activities and increase vasodilator production. We hypothesized that LTP ingestion increases cerebral blood flow velocity in middle-aged and older adults. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 15 healthy middle-aged and older adults were assigned to either a LTP group or a placebo group...
May 2018: Nutrition Research
Pratyush Shrestha, Safiur Rahman Ansari, Ram Kumar Ghimire, Dinesh Nath Gongal, Upendra Psd Devkota
INTRODUCTION: Fixed dilated and unreactive pupils are a harbinger of imminent death in neurosurgical patients, signifying that the brainstem is not functioning. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is a noninvasive, bedside method of determining the flow velocities in the basal cerebral arteries, used extensively in various neurosurgical conditions. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the cerebral blood flow dynamics of neurosurgical patients in peri-agonal period with fixed dilated or non reacting pupils using TCD...
April 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Chiara Robba, Danilo Cardim, Tamara Tajsic, Justine Pietersen, Michael Bulman, Frank Rasulo, Rita Bertuetti, Joseph Donnelly, Liu Xiuyun, Zofia Czosnyka, Manuel Cabeleira, Peter Smielewski, Basil Matta, Alessandro Bertuccio, Marek Czosnyka
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) can be invaluable in the management of critically ill patients. Invasive measurement of ICP remains the "gold standard" and should be performed when clinical indications are met, but it is invasive and brings some risks. In this project, we aim to validate the non-invasive ICP (nICP) assessment models based on arterious and venous transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD)...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Marlina E Lovett, Tensing Maa, Melissa G Chung, Nicole F O'Brien
AIM: To describe the cerebral blood flow velocity pattern and investigate cerebral autoregulation using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) following a global hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) event in children. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study in a quaternary-level paediatric intensive care unit. Intubated children, newborn to 17 years admitted to the PICU following HI injury (asphyxia, drowning, cardiac arrest) were eligible for inclusion. TCD was performed daily until post-injury day 8, discharge, or death, whichever occurred earliest...
May 2018: Resuscitation
Paul Crawford, Ethan E Zimmerman
Tremor is an involuntary, rhythmic, oscillatory movement of a body part. It is the most common movement disorder encountered in primary care. The diagnosis of tremor is based on clinical information obtained from the history and physical examination. The most common tremors in patients presenting to primary care physicians are enhanced physiologic tremor, essential tremor, and parkinsonian tremor. All persons have low-amplitude, high-frequency physiologic tremors at rest and during action that are not reported as symptomatic, but can be enhanced by anxiety, medication use, caffeine intake, or fatigue...
February 1, 2018: American Family Physician
Xiaohong Wu, Li Wang, Jingxin Zhong, Jacky Ko, Lin Shi, Yannie Soo, Thomas Leung, Ka Sing Wong, Jill Abrigo, Xiangyan Chen
PURPOSE: Intracranial artery calcification (IAC) has been demonstrated to be correlated with ischemic stroke, cognitive decline, and other vascular events by accumulating evidences from both Western and Asian populations. The proposed study aimed to investigate its potential mechanisms by evaluating the blood flow velocity and pulsatility index (PI) of cerebral arteries. METHODS: Consecutive ischemic stroke patients admitted to the Prince of Wales Hospital were recruited after excluding those with atrial fibrillation or poor temporal window...
April 2018: Neuroradiology
Sandra Sousa, Nuno Vasco Costa, Cátia Carmona, Élia Coimbra, Fernando Pita
Introduction: Cryptogenic stroke is present in about 40% of ischemic stroke patients. Extracardiac shunt related to pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) could be a rare potential risk factor for embolic stroke. Most PAVFs are multiple, congenital, and associated with hereditary conditions. On the other hand, isolated PAVFs are rare conditions and an uncommon cause of cryptogenic stoke. Case Report: We describe a case of a young woman without history of respiratory diseases or vascular risk factors, who presented with acute onset of transitory aphasia and right hemiplegia...
September 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
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