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Transcranial Ultrasonography

Agnieszka Uryga, Magdalena Kasprowicz, Małgorzata Burzyńska, Leanne Calviello, Katarzyna Kaczmarska, Marek Czosnyka
The cerebral arterial blood volume changes (∆Ca BV) during a single cardiac cycle can be estimated using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) by assuming pulsatile blood inflow, constant, and pulsatile flow forward from large cerebral arteries to resistive arterioles [continuous flow forward (CFF) and pulsatile flow forward (PFF)]. In this way, two alternative methods of cerebral arterial compliance (Ca ) estimation are possible. Recently, we proposed a TCD-derived index, named the time constant of the cerebral arterial bed (τ), which is a product of Ca and cerebrovascular resistance and is independent of the diameter of the insonated vessel...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Nurdan Ozturk Tasar, Pelin Kosger, Nevzat Uzuner, Birsen Ucar
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of ventricular septal defect (VSD) and heart failure on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in children, whether heart failure treatment improves CBF, and if there is any relationship between CBF and serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level. METHOD: Forty children with VSD (13 with heart failure) aged between 1 and 36 months were studied. The control group comprised 25 healthy children in the same age group...
October 2, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
Jatinder S Minhas, Ronney B Panerai, George Ghaly, Pip Divall, Thompson G Robinson
PURPOSE: International guidelines advocate intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering within 6 hours of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) to a target systolic BP of 130-140 mm Hg, though more intensive lowering may be associated with adverse outcome. Observational studies suggest impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA) following ICH. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD), alongside continuous BP monitoring, provides a noninvasive bedside investigation that offers detailed perspectives on physiological perturbations post-acute ICH...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Laith Mukdad, William Toppen, Yas Sanaiha, Aditya Mantha, Stephanie Bland, Richard Shemin, Peyman Benharash
Cerebral microemboli have been associated with neurocognitive deficits after cardiac operations using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Interventions by the perfusionist and alterations in blood flow account for a large proportion of previously unexplained microemboli. This study compared the incidence of microemboli during cardiac operations using conventional (multidose) and del Nido (single-dose) cardioplegia delivery. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was used to detect microemboli in bilateral middle cerebral arteries of 30 adult patients undergoing cardiac operations using CPB and aortic clamping...
September 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Nicole Fortier O'Brien, Tshimanga Mutatshi Taty, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Joseph Bodi Mabiala, Jean Mbaka Pongo, Davin Ambitapio Musungufu, Mananu Uchama, Marcel Yotebieng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neurovascular changes in pediatric patients with cerebral malaria. STUDY DESIGN: African children with cerebral malaria were enrolled and underwent daily transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) examinations through hospital day 8, discharge, or death. Neurologic outcomes were assessed 2 weeks after enrollment. RESULTS: In total, 160 children with cerebral malaria and 155 comparison patients were included. In patients with cerebral malaria, TCD flow changes characterized as hyperemia were seen in 42 (26%), low flow in 46 (28%), microvascular obstruction in 35 (22%), cerebral vasospasm in 21 (13%), and isolated posterior hyperemia in 7 (4%)...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Taiki Miyazawa, Shigeki Shibata, Kumiko Nagai, Ai Hirasawa, Yoshio Kobayashi, Hitomi Koshiba, Koichi Kozaki
Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is a non-invasive technique allowing continuous recording of cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity. However, it is unclear whether the CBF estimated by TCD would be reliable for the comparison between individuals. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between middle cerebral artery blood flow (MCA BF) measured by TCD and regional and total CBF measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT-CBF) with a quantification software program, 3-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest template...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Eun-Ye Lim, Dong-Won Yang, A-Hyun Cho, Yong S Shim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Vascular risk factors and neurovascular dysfunction may be closely related to cognitive impairment and dementia. In this study, we evaluated the association between hemodynamic markers and longitudinal cognitive changes in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Furthermore, we investigated whether hemodynamic markers could predict the risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients with MCI. METHODS: A total of 68 subjects with amnestic MCI were recruited...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jessica C Hodgson, John M Hudson
A relationship between motor control and speech lateralization has long been postulated by researchers and clinicians with an interest in the functional organization of the human brain. Exactly how motor control might be related to speech representation, however, is rarely examined. This chapter examines current issues relating to the organization, development, and measurement of motor control and speech representation. We further consider from neuropsychological, developmental, neurological, and genetic perspectives that speech and fine motor control involve planning and sequencing processes, which are mediated by an integrated neural network localized to the left hemisphere...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Catherine Amlie-Lefond, Jonathan Flanagan, Julie Kanter, William B Dobyns
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common autosomal recessive diseases in humans, occurring at a frequency of 1 in 365 African-American and 1 in 50 sub-Saharan African births. Despite progress in managing complications of SCD, these remain a major health burden worldwide. Stroke is a common and serious complication of SCD, most often associated with steno-occlusive cerebral arteriopathy, but little is known about its pathogenesis. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is currently the only predictive test for future development of stroke in patients with sickle cell anemia and is used to guide preventative treatment...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Valentina Puglisi, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Lanza, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Luisa Vinciguerra, Manuela Pennisi, Lilla Bonanno, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
Introduction: Late-life depression is a well-known risk factor for future dementia. Increasing evidences also show a link between cerebral hypoperfusion and neurodegeneration, although data on Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD)-derived measures in patients with "Vascular Depression" (VD) are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess and correlate TCD parameters with cognitive function and severity of subcortical ischemic vascular disease in a sample of VD patients. Methods: Seventy six patients (mean age 72...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Rejane de Souza Macedo-Campos, Samuel Ademola Adegoke, Maria Stella Figueiredo, Josefina Aparecida Pellegrini Braga, Gisele Sampaio Silva
BACKGROUND: Impairment of vasodilatory capacity reflecting reduced cerebrovascular reserve was previously shown in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and might play a role in the pathophysiology of stroke in such patients. We examined the hypothesis that children with SCD would also have a higher frequency of impaired cerebral vasoreactivity when compared with healthy age- and gender-matched controls. METHODS: Patients were recruited from our hematology outpatient clinic...
October 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Lucy Beishon, Claire A L Williams, Thompson G Robinson, Victoria J Haunton, Ronney B Panerai
Cognitive testing with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) has been used to assess neurovascular coupling (NVC), but few studies address its multiple contributions. Subcomponent analysis considers the relative myogenic (resistance area product, RAP) and metabolic (critical closing pressure (CrCP)) contributors. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in subcomponents that occur with cognitive stimulation with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III) in healthy controls. Healthy volunteers underwent continuous recording of bilateral TCD, heart rate (HR, three-lead ECG), end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2 , capnography), and mean arterial pressure (MAP, Finometer)...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Emanuele Bartolini, Alessandro Napolitano, Monica Mazzoni
Our objective is to highlight that the rare occurrence of limb shaking in transient ischemic attacks may be underpinned by etiologies other than critical internal carotid stenosis/occlusion. We describe a 74 year-old woman with abrupt left arm jerking and normal urgent computed tomography scan, electroencephalography (EEG) as well as carotid and transcranial ultrasound. Two days later she developed an overt ischemic stroke, with left mesencephalon and left cerebellar hemisphere lesions at brain magnetic resonance imaging and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation at Holter-EKG...
October 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Ivana Kekin, Dina Bosnjak, Porin Makaric, Zarko Bajic, Linda Rossini Gajsak, Branko Malojcic, Marina Boban, Martina Rojnic Kuzman
BACKGROUND: Changes in cerebral hemodynamics have been reported in schizophrenia and proposed as underlying the cognitive deficits seen in patients. The objective of our study was to compare changes of the cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) during neurocognitive tasks between the patients with the first episode of psychosis and healthy controls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We recruited 46 patients with the first episode of psychosis (FEP), admitted to the University Hospital Centre Zagreb during 2016-2017 and 41 control subjects...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Wolf-Dirk Niesen, Michael Rosenkranz, Cornelius Weiller
Introduction: Transcranial high-resolution ultrasonography reliably allows diagnosis and monitoring of intracerebral hemorrhage in adults. Sonographic monitoring of subdural hematoma (SDH) has not been evaluated in adults so far. This study investigates the reliability of transcranial gray-scale sonography (TGS) in monitoring acute and chronic SDH in adults. Methods: TGS was performed in 47 consecutive patients with either acute or chronic SDH confirmed by cerebral CT...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Alexander C Wilson, Dorothy V M Bishop
AIM: To test the hypothesis that sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) are associated with reduced left lateralization for language. METHOD: Using a cross-sectional design, language laterality was measured during an animation description task using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Data were available for 75 children with an SCT (47,XXX females [n=26], 47,XXY males [n=25], 47,XYY males [n=24]; mean age 11y 4mo [SD 3y 10mo]) and 132 comparison children with typical karyotypes (69 males, 63 females; mean age 9y 1mo [SD 1y 7mo])...
June 10, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Hubert Lee, Jeffrey J Perry, Shane W English, Fahad Alkherayf, Joanne Joseph, Steven Nobile, Linghong Linda Zhou, Howard Lesiuk, Richard Moulton, Charles Agbi, John Sinclair, Dar Dowlatshahi
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to derive a clinically applicable decision rule using clinical, radiological, and laboratory data to predict the development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients. METHODS Patients presenting over a consecutive 9-year period with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and at least 1 angiographically evident aneurysm were included. Variables significantly associated with DCI in univariate analysis underwent multivariable logistic regression...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Fawaz Al-Mufti, Krishna Amuluru, Nitesh Damodara, Mohammad El-Ghanem, Rolla Nuoman, Naveed Kamal, Sarmad Al-Marsoummi, Nicholas A Morris, Neha S Dangayach, Stephan A Mayer
Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an important cause of further morbidity and mortality after an already devastating condition. Though traditionally attributed to vasospasm of large capacitance arteries and the resulting down-stream disruption of cerebral blood flow, the pathogenesis of DCI has proven to be more complex with early brain injury, blood-brain barrier disruption, microthrombosis, cortical spreading depolarizations, and the failure of cerebral autoregulation as newly elucidated factors...
July 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Silvia De Rosa, Gianluca Villa, Paola Franchi, Aldo Mancino, Federica Tosi, Marina Alessandra Martin, Simona Bazzano, Giorgio Conti, Silvia Maria Pulitanò
INTRODUCTION: The objective of our present study is to evaluate the impact of different PEEP levels on cerebral hemodynamic, gas exchanges and respiratory system mechanics in paediatric patients with post-traumatic brain swelling treated with decompressive craniectomy (DC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective physiologic study was carried out on 14 paediatric patients presenting with severe traumatic brain swelling treated with DC. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was performed on the middle cerebral artery bilaterally after DC...
2018: PloS One
Nobuhiko Akazawa, Ai Hamasaki, Koichiro Tanahashi, Keisei Kosaki, Toru Yoshikawa, Kanae Myoenzono, Seiji Maeda
The age-related decrease in cerebral blood flow velocity increases the risk of cerebrovascular disease. Milk protein-derived bioactive peptides, e.g., lactotripeptide (LTP), have been shown to inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme activities and increase vasodilator production. We hypothesized that LTP ingestion increases cerebral blood flow velocity in middle-aged and older adults. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 15 healthy middle-aged and older adults were assigned to either a LTP group or a placebo group...
May 2018: Nutrition Research
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