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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534343/preliminary-observations-of-tool-processing-behaviour-in-hawaiian-crows-corvus-hawaiiensis
#1
Barbara C Klump, Bryce M Masuda, James J H St Clair, Christian Rutz
Very few animal species habitually make and use foraging tools. We recently discovered that the Hawaiian crow is a highly skilled, natural tool user. Most captive adults in our experiment spontaneously used sticks to access out-of-reach food from a range of extraction tasks, exhibiting a surprising degree of dexterity. Moreover, many birds modified tools before or during deployment, and some even manufactured tools from raw materials. In this invited addendum article, we describe and discuss these observations in more detail...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30487308/top-carnivore-decline-has-cascading-effects-on-scavengers-and-carrion-persistence
#2
Calum X Cunningham, Christopher N Johnson, Leon A Barmuta, Tracey Hollings, Eric J Woehler, Menna E Jones
Top carnivores have suffered widespread global declines, with well-documented effects on mesopredators and herbivores. We know less about how carnivores affect ecosystems through scavenging. Tasmania's top carnivore, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) , has suffered severe disease-induced population declines, providing a natural experiment on the role of scavenging in structuring communities. Using remote cameras and experimentally placed carcasses, we show that mesopredators consume more carrion in areas where devils have declined...
November 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30473852/wild-jackdaws-are-wary-of-objects-that-violate-expectations-of-animacy
#3
Alison L Greggor, Guillam E McIvor, Nicola S Clayton, Alex Thornton
Nature is composed of self-propelled, animate agents and inanimate objects. Laboratory studies have shown that human infants and a few species discriminate between animate and inanimate objects. This ability is assumed to have evolved to support social cognition and filial imprinting, but its ecological role for wild animals has never been examined. An alternative, functional explanation is that discriminating stimuli based on their potential for animacy helps animals distinguish between harmless and threatening stimuli...
October 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402057/factors-affecting-the-spatial-distribution-and-breeding-habitat-of-an-insular-cliff-nesting-raptor-community
#4
Beneharo Rodríguez, Airam Rodríguez, Felipe Siverio, Manuel Siverio
The specific spatial distribution and habitat association-strongly influenced by environmental factors or competitive interactions-are major issues in ecology and conservation. We located and georeferenced nesting sites of five cliff-nesting raptors (Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus [a locally extinct species], common buzzard Buteo buteo , osprey Pandion haliaetus , common kestrel Falco tinnunculus , Barbary falcon Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides ), and common raven Corvus corax on one of the most biodiverse hotspot within the Canary Islands (Teno, Tenerife)...
April 2018: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397447/allometry-and-integration-do-not-strongly-constrain-beak-shape-evolution-in-large-billed-corvus-macrorhynchos-and-carrion-crows-corvus-corone
#5
Takeshi Yamasaki, Sou Aoki, Masayoshi Tokita
A recent geometric morphometric study on certain landbird lineages revealed that a major part of the variation in beak shape is accounted for by skull size and cranial shape. The study interpreted this result as evidence for the presence of strong evolutionary constraints that severely prevented beak shape from evolving substantially away from predictions of allometry and morphological integration. However, there is another overlooked but similarly plausible explanation for this result: The reason why beak shape does not depart much from predictions might simply be that selection pressures favoring such changes in shape are themselves rare...
October 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30356096/compound-tool-construction-by-new-caledonian-crows
#6
A M P von Bayern, S Danel, A M I Auersperg, B Mioduszewska, A Kacelnik
The construction of novel compound tools through assemblage of otherwise non-functional elements involves anticipation of the affordances of the tools to be built. Except for few observations in captive great apes, compound tool construction is unknown outside humans, and tool innovation appears late in human ontogeny. We report that habitually tool-using New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides) can combine objects to construct novel compound tools. We presented 8 naïve crows with combinable elements too short to retrieve food targets...
October 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355809/simultaneous-measurements-of-three-dimensional-trajectories-and-wingbeat-frequencies-of-birds-in-the-field
#7
Hangjian Ling, Guillam E Mclvor, Geoff Nagy, Sepehr MohaimenianPour, Richard T Vaughan, Alex Thornton, Nicholas T Ouellette
Tracking the movements of birds in three dimensions is integral to a wide range of problems in animal ecology, behaviour and cognition. Multi-camera stereo-imaging has been used to track the three-dimensional (3D) motion of birds in dense flocks, but precise localization of birds remains a challenge due to imaging resolution in the depth direction and optical occlusion. This paper introduces a portable stereo-imaging system with improved accuracy and a simple stereo-matching algorithm that can resolve optical occlusion...
October 24, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288960/light-at-night-affects-hippocampal-and-nidopallial-cytoarchitecture-implication-for-impairment-of-brain-function-in-diurnal-corvids
#8
Sheikh Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Our previous studies have shown that light at night (LAN) impaired cognitive performance and affected neurogenesis and neurochemistry in the cognition-associated brain regions, particularly the hippocampus (HP) and lateral caudal nidopallium (NCL) of Indian house crows (Corvus splendens). Here, we examined the cytoarchitecture and mapped out the morphology of neurons and glia-neuron density in HP and NCL regions of crows that were first entrained to 12-hr light (LL): 12-hr darkness (LD) and then exposed to the light regime in which 12-hr darkness was either replaced by daytime light (i...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271545/links-between-blood-parasites-blood-chemistry-and-the-survival-of-nestling-american-crows
#9
Andrea K Townsend, Sarah S Wheeler, David Freund, Ravinder N M Sehgal, Walter M Boyce
Many studies have used the avian hemosporidians ( Leucocytozoon , Plasmodium , and Hemoproteus ) to test hypotheses of host-parasite co-evolution, yet documented health and survival consequences of these blood parasites vary among studies and generalizations about their pathogenicity are debatable. In general, the negative effects of the hemosporidians are likely to be greatest during acute infections of young birds, yet most previous studies in wild passerines have examined chronic effects in adults. Here, we evaluated responses of nestling American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos ) to acute infection (prevalence and burden), as well as its short- and long-term survival consequences...
September 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238146/acute-and-chronic-lead-exposure-in-four-avian-scavenger-species-in-switzerland
#10
Kathrin Ganz, Lukas Jenni, Milena M Madry, Thomas Kraemer, Hannes Jenny, David Jenny
Despite irrefutable evidence of its negative impact on animal behaviour and physiology, lethal and sublethal lead poisoning of wildlife is still persistent and widespread. For scavenging birds, ingestion of ammunition, or fragments thereof, is the major exposure route. In this study, we examined the occurrence of lead in four avian scavengers of Switzerland and how it differs between species, regions, and age of the bird. We measured lead concentration in liver and bone of the two main alpine avian scavengers (golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos and bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus) over the entire area of the Swiss Alps and two of the main avian scavengers occurring in the lowlands of Switzerland (red kite Milvus milvus and common raven Corvus corax)...
November 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30222228/apparent-inbreeding-preference-despite-inbreeding-depression-in-the-american-crow
#11
Andrea K Townsend, Conor C Taff, Melissa L Jones, Katherine H Getman, Sarah S Wheeler, Mitch G Hinton, Ryane M Logsdon
Although matings between relatives can have negative effects on offspring fitness, apparent inbreeding preference has been reported in a growing number of systems, including those with documented inbreeding depression. Here, we examined evidence for inbreeding depression and inbreeding preference in two populations (Clinton, New York and Davis, California, USA) of the cooperatively breeding American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). We then compared observed inbreeding strategies with theoretical expectations for optimal, adaptive levels of inbreeding, given the inclusive fitness benefits and population-specific magnitude of inbreeding depression...
September 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218871/mercury-and-lead-exposure-in-avian-scavengers-from-the-pacific-northwest-suggest-risks-to-california-condors-implications-for-reintroduction-and-recovery
#12
Garth Herring, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Daniel E Varland
Mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) are widespread contaminants that pose risks to avian scavengers. In fact, Pb exposure is the primary factor limiting population recovery in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and Hg can impair avian reproduction at environmentally relevant exposures. The Pacific Northwest region of the US was historically part of the condor's native range, and efforts are underway to expand recovery into this area. To identify potential threats to reintroduced condors we assessed foraging habitats, Hg and Pb exposure, and physiological responses in two surrogate avian scavenger species (common ravens [Corvus corax] and turkey vultures [Cathartes aura] across the region between 2012 and 2016...
December 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218624/illuminated-night-alters-hippocampal-gene-expressions-and-induces-depressive-like-responses-in-diurnal-corvids
#13
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Artificial light at night induces circadian disruptions and causes cognitive impairment and mood disorders; yet very little is known about the neural and molecular correlates of these effects in diurnal animals. We manipulated the night environment and examined cellular and molecular changes in hippocampus, the brain region involved in cognition and mood, of Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) exposed to 12 hr light (150 lux): 12 hr darkness (0 lux). Diurnal corvids are an ideal model species with cognitive abilities at par with mammals...
September 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137290/molecular-characterization-of-plasmid-mediated-ampc-beta-lactamase-and-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-among-corvids-corvus-brachyrhynchos-and-corvus-corax-roosting-in-canada
#14
Ivana Jamborova, Nicol Janecko, Dana Halova, Jiri Sedmik, Kristyna Mezerova, Ivo Papousek, Iva Kutilova, Monika Dolejska, Alois Cizek, Ivan Literak
This study evaluated the carriage of AmpC and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes and associated plasmids in faecal bacteria of Canadian corvids. Faecal samples from 449 birds in five roosting sites across Canada were analyzed using selective media, screening for AmpC and ESBL genes by PCR, and sequencing. Genomic relatedness was determined by PFGE and MLST. Plasmid mobility was studied by conjugation and transformation experiments, followed by plasmid typing. In total, 96 (21%, n = 449) cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli and three (0...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083996/is-current-information-on-organochlorine-exposure-sufficient-to-conserve-birds-in-india
#15
REVIEW
Arzoo Malik, Nishith Dharaiya, Silvia Espín
Organochlorine compounds (OCs) pose a serious threat towards the wildlife due to their well-known adverse effects. India is the second largest producer of pesticides in Asia, with DDT production still ongoing, and is ranked amongst the leading countries of pesticide consumption. However, a significant data gap in avian biomonitoring studies has been identified in Asia. The objective of this review is to compile and discuss the available literature on concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Indian birds...
October 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071683/a-high-quality-long-read-de-novo-genome-assembly-to-aid-conservation-of-hawaii-s-last-remaining-crow-species
#16
Jolene T Sutton, Martin Helmkampf, Cynthia C Steiner, M Renee Bellinger, Jonas Korlach, Richard Hall, Primo Baybayan, Jill Muehling, Jenny Gu, Sarah Kingan, Bryce M Masuda, Oliver A Ryder
A bstract: Genome-level data can provide researchers with unprecedented precision to examine the causes and genetic consequences of population declines, which can inform conservation management. Here, we present a high-quality, long-read, de novo genome assembly for one of the world's most endangered bird species, the 'Alalā ( Corvus hawaiiensis ; Hawaiian crow). As the only remaining native crow species in Hawai'i, the 'Alalā survived solely in a captive-breeding program from 2002 until 2016, at which point a long-term reintroduction program was initiated...
August 1, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017081/molecular-assessment-of-neospora-caninum-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-hooded-crows-corvus-cornix-in-tehran-iran
#17
Amir Abdoli, Mohsen Arbabi, Majid Pirestani, Mehran Mirzaghavami, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Javid Sadraei
Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are two closely related protozoan parasites that have been detected from various species of bird hosts. However, little is known about the prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in crows. Hence, we examined the molecular frequency of N. caninum and T. gondii in the brain samples of hooded crows (Corvus cornix) that collected from different public parks of Tehran, Iran by nested-PCR method. We used the primers targeting the Nc5 and GRA6 genes for detection of N. caninum and T...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871743/isolation-of-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-from-a-crow-corvus-corone-in-close-proximity-to-commercial-pigs
#18
F Zeeh, S Klausmann, Y Masserey, H Nathues, V Perreten, J Rohde
The aim of this study was to determine whether crows (Corvus corone) can harbour Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the cause of swine dysentery, and whether the organism carried by crows is related to strains infecting pigs. B. hyodysenteriae was isolated from one crow in close proximity to two pig farms in Switzerland. This isolate, along with five isolates of B. hyodysenteriae from one of the farms, belonged to sequence type (ST) 66 using multilocus sequence typing. This finding suggests that crows are potential vectors of B...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790246/a-review-of-predation-as-a-limiting-factor-for-bird-populations-in-mesopredator-rich-landscapes-a-case-study-of-the-uk
#19
Staffan Roos, Jennifer Smart, David W Gibbons, Jeremy D Wilson
The impact of increasing vertebrate predator numbers on bird populations is widely debated among the general public, game managers and conservationists across Europe. However, there are few systematic reviews of whether predation limits the population sizes of European bird species. Views on the impacts of predation are particularly polarised in the UK, probably because the UK has a globally exceptional culture of intensive, high-yield gamebird management where predator removal is the norm. In addition, most apex predators have been exterminated or much depleted in numbers, contributing to a widely held perception that the UK has high numbers of mesopredators...
November 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719531/characterization-of-chicken-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-a-long-missed-cytokine-in-birds
#20
Franziska Rohde, Benjamin Schusser, Tomáš Hron, Helena Farkašová, Jiří Plachý, Sonja Härtle, Jiří Hejnar, Daniel Elleder, Bernd Kaspers
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic cytokine playing critical roles in host defense and acute and chronic inflammation. It has been described in fish, amphibians, and mammals but was considered to be absent in the avian genomes. Here, we report on the identification and functional characterization of the avian ortholog. The chicken TNF-α (chTNF-α) is encoded by a highly GC-rich gene, whose product shares with its mammalian counterpart 45% homology in the extracellular part displaying the characteristic TNF homology domain...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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