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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288960/light-at-night-affects-hippocampal-and-nidopallial-cytoarchitecture-implication-for-impairment-of-brain-function-in-diurnal-corvids
#1
Sheikh Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Our previous studies have shown that light at night (LAN) impaired cognitive performance and affected neurogenesis and neurochemistry in the cognition-associated brain regions, particularly the hippocampus (HP) and lateral caudal nidopallium (NCL) of Indian house crows (Corvus splendens). Here, we examined the cytoarchitecture and mapped out the morphology of neurons and glia-neuron density in HP and NCL regions of crows that were first entrained to 12-hr light (LL): 12-hr darkness (LD) and then exposed to the light regime in which 12-hr darkness was either replaced by daytime light (i...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271545/links-between-blood-parasites-blood-chemistry-and-the-survival-of-nestling-american-crows
#2
Andrea K Townsend, Sarah S Wheeler, David Freund, Ravinder N M Sehgal, Walter M Boyce
Many studies have used the avian hemosporidians ( Leucocytozoon , Plasmodium , and Hemoproteus ) to test hypotheses of host-parasite co-evolution, yet documented health and survival consequences of these blood parasites vary among studies and generalizations about their pathogenicity are debatable. In general, the negative effects of the hemosporidians are likely to be greatest during acute infections of young birds, yet most previous studies in wild passerines have examined chronic effects in adults. Here, we evaluated responses of nestling American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos ) to acute infection (prevalence and burden), as well as its short- and long-term survival consequences...
September 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238146/acute-and-chronic-lead-exposure-in-four-avian-scavenger-species-in-switzerland
#3
Kathrin Ganz, Lukas Jenni, Milena M Madry, Thomas Kraemer, Hannes Jenny, David Jenny
Despite irrefutable evidence of its negative impact on animal behaviour and physiology, lethal and sublethal lead poisoning of wildlife is still persistent and widespread. For scavenging birds, ingestion of ammunition, or fragments thereof, is the major exposure route. In this study, we examined the occurrence of lead in four avian scavengers of Switzerland and how it differs between species, regions, and age of the bird. We measured lead concentration in liver and bone of the two main alpine avian scavengers (golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos and bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus) over the entire area of the Swiss Alps and two of the main avian scavengers occurring in the lowlands of Switzerland (red kite Milvus milvus and common raven Corvus corax)...
November 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30222228/apparent-inbreeding-preference-despite-inbreeding-depression-in-the-american-crow
#4
Andrea K Townsend, Conor C Taff, Melissa L Jones, Katherine H Getman, Sarah S Wheeler, Mitch G Hinton, Ryane M Logsdon
Although matings between relatives can have negative effects on offspring fitness, apparent inbreeding preference has been reported in a growing number of systems, including those with documented inbreeding depression. Here, we examined evidence for inbreeding depression and inbreeding preference in two populations (Clinton, New York and Davis, California, USA) of the cooperatively breeding American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). We then compared observed inbreeding strategies with theoretical expectations for optimal, adaptive levels of inbreeding, given the inclusive fitness benefits and population-specific magnitude of inbreeding depression...
September 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218871/mercury-and-lead-exposure-in-avian-scavengers-from-the-pacific-northwest-suggest-risks-to-california-condors-implications-for-reintroduction-and-recovery
#5
Garth Herring, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Daniel E Varland
Mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) are widespread contaminants that pose risks to avian scavengers. In fact, Pb exposure is the primary factor limiting population recovery in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and Hg can impair avian reproduction at environmentally relevant exposures. The Pacific Northwest region of the US was historically part of the condor's native range, and efforts are underway to expand recovery into this area. To identify potential threats to reintroduced condors we assessed foraging habitats, Hg and Pb exposure, and physiological responses in two surrogate avian scavenger species (common ravens [Corvus corax] and turkey vultures [Cathartes aura] across the region between 2012 and 2016...
December 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218624/illuminated-night-alters-hippocampal-gene-expressions-and-induces-depressive-like-responses-in-diurnal-corvids
#6
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Artificial light at night induces circadian disruptions and causes cognitive impairment and mood disorders; yet very little is known about the neural and molecular correlates of these effects in diurnal animals. We manipulated the night environment and examined cellular and molecular changes in hippocampus, the brain region involved in cognition and mood, of Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) exposed to 12 h light (150 lux): 12 h darkness (0 lux). Diurnal corvids are an ideal model species with cognitive abilities at par with mammals...
September 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137290/molecular-characterization-of-plasmid-mediated-ampc-beta-lactamase-and-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-among-corvids-corvus-brachyrhynchos-and-corvus-corax-roosting-in-canada
#7
Ivana Jamborova, Nicol Janecko, Dana Halova, Jiri Sedmik, Kristyna Mezerova, Ivo Papousek, Iva Kutilova, Monika Dolejska, Alois Cizek, Ivan Literak
This study evaluated the carriage of AmpC and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes and associated plasmids in faecal bacteria of Canadian corvids. Faecal samples from 449 birds in five roosting sites across Canada were analyzed using selective media, screening for AmpC and ESBL genes by PCR, and sequencing. Genomic relatedness was determined by PFGE and MLST. Plasmid mobility was studied by conjugation and transformation experiments, followed by plasmid typing. In total, 96 (21%, n = 449) cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli and three (0...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083996/is-current-information-on-organochlorine-exposure-sufficient-to-conserve-birds-in-india
#8
REVIEW
Arzoo Malik, Nishith Dharaiya, Silvia Espín
Organochlorine compounds (OCs) pose a serious threat towards the wildlife due to their well-known adverse effects. India is the second largest producer of pesticides in Asia, with DDT production still ongoing, and is ranked amongst the leading countries of pesticide consumption. However, a significant data gap in avian biomonitoring studies has been identified in Asia. The objective of this review is to compile and discuss the available literature on concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Indian birds...
October 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071683/a-high-quality-long-read-de-novo-genome-assembly-to-aid-conservation-of-hawaii-s-last-remaining-crow-species
#9
Jolene T Sutton, Martin Helmkampf, Cynthia C Steiner, M Renee Bellinger, Jonas Korlach, Richard Hall, Primo Baybayan, Jill Muehling, Jenny Gu, Sarah Kingan, Bryce M Masuda, Oliver A Ryder
A bstract: Genome-level data can provide researchers with unprecedented precision to examine the causes and genetic consequences of population declines, which can inform conservation management. Here, we present a high-quality, long-read, de novo genome assembly for one of the world's most endangered bird species, the 'Alalā ( Corvus hawaiiensis ; Hawaiian crow). As the only remaining native crow species in Hawai'i, the 'Alalā survived solely in a captive-breeding program from 2002 until 2016, at which point a long-term reintroduction program was initiated...
August 1, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017081/molecular-assessment-of-neospora-caninum-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-hooded-crows-corvus-cornix-in-tehran-iran
#10
Amir Abdoli, Mohsen Arbabi, Majid Pirestani, Mehran Mirzaghavami, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Javid Sadraei
Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are two closely related protozoan parasites that have been detected from various species of bird hosts. However, little is known about the prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in crows. Hence, we examined the molecular frequency of N. caninum and T. gondii in the brain samples of hooded crows (Corvus cornix) that collected from different public parks of Tehran, Iran by nested-PCR method. We used the primers targeting the Nc5 and GRA6 genes for detection of N. caninum and T...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871743/isolation-of-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-from-a-crow-corvus-corone-in-close-proximity-to-commercial-pigs
#11
F Zeeh, S Klausmann, Y Masserey, H Nathues, V Perreten, J Rohde
The aim of this study was to determine whether crows (Corvus corone) can harbour Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the cause of swine dysentery, and whether the organism carried by crows is related to strains infecting pigs. B. hyodysenteriae was isolated from one crow in close proximity to two pig farms in Switzerland. This isolate, along with five isolates of B. hyodysenteriae from one of the farms, belonged to sequence type (ST) 66 using multilocus sequence typing. This finding suggests that crows are potential vectors of B...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790246/a-review-of-predation-as-a-limiting-factor-for-bird-populations-in-mesopredator-rich-landscapes-a-case-study-of-the-uk
#12
Staffan Roos, Jennifer Smart, David W Gibbons, Jeremy D Wilson
The impact of increasing vertebrate predator numbers on bird populations is widely debated among the general public, game managers and conservationists across Europe. However, there are few systematic reviews of whether predation limits the population sizes of European bird species. Views on the impacts of predation are particularly polarised in the UK, probably because the UK has a globally exceptional culture of intensive, high-yield gamebird management where predator removal is the norm. In addition, most apex predators have been exterminated or much depleted in numbers, contributing to a widely held perception that the UK has high numbers of mesopredators...
November 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719531/characterization-of-chicken-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-a-long-missed-cytokine-in-birds
#13
Franziska Rohde, Benjamin Schusser, Tomáš Hron, Helena Farkašová, Jiří Plachý, Sonja Härtle, Jiří Hejnar, Daniel Elleder, Bernd Kaspers
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic cytokine playing critical roles in host defense and acute and chronic inflammation. It has been described in fish, amphibians, and mammals but was considered to be absent in the avian genomes. Here, we report on the identification and functional characterization of the avian ortholog. The chicken TNF-α (chTNF-α) is encoded by a highly GC-rich gene, whose product shares with its mammalian counterpart 45% homology in the extracellular part displaying the characteristic TNF homology domain...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675942/occurrence-of-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-genes-in-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-spp-recovered-from-corvus-brachyrhynchos-and-corvus-corax-roosting-in-canada
#14
N Janecko, D Halova, I Jamborova, I Papousek, M Masarikova, M Dolejska, I Literak
The spread of antimicrobial resistance from human activity derived sources to natural habitats implicates wildlife as potential vectors of antimicrobial resistance transfer. Wild birds, including corvid species can disseminate mobile genetic resistance determinants through faeces. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates obtained from winter roosting sites of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and common ravens (Corvus corax) in Canada...
August 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552564/consumption-of-big-game-remains-by-scavengers-a-potential-risk-as-regards-disease-transmission-in-central-spain
#15
Ricardo Carrasco-Garcia, Patricia Barroso, Javier Perez-Olivares, Vidal Montoro, Joaquín Vicente
Understanding the role that facultative scavenger species may play in spreading infectious pathogens, and even becoming reservoirs for humans, domestic and wild ungulates or, on the contrary, preventing the spread of disease, requires a prior understanding of the pattern of carrion scavenging in specific scenarios. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe the guild of vertebrate scavengers and (ii) to study the species-specific, habitat, and management-related factors involved in the usage of gut piles in South Central Spain (SCS), a tuberculosis (TB) endemic area...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528812/comparative-analysis-of-campylobacter-isolates-from-wild-birds-and-chickens-using-maldi-tof-ms-biochemical-testing-and-dna-sequencing
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Samantha J Lawton, Allison M Weis, Barbara A Byrne, Heather Fritz, Conor C Taff, Andrea K Townsend, Bart C Weimer, Aslı Mete, Sarah Wheeler, Walter M Boyce
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was compared to conventional biochemical testing methods and nucleic acid analyses (16S rDNA sequencing, hippurate hydrolysis gene testing, whole genome sequencing [WGS]) for species identification of Campylobacter isolates obtained from chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus, n = 8), American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos, n = 17), a mallard duck ( Anas platyrhynchos, n = 1), and a western scrub-jay ( Aphelocoma californica, n = 1)...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517437/gastrointestinal-parasites-in-captive-and-free-ranging-birds-and-potential-cross-transmission-in-a-zoo-environment
#17
Patricio D Carrera-Játiva, Eric R Morgan, Michelle Barrows, Torsten Wronski
Gastrointestinal parasites are commonly reported in wild birds, but transmission amongst avifauna in zoological settings, and between these captive birds and wild birds in surrounding areas, remains poorly understood. A survey was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-ranging birds at Bristol Zoo Gardens between May and July 2016. A total of 348 fecal samples from 32 avian species were examined using the Mini-FLOTAC flotation method. Parasites were detected in 31% (45/145) of samples from captive birds and in 65...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514988/elucidation-of-the-hierarchical-structure-of-natural-eumelanins
#18
Ming Xiao, Wei Chen, Weiyao Li, Jiuzhou Zhao, You-Lee Hong, Yusuke Nishiyama, Toshikazu Miyoshi, Matthew D Shawkey, Ali Dhinojwala
Eumelanin is one of the most ubiquitous pigments in living organisms and plays an important role in coloration and UV protection. Because eumelanin is highly cross-linked and insoluble in solvents, the chemical structure is still not completely known. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to compare intact eumelanosomes (pigment granules mostly made of eumelanin) from four phylogentically distant species: cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis ) inks, black fish crow ( Corvus ossifragus ) feathers, iridescent wild turkey ( Melleagris gallopavo ) feathers and black human hair...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506438/west-nile-virus-infection-in-american-singer-canaries-an-experimental-model-in-a-highly-susceptible-avian-species
#19
Erik K Hofmeister, Melissa Lund, Valerie Shearn Bochsler
This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries ( Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 105 , 102 , and 101 plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 105 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 101 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 1010 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 105 PFU of virus...
July 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500409/genomic-evidence-of-speciation-reversal-in-ravens
#20
Anna M Kearns, Marco Restani, Ildiko Szabo, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Jin Ah Kim, Hayley M Richardson, John M Marzluff, Robert C Fleischer, Arild Johnsen, Kevin E Omland
Many species, including humans, have emerged via complex reticulate processes involving hybridisation. Under certain circumstances, hybridisation can cause distinct lineages to collapse into a single lineage with an admixed mosaic genome. Most known cases of such 'speciation reversal' or 'lineage fusion' involve recently diverged lineages and anthropogenic perturbation. Here, we show that in western North America, Common Ravens (Corvus corax) have admixed mosaic genomes formed by the fusion of non-sister lineages ('California' and 'Holarctic') that diverged ~1...
March 2, 2018: Nature Communications
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