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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083996/is-current-information-on-organochlorine-exposure-sufficient-to-conserve-birds-in-india
#1
REVIEW
Arzoo Malik, Nishith Dharaiya, Silvia Espín
Organochlorine compounds (OCs) pose a serious threat towards the wildlife due to their well-known adverse effects. India is the second largest producer of pesticides in Asia, with DDT production still ongoing, and is ranked amongst the leading countries of pesticide consumption. However, a significant data gap in avian biomonitoring studies has been identified in Asia. The objective of this review is to compile and discuss the available literature on concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Indian birds...
August 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071683/a-high-quality-long-read-de-novo-genome-assembly-to-aid-conservation-of-hawaii-s-last-remaining-crow-species
#2
Jolene T Sutton, Martin Helmkampf, Cynthia C Steiner, M Renee Bellinger, Jonas Korlach, Richard Hall, Primo Baybayan, Jill Muehling, Jenny Gu, Sarah Kingan, Bryce M Masuda, Oliver A Ryder
A bstract: Genome-level data can provide researchers with unprecedented precision to examine the causes and genetic consequences of population declines, which can inform conservation management. Here, we present a high-quality, long-read, de novo genome assembly for one of the world's most endangered bird species, the 'Alalā ( Corvus hawaiiensis ; Hawaiian crow). As the only remaining native crow species in Hawai'i, the 'Alalā survived solely in a captive-breeding program from 2002 until 2016, at which point a long-term reintroduction program was initiated...
August 1, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017081/molecular-assessment-of-neospora-caninum-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-hooded-crows-corvus-cornix-in-tehran-iran
#3
Amir Abdoli, Mohsen Arbabi, Majid Pirestani, Mehran Mirzaghavami, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Javid Sadraei
Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are two closely related protozoan parasites that have been detected from various species of bird hosts. However, little is known about the prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in crows. Hence, we examined the molecular frequency of N. caninum and T. gondii in the brain samples of hooded crows (Corvus cornix) that collected from different public parks of Tehran, Iran by nested-PCR method. We used the primers targeting the Nc5 and GRA6 genes for detection of N. caninum and T...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871743/isolation-of-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-from-a-crow-corvus-corone-in-close-proximity-to-commercial-pigs
#4
F Zeeh, S Klausmann, Y Masserey, H Nathues, V Perreten, J Rohde
The aim of this study was to determine whether crows (Corvus corone) can harbour Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the cause of swine dysentery, and whether the organism carried by crows is related to strains infecting pigs. B. hyodysenteriae was isolated from one crow in close proximity to two pig farms in Switzerland. This isolate, along with five isolates of B. hyodysenteriae from one of the farms, belonged to sequence type (ST) 66 using multilocus sequence typing. This finding suggests that crows are potential vectors of B...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790246/a-review-of-predation-as-a-limiting-factor-for-bird-populations-in-mesopredator-rich-landscapes-a-case-study-of-the-uk
#5
Staffan Roos, Jennifer Smart, David W Gibbons, Jeremy D Wilson
The impact of increasing vertebrate predator numbers on bird populations is widely debated among the general public, game managers and conservationists across Europe. However, there are few systematic reviews of whether predation limits the population sizes of European bird species. Views on the impacts of predation are particularly polarised in the UK, probably because the UK has a globally exceptional culture of intensive, high-yield gamebird management where predator removal is the norm. In addition, most apex predators have been exterminated or much depleted in numbers, contributing to a widely held perception that the UK has high numbers of mesopredators...
May 22, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719531/characterization-of-chicken-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-a-long-missed-cytokine-in-birds
#6
Franziska Rohde, Benjamin Schusser, Tomáš Hron, Helena Farkašová, Jiří Plachý, Sonja Härtle, Jiří Hejnar, Daniel Elleder, Bernd Kaspers
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic cytokine playing critical roles in host defense and acute and chronic inflammation. It has been described in fish, amphibians, and mammals but was considered to be absent in the avian genomes. Here, we report on the identification and functional characterization of the avian ortholog. The chicken TNF-α (chTNF-α) is encoded by a highly GC-rich gene, whose product shares with its mammalian counterpart 45% homology in the extracellular part displaying the characteristic TNF homology domain...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675942/occurrence-of-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-genes-in-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-spp-recovered-from-corvus-brachyrhynchos-and-corvus-corax-roosting-in-canada
#7
N Janecko, D Halova, I Jamborova, I Papousek, M Masarikova, M Dolejska, I Literak
The spread of antimicrobial resistance from human activity derived sources to natural habitats implicates wildlife as potential vectors of antimicrobial resistance transfer. Wild birds, including corvid species can disseminate mobile genetic resistance determinants through faeces. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates obtained from winter roosting sites of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and common ravens (Corvus corax) in Canada...
August 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552564/consumption-of-big-game-remains-by-scavengers-a-potential-risk-as-regards-disease-transmission-in-central-spain
#8
Ricardo Carrasco-Garcia, Patricia Barroso, Javier Perez-Olivares, Vidal Montoro, Joaquín Vicente
Understanding the role that facultative scavenger species may play in spreading infectious pathogens, and even becoming reservoirs for humans, domestic and wild ungulates or, on the contrary, preventing the spread of disease, requires a prior understanding of the pattern of carrion scavenging in specific scenarios. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe the guild of vertebrate scavengers and (ii) to study the species-specific, habitat, and management-related factors involved in the usage of gut piles in South Central Spain (SCS), a tuberculosis (TB) endemic area...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528812/comparative-analysis-of-campylobacter-isolates-from-wild-birds-and-chickens-using-maldi-tof-ms-biochemical-testing-and-dna-sequencing
#9
Samantha J Lawton, Allison M Weis, Barbara A Byrne, Heather Fritz, Conor C Taff, Andrea K Townsend, Bart C Weimer, Aslı Mete, Sarah Wheeler, Walter M Boyce
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was compared to conventional biochemical testing methods and nucleic acid analyses (16S rDNA sequencing, hippurate hydrolysis gene testing, whole genome sequencing [WGS]) for species identification of Campylobacter isolates obtained from chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus, n = 8), American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos, n = 17), a mallard duck ( Anas platyrhynchos, n = 1), and a western scrub-jay ( Aphelocoma californica, n = 1)...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517437/gastrointestinal-parasites-in-captive-and-free-ranging-birds-and-potential-cross-transmission-in-a-zoo-environment
#10
Patricio D Carrera-Játiva, Eric R Morgan, Michelle Barrows, Torsten Wronski
Gastrointestinal parasites are commonly reported in wild birds, but transmission amongst avifauna in zoological settings, and between these captive birds and wild birds in surrounding areas, remains poorly understood. A survey was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-ranging birds at Bristol Zoo Gardens between May and July 2016. A total of 348 fecal samples from 32 avian species were examined using the Mini-FLOTAC flotation method. Parasites were detected in 31% (45/145) of samples from captive birds and in 65...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514988/elucidation-of-the-hierarchical-structure-of-natural-eumelanins
#11
Ming Xiao, Wei Chen, Weiyao Li, Jiuzhou Zhao, You-Lee Hong, Yusuke Nishiyama, Toshikazu Miyoshi, Matthew D Shawkey, Ali Dhinojwala
Eumelanin is one of the most ubiquitous pigments in living organisms and plays an important role in coloration and UV protection. Because eumelanin is highly cross-linked and insoluble in solvents, the chemical structure is still not completely known. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to compare intact eumelanosomes (pigment granules mostly made of eumelanin) from four phylogentically distant species: cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis ) inks, black fish crow ( Corvus ossifragus ) feathers, iridescent wild turkey ( Melleagris gallopavo ) feathers and black human hair...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506438/west-nile-virus-infection-in-american-singer-canaries-an-experimental-model-in-a-highly-susceptible-avian-species
#12
Erik K Hofmeister, Melissa Lund, Valerie Shearn Bochsler
This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries ( Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 105 , 102 , and 101 plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 105 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 101 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 1010 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 105 PFU of virus...
July 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500409/genomic-evidence-of-speciation-reversal-in-ravens
#13
Anna M Kearns, Marco Restani, Ildiko Szabo, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Jin Ah Kim, Hayley M Richardson, John M Marzluff, Robert C Fleischer, Arild Johnsen, Kevin E Omland
Many species, including humans, have emerged via complex reticulate processes involving hybridisation. Under certain circumstances, hybridisation can cause distinct lineages to collapse into a single lineage with an admixed mosaic genome. Most known cases of such 'speciation reversal' or 'lineage fusion' involve recently diverged lineages and anthropogenic perturbation. Here, we show that in western North America, Common Ravens (Corvus corax) have admixed mosaic genomes formed by the fusion of non-sister lineages ('California' and 'Holarctic') that diverged ~1...
March 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493658/erratum-a-longitudinal-network-analysis-of-social-dynamics-in-rooks-corvus-frugilegus-repeated-group-modifications-do-not-affect-social-network-in-captive-rooks
#14
Palmyre H Boucherie, Sebastian Sosa, Cristian Pasquaretta, Valerie Dufour
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/cz/zow083.].
August 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492018/invasive-rats-strengthen-predation-pressure-on-bird-eggs-in-a-south-pacific-island-rainforest
#15
Quiterie Duron, Edouard Bourguet, Hélène De Meringo, Alexandre Millon, Eric Vidal
Invasive rats ( Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats ( Rattus rattus and R. exulans ) on native bird eggs in a New Caledonian rainforest, using artificial bird-nest monitoring...
December 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491998/a-longitudinal-network-analysis-of-social-dynamics-in-rooks-corvus-frugilegus-repeated-group-modifications-do-not-affect-social-network-in-captive-rooks
#16
Palmyre H Boucherie, Sebastian Sosa, Cristian Pasquaretta, Valérie Dufour
Numerous studies have investigated the remarkable variation of social features and the resulting structures across species. Indeed, relationships are dynamic and vary in time according to various factors such as environmental conditions or individuals attributes. However, few studies have investigated the processes that stabilize the structures within a given species, and the behavioral mechanisms that ensure their coherence and continuity across time. Here, we used a dynamic actor-based model, RSiena, to investigate the consistency of the temporal dynamic of relationships of a group of captive rooks facing recurrent modifications in group composition (i...
August 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447156/west-nile-and-st-louis-encephalitis-viral-genetic-determinants-of-avian-host-competence
#17
Payal D Maharaj, Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Stanley A Langevin, Michael Anishchenko, Richard A Bowen, William K Reisen, Aaron C Brault
West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV) virus are enzootically maintained in North America in cycles involving the same mosquito vectors and similar avian hosts. However, these viruses exhibit dissimilar viremia and virulence phenotypes in birds: WNV is associated with high magnitude viremias that can result in mortality in certain species such as American crows (AMCRs, Corvus brachyrhynchos) whereas SLEV infection yields lower viremias that have not been associated with avian mortality. Cross-neutralization of these viruses in avian sera has been proposed to explain the reduced circulation of SLEV since the introduction of WNV in North America; however, in 2015, both viruses were the etiologic agents of concurrent human encephalitis outbreaks in Arizona, indicating the need to re-evaluate host factors and cross-neutralization responses as factors potentially affecting viral co-circulation...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338711/blood-parasite-infections-in-a-wild-population-of-ravens-corvus-corax-in-bulgaria
#18
Peter Shurulinkov, Lachezar Spasov, Georgi Stoyanov, Nayden Chakarov
BACKGROUND: Blood parasites have been studied intensely in many families of avian hosts, but corvids, a particularly cosmopolitan family, remain underexplored. Haemosporidian parasites of the common raven (Corvus corax) have not been studied, although it is the largest, most adaptable, and widespread corvid. Genetic sequence data from parasites of ravens can enhance the understanding of speciation patterns and specificity of haemosporidian parasites in corvids, and shed light how these hosts cope with parasite pressure...
January 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282545/relationship-between-pb-and-cd-accumulations-in-house-crow-their-habitat-and-food-content-from-klang-area-peninsular-malaysia
#19
Mohammed Janaydeh, Ahmad Ismail, Hishamuddin Omar, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Mohd Hair Bejo, Nor Azwady Abd Aziz
Heavy metal pollution has become a global concern due to accumulation in tissue and transferable effects to humans via the food chain. This study focused on monitoring the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in surface soil and body content: bone, heart, brain, liver, lung, muscle, kidney, feathers, feces, and gizzard contents of house crow Corvus splendens in the Klang region, Malaysia. The results revealed the occurrence of Pb and Cd in all biological samples from house crows, food contents, and surface soil samples...
December 27, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249025/monitoring-of-heavy-metal-burden-in-wild-birds-at-eastern-north-eastern-part-of-hungary
#20
Adrienn Grúz, János Déri, Géza Szemerédy, Korinna Szabó, Éva Kormos, András Bartha, József Lehel, Péter Budai
Concentrations of different heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) were examined in the contour feathers of long-eared owl (Asio otus), little owl (Athene noctua), tawny owl (Strix aluco), barn owl (Tyto alba), Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), rook (Corvus frugilegus), hooded crow (Corvus cornix), carrion crow (Corvus corone), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). The samples were collected from the Hortobágyi Madárpark (Bird Hospital Foundation) in Hungary. The bird species were classified into six groups based on their nourishment...
March 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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