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Melissa R Laub, Stacy A Crow, Heather Personett, Ross Dierkhising, Barry Boilson, Raymund Razonable
Tacrolimus is a cornerstone of immunosuppression after transplantation but is highly susceptible to changes from interacting variables and has a narrow therapeutic index. Clotrimazole troches are commonly used as a non-systemic antifungal to prevent oral candidiasis. Studies suggest that clotrimazole troches, though minimally absorbed systemically, may affect tacrolimus concentrations by inhibition of metabolic enzyme activity in the intestines. However, the magnitude of the impact of clotrimazole on tacrolimus dosing requirements to maintain goal levels is not well described...
August 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Rebecca E Cash, Kim White-Mills, Remle P Crowe, Madison K Rivard, Ashish R Panchal
BACKGROUND: Incivility, defined as negative interpersonal acts that violate workplace and social norms, has been linked to negative outcomes in healthcare settings. Little is known regarding workplace incivility among emergency medical services (EMS) professionals. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate the prevalence of incivility and factors associated with experiencing workplace incivility; (2) describe the association between incivility and workforce-reducing factors (stress, career satisfaction, turnover intentions, and workplace absences); and (3) quantify the association between incivility and the organizational culture of an EMS agency...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Hailey Juszczak, Stefan E Lowenstein, Lauren Crow, Garrett R Roll, Timothy H McCalmont, Sarah T Arron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: JAAD Case Reports
David B Saakian, Kang Hao Cheong, Jin Ming Koh
The Crow-Kimura model is commonly used in the modeling of genetic evolution in the presence of mutations and associated selection pressures. We consider a modified version of the Crow-Kimura model, in which population sizes are not fixed and Allee saturation effects are present. We demonstrate the evolutionary dynamics in this system through an analytical approach, examining both symmetric and single-peak fitness landscape cases. Especially interesting are the dynamics of the populations near extinction. A special version of the model with saturation and degradation on the single-peak fitness landscape is investigated as a candidate of the Allee effect in evolution, revealing reduction tendencies of excessively large populations, and extinction tendencies for small populations...
July 2018: Physical Review. E
Michelle Meyer, Asuka Yoshida, Palaniappan Ramanathan, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Peter L Collins, James E Crowe, Siba Samal, Alexander Bukreyev
Comparative immune response profiling is important for selecting next-generation vaccines. We comprehensively evaluated the antibody responses from a panel of nine respiratory vaccines against Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from human and avian paramyxoviruses expressing EBOV glycoprotein (GP). Most vaccines were protective in guinea pigs but yielded antibody repertoires that differed in proportion targeting key antigenic regions, avidity, neutralizing antibody specificities, and linear epitope preferences. Competition studies with monoclonal antibodies from human survivors revealed that some epitopes in GP targeted for neutralization were vector dependent, while EBOV-neutralizing titers correlated with the response magnitude toward the receptor-binding domain and GP1/GP2 interface epitopes...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Natalia A Kuzmina, Patrick Younan, Pavlo Gilchuk, Rodrigo I Santos, Andrew I Flyak, Philipp A Ilinykh, Kai Huang, Ndongala M Lubaki, Palaniappan Ramanathan, James E Crowe, Alexander Bukreyev
Some monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recovered from survivors of filovirus infections can protect against infection. It is currently unknown whether natural infection also induces some antibodies with the capacity for antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). A panel of mAbs obtained from human survivors of filovirus infection caused by Ebola, Bundibugyo, or Marburg viruses was evaluated for their ability to facilitate ADE. ADE was observed readily with all mAbs examined at sub-neutralizing concentrations, and this effect was not restricted to mAbs with a particular epitope specificity, neutralizing capacity, or subclass...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Carolina Uggenti, Yanick J Crow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Matthew S Bramble, Nicole Hoff, Pavlo Gilchuk, Patrick Mukadi, Kai Lu, Reena H Doshi, Imke Steffen, Bradly P Nicholson, Allen Lipson, Neerja Vashist, Cyrus Sinai, D'andre Spencer, Garrard Olinger, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Benoit Kebela Illunga, James Pettitt, James Logue, Jonathan Marchand, Justin Varughese, Richard S Bennett, Peter Jahrling, Guy Cavet, Tito Serafini, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Eric Vilain, Jean Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Lisa E Hensely, Graham Simmons, James E Crowe, Anne W Rimoin
One year after a Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak occurred in the Boende Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of the Congo during 2014, we sought to determine the breadth of immune response against diverse filoviruses including EBOV, Bundibugyo (BDBV), Sudan (SUDV), and Marburg (MARV) viruses. After assessing the 15 survivors, 5 individuals demonstrated some degree of reactivity to multiple ebolavirus species and, in some instances, Marburg virus. All 5 of these survivors had immunoreactivity to EBOV glycoprotein (GP) and EBOV VP40, and 4 had reactivity to EBOV nucleoprotein (NP)...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mengcun Chen, Daniel J Gittings, Shuhua Yang, Xianzhe Liu
Background: Treatment of Crowe IV developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) with total hip arthroplasty (THA) reconstructs the true acetabulum, which improves hip biomechanics and function. However, restoration of the native acetabulum may lead to limb lengthening and traction neuropraxia. The purpose of this study is to describe the short term results of a retrospectively reviewed series of patients with Crowe IV DDH treated with THA using a titanium mesh cup, cemented liner, and subtrochanteric femoral shortening osteotomy...
2018: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
Fran Baum, Jennie Popay, Toni Delany-Crowe, Toby Freeman, Connie Musolino, Carlos Alvarez-Dardet, Vinya Ariyaratne, Kedar Baral, Paulin Basinga, Mary Bassett, David M Bishai, Mickey Chopra, Sharon Friel, Elsa Giugliani, Hideki Hashimoto, James Macinko, Martin McKee, Huong Thanh Nguyen, Nikki Schaay, Orielle Solar, Sundararaman Thiagarajan, David Sanders
BACKGROUND: Life expectancy initially improves rapidly with economic development but then tails off. Yet, at any level of economic development, some countries do better, and some worse, than expected - they either punch above or below their weight. Why this is the case has been previously researched but no full explanation of the complexity of this phenomenon is available. NEW RESEARCH NETWORK: In order to advance understanding, the newly formed Punching Above Their Weight Research Network has developed a model to frame future research...
August 13, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Miles Saitta, Hemakumar Devan, Pauline Boland, Meredith A Perry
BACKGROUND: Park-based physical activity (PA) interventions improve health in the general population, but it is unknown if the evidence can be translated to persons with disabilities. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a mixed-methods systematic synthesis of the evidence for park-based physical activity interventions for persons with disabilities and secondarily, to consider the health benefits across the lifespan (children and adolescents, young, middle, and older adults)...
July 31, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
Michael Rosenbloom, Terry R Barclay, Soo Borson, Ann M Werner, Lauren O Erickson, Jean M Crow, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Logan H Stuck, Leah R Hanson
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia, goes unrecognized in half of patients presenting to healthcare providers and is associated with increased acute care utilization. Routine cognitive screening of older adults in healthcare settings could improve rates of dementia diagnosis and patterns of healthcare utilization. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of screening positive for cognitive impairment on provider action in primary and specialty care practices and patient healthcare utilization...
August 10, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Orane Lorton, Jean-Noël Hyacinthe, Stéphane Desgranges, Laura Gui, Antoine Klauser, Zarko Celicanin, Lindsey A Crowe, François Lazeyras, Eric Allémann, Nicolas Taulier, Christiane Contino-Pépin, Rares Salomir
OBJECTIVE: Perfluorocarbon nano- and micron-sized emulsions are a new field of investigation in cancer treatment due to their ability to be used as imaging contrast agents, or as delivery vectors for pharmaceuticals. They also demonstrated capability to enhance the efficiency of high intensity focused ultrasound thermo-therapy. In the context of new biomedical applications we investigated perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) theranostic droplets using 19 F NMR. Each droplet contains biocompatible fluorinated surfactants composed of a polar Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane head unit and hydrophobic perfluorinated tail (abbreviated as F-TAC)...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Erica Ollmann Saphire, Sharon L Schendel, Marnie L Fusco, Karthik Gangavarapu, Bronwyn M Gunn, Anna Z Wec, Peter J Halfmann, Jennifer M Brannan, Andrew S Herbert, Xiangguo Qiu, Kshitij Wagh, Shihua He, Elena E Giorgi, James Theiler, Kathleen B J Pommert, Tyler B Krause, Hannah L Turner, Charles D Murin, Jesper Pallesen, Edgar Davidson, Rafi Ahmed, M Javad Aman, Alexander Bukreyev, Dennis R Burton, James E Crowe, Carl W Davis, George Georgiou, Florian Krammer, Christos A Kyratsous, Jonathan R Lai, Cory Nykiforuk, Michael H Pauly, Pramila Rijal, Ayato Takada, Alain R Townsend, Viktor Volchkov, Laura M Walker, Cheng-I Wang, Larry Zeitlin, Benjamin J Doranz, Andrew B Ward, Bette Korber, Gary P Kobinger, Kristian G Andersen, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Galit Alter, Kartik Chandran, John M Dye
Antibodies are promising post-exposure therapies against emerging viruses, but which antibody features and in vitro assays best forecast protection are unclear. Our international consortium systematically evaluated antibodies against Ebola virus (EBOV) using multidisciplinary assays. For each antibody, we evaluated epitopes recognized on the viral surface glycoprotein (GP) and secreted glycoprotein (sGP), readouts of multiple neutralization assays, fraction of virions left un-neutralized, glycan structures, phagocytic and natural killer cell functions elicited, and in vivo protection in a mouse challenge model...
August 9, 2018: Cell
Koenraad De Boulle, William Philip Werschler, Michael H Gold, Suzanne Bruce, Gerhard Sattler, Patricia Ogilvie, James Street, Kristin E Larsen, Irina Yushmanova, Xiaofang Lei, Elisabeth Lee, Domenico Vitarella, Cheri Mao
BACKGROUND: Although commonly practiced, simultaneous onabotulinumtoxinA injections to multiple facial areas have not been investigated in prospective studies. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate safety and efficacy of onabotulinumtoxinA for treatment of forehead lines (FHL) distributed between the frontalis (20 U) and glabellar complex (20 U), with or without simultaneous lateral canthal areas (crow's feet lines [CFL], 24 U) treatment. METHODS: Subjects with moderate to severe FHL were randomized (2:2:1) to onabotulinumtoxinA 40 U, onabotulinumtoxinA 64 U, or placebo...
August 9, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Reena Rajasuriar, Anna C Hearps, Suzanne M Crowe, Joshua J Anzinger, Clovis S Palmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Bronwyn M Gunn, Wen-Han Yu, Marcus M Karim, Jennifer M Brannan, Andrew S Herbert, Anna Z Wec, Peter J Halfmann, Marnie L Fusco, Sharon L Schendel, Karthik Gangavarapu, Tyler Krause, Xiangguo Qiu, Shinhua He, Jishnu Das, Todd J Suscovich, Jonathan Lai, Kartik Chandran, Larry Zeitlin, James E Crowe, Douglas Lauffenburger, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Gary P Kobinger, Kristian G Andersen, John M Dye, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Galit Alter
The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic highlighted the need for effective vaccines and therapeutics to limit and prevent outbreaks. Host antibodies against EBOV are critical for controlling disease, and recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can protect from infection. However, antibodies mediate an array of antiviral functions including neutralization as well as engagement of Fc-domain receptors on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis or NK cell-mediated killing of infected cells. Thus, to understand the antibody features mediating EBOV protection, we examined specific Fc features associated with protection using a library of EBOV-specific mAbs...
August 8, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Rebecca E Cash, Jeremiah Kinsman, Remle P Crowe, Madison K Rivard, Mark Faul, Ashish R Panchal
As the opioid epidemic in the United States has continued since the early 2000s (1,2), most descriptions have focused on misuse and deaths. Increased cooperation with state and local partners has enabled more rapid and comprehensive surveillance of nonfatal opioid overdoses (3).* Naloxone administrations obtained from emergency medical services (EMS) patient care records have served as a useful proxy for overdose surveillance in individual communities and might be a previously unused data source to describe the opioid epidemic, including fatal and nonfatal events, on a national level (4-6)...
August 10, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
M Aleman, L R R Costa, C Crowe, P H Kass
BACKGROUND: Neuroglycopenia refers to a shortage of glucose in the brain resulting in neuronal dysfunction and death if left untreated. Presumed neuroglycopenia has not been described in horses. OBJECTIVE: To report neurological signs in horses with presumed neuroglycopenia as the result of severe hypoglycemia. ANIMALS: Ninety horses (hours to 28 years of age) diagnosed with hypoglycemia (blood glucose concentration < 75 mg/dL [< 4.2 mmol/L])...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Arzoo Malik, Nishith Dharaiya, Silvia Espín
Organochlorine compounds (OCs) pose a serious threat towards the wildlife due to their well-known adverse effects. India is the second largest producer of pesticides in Asia, with DDT production still ongoing, and is ranked amongst the leading countries of pesticide consumption. However, a significant data gap in avian biomonitoring studies has been identified in Asia. The objective of this review is to compile and discuss the available literature on concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Indian birds...
August 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology
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