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Barbara C Klump, Bryce M Masuda, James J H St Clair, Christian Rutz
Very few animal species habitually make and use foraging tools. We recently discovered that the Hawaiian crow is a highly skilled, natural tool user. Most captive adults in our experiment spontaneously used sticks to access out-of-reach food from a range of extraction tasks, exhibiting a surprising degree of dexterity. Moreover, many birds modified tools before or during deployment, and some even manufactured tools from raw materials. In this invited addendum article, we describe and discuss these observations in more detail...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Riley J T Murphy, Yung Thin Lee, Stanley Pang, Tahlia R Bastholm, Jade E Crow, Amy M Davis, Geoffrey W Coombs, Mark A O'Dea, Sam Abraham, Joshua P Ramsay
Staphylococcus aureus is a serious pathogen of humans and animals. Multilocus sequence type 612 is dominant and highly virulent in South African hospitals but relatively uncommon elsewhere. We present the complete genome sequence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain SVH7513, isolated from a horse at a veterinary clinic in New South Wales, Australia.
August 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Orane Lorton, Pauline Guillemin, Nadia Mori, Lindsey Alexandra Crowe, Sana Boudabbous, Sylvain Terraz, Christoph Becker, Philippe C Cattin, Rares Salomir, Laura Gui
OBJECTIVE: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) treatment in the abdominal cavity is challenging due to the respiratory motion. In the self-scanning HIFU ablation method the focal spot is kept static and the heating pattern is obtained through natural tissue motion. This paper describes a novel approach for modulating the HIFU power during self-scanning in order to compensate for the effect of tissue motion on thermal build-up. METHODS: The therapy, using hybrid ultrasound (US) / magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, consists of detecting and tracking speckle on US images in order to predict the next tissue position, and modulating the HIFU power according to the tissue speed in order to obtain a rectilinear pattern of uniform temperature elevation...
December 5, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
James Rijken, Tanya Kairn, Scott Crowe, Jamie Trapp
Due to large doses per fraction, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy of lung or spine can lead to skin tissue toxicity, the amount of which depends on a variety of factors such as target location, beam geometry, and immobilization. The effect of arc length on spreading out entrance and exit doses and the corresponding predictions of skin reactions has not yet been studied for stereotactic body radiotherapy volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments. 58 clinically relevant VMAT stereotactic body radiotherapy spine and lung plans were created for an anthropomorphic phantom utilizing a range of target locations, beam geometries and arc lengths...
December 4, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Morgan Schellenberg, Kenji Inaba, Jessica Chen, James M Bardes, Elizabeth Crow, Lydia Lam, Elizabeth Benjamin, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: When ground-level falls occur in the bathroom, there is particular potential for morbidity and mortality given the high density of hard surfaces. Risk factors are not clearly defined by the existing literature. The objective of this study was to define the epidemiology, injury patterns, and outcomes after falls in the bathroom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting to LAC+USC Medical Center (01/2008-05/2015) after a fall in the bathroom (ICD-9 code E884...
February 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Claire Kendall, Michael Fitzgerald, Rachel Seoyeon Kang, Sabrina T Wong, Alan Katz, Martin Fortin, Emilie Dionne, Kerry Kuluski, Mary Ann O'Brien, Jenny Ploeg, Lois Crowe, Clare Liddy
Plain English summary: Increasingly, health researchers are conducting their research in partnership with non-researchers such as patients and caregivers, advocacy groups, clinicians, and policymakers. The idea behind this partnership is to make research more relevant and appropriate. However, so far there is not much evidence about how this partnership or engagement actually affects research. We conducted an online survey of 12 teams in Canada that have engaged patients and other stakeholders in community based health research, partly as a requirement to obtain funding...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
Sheeva Rajaei, Joseph Rigdon, Susan Crowe, Jennifer Tremmel, Sandra Tsai, Themistocles L Assimes
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that prolonged breastfeeding has beneficial effects on the health of the mother including the reduction of long-term risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). The mechanism of this association remains unclear. METHODS: We surveyed 643 women aged 40-65 years receiving outpatient care at Stanford University Hospital on their reproductive/lactation history, including 137 women (cases) with clinically confirmed CAD. Survey data were supplemented with traditional risk factor data for CAD obtained from the participant's medical record...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Denise F Blake, Melissa Crowe, Simon J Mitchell, Peter Aitken, Neal W Pollock
INTRODUCTION: Vibration from a helicopter during aeromedical retrieval of divers may increase venous gas emboli (VGE) production, evolution or distribution, potentially worsening the patient's condition. AIM: To review the literature surrounding the helicopter transport of injured divers and establish if vibration contributes to increased VGE. METHOD: A systematic literature search of key databases was conducted to identify articles investigating vibration and bubbles during helicopter retrieval of divers...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Denise F Blake, Melissa Crowe, Daniel Lindsay, Annie Brouff, Simon J Mitchell, Neal W Pollock
INTRODUCTION: High concentration normobaric oxygen (O₂) is a priority in treating divers with suspected decompression illness. The effect of different O₂ mask configurations on tissue oxygenation when breathing with a demand valve was evaluated. METHODS: Sixteen divers had tissue oxygen partial pressure (PtcO₂) measured at six limb sites. Participants breathed O₂ from a demand valve using: an intraoral mask (IOM®) with and without a nose clip (NC), a pocket face mask and an oronasal mask...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Emmanuelle Bonneris, Zhenglei Gao, Amanda Prosser, Ralf Barfknecht
Identifying focal bird species appropriate to the situation in which a plant protection product is used is important for refined risk assessment (EFSA, 2009). We analysed the results of extensive field observations of newly-drilled cereal fields in France in autumn over two seasons to determine real bird focal species. In 2011, birds were observed, before and after drilling, on wheat and barley fields drilled with imidacloprid treated seeds (i.e. 'treatment' fields) or seeds treated with other compounds than imidacloprid (i...
December 4, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Sahil Aggarwal, Darren K Knight, Caleb L Shumway, Matthew Wade, Robert W Crow
PURPOSE: To compare visual acuity outcomes of cataract surgery between patients with and without non-glaucomatous optic neuropathies. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study of patients with and without optic neuropathies who underwent cataract surgery from 2010 to 2017. For all eyes, the last preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and first BCVA greater than 1 month postoperatively (to ensure sustained refractive stabilization) were recorded in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units...
December 3, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Lucy A Eddowes, Kinda Al-Hourani, Narayan Ramamurthy, Jamie Frankish, Hannah T Baddock, Cynthia Sandor, John D Ryan, Dahlene N Fusco, João Arezes, Eleni Giannoulatou, Sara Boninsegna, Stephane Chevaliez, Benjamin M J Owens, Chia Chi Sun, Paolo Fabris, Maria Teresa Giordani, Diego Martines, Slobodan Vukicevic, John Crowe, Herbert Y Lin, Jan Rehwinkel, Peter J McHugh, Marco Binder, Jodie L Babitt, Raymond T Chung, Matthew W Lawless, Andrew E Armitage, Caleb Webber, Paul Klenerman, Hal Drakesmith
Understanding the control of viral infections is of broad importance. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes decreased expression of the iron hormone hepcidin, which is regulated by hepatic bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD signalling. We found that HCV infection and the BMP/SMAD pathway are mutually antagonistic. HCV blunted induction of hepcidin expression by BMP6, probably via tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated downregulation of the BMP co-receptor haemojuvelin. In HCV-infected patients, disruption of the BMP6/hepcidin axis and genetic variation associated with the BMP/SMAD pathway predicted the outcome of infection, suggesting that BMP/SMAD activity influences antiviral immunity...
December 3, 2018: Nature Microbiology
S Thompson, A L Schaefer, G H Crow, J Basarab, J Colyn, K Ominski
Residual feed intake (RFI) has been used to select metabolically efficient cattle in beef breeding programs, particularly for sire selection. Adoption of genetic selection using RFI has been limited due to the cost and difficulty of measuring individual feed intake. An alternative method of predicting RFI is to measure radiated heat loss using infrared thermography (IRT) as previous studies have shown promise using this technique to predict metabolic efficiency in mature cows, heifers, and growing bulls. The objective of this study was to explore use of IRT to predict RFI in growing beef bulls...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Severo Rodriguez, Remle P Crowe, Rebecca E Cash, Amanda Broussard, Ashish R Panchal
While institutional and program accreditation has long been required for physician and nursing education, paramedic program accreditation was largely voluntary in the US until recently. Our objective was to assess whether program accreditation is associated with higher pass rates and cognitive ability performance. This was a cross-sectional evaluation of the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians' (NREMT) Paramedic Certification cognitive examination results for graduates of US paramedic pro¬grams...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
Alexander T May, Molly S Crowe, Bryan A Blakeney, Sunila Mahavadi, Hongxia Wang, John R Grider, Karnam S Murthy
The insulinotropic effects of the incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are mediated via GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) present on pancreatic β cells. GLP-1 causes a decrease in the motility of stomach and intestine which involves both central and peripheral nervous systems. The expression and function of GLP-1R in gastrointestinal smooth muscle, however, are not clear. Muscle strips and isolated muscle cells were prepared from mouse colon and the effect of GLP-1(7-36) amide on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction was measured...
November 30, 2018: Peptides
Lee Ann MacMillan-Crow, Philip R Mayeux
Given the inherent heterogeneity of the septic patient population and possible comorbid conditions, it is not surprising that the influence of gender on incidence and outcomes are still unclear. The goal of this study was to use a clinically relevant murine model of sepsis, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in CD1 mice, with and without uniphrectomy as a comorbid condition to investigate possible gender differences in renal mitochondrial function and dynamics. High resolution respirometry on fresh kidney biopsies was used to measure renal respiratory complex activities...
October 2018: Internal Medicine Review (Washington, D.C.: Online)
William Crowe, Lulu Wang, Zhongwei Zhang, Jasmina Varagic, J Daniel Bourland, Michael D Chan, Amyn A Habib, Dawen Zhao
PURPOSE: To assess early changes in brain metastasis in response to whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) by longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a 7T system, MRI examination of brain metastases in a breast cancer MDA-MD231-Br mouse model were conducted before and 24 hours after 3 daily fractionations of 4 Gy WBRT. Besides anatomic MRI, diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI were applied to study cytotoxic effect and blood-tumor-barrier (BTB) permeability change, respectively...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Monique R Bennett, Robin G Bombardi, Nurgun Kose, Erica H Parrish, Marcus B Nagel, Robert A Petit, Timothy D Read, Kevin L Schey, Isaac P Thomsen, Eric P Skaar, James E Crowe
The nutrient metal iron plays a key role in the survival of microorganisms. The iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system scavenges heme-iron from the human host, enabling acquisition of iron in iron-deplete conditions in Staphylococcus aureus during infection. The cell surface receptors IsdB and IsdH bind hemoproteins and transfer heme to IsdA, the final surface protein before heme-iron is transported through the peptidoglycan. To define the human B-cell response to IsdA, we isolated human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to the surface Isd proteins and determined their mechanism of action...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hiroyuki Yoshida, Kohei Yamazaki, Aya Komiya, Mika Aoki, Shinya Kasamatsu, Takeshi Murata, Tetsuya Sayo, Mehmet Zeynel Cilek, Yasunori Okada, Yoshito Takahashi
OBJECTIVES: Hyaluronan (HA), an important constituent of extracellular matrix in the skin, has many biological activities such as hydration that contributes to firmness and bounciness of the skin. We have reported that reduction of HA in the papillary dermis and overexpression of HYBID (HYaluronan Binding protein Involved in hyaluronan Depolymerization, alias KIAA1199 or CEMIP), a key molecule for HA degradation in skin fibroblasts, are implicated in facial skin wrinkling in Japanese and Caucasian women...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
S J W Kent, R Morrison
We have previously identified differences in the presentation and treatment of cancer between patients who live in rural compared with urban areas, but have not yet seen differences in those treated by orthognathic surgery. We hypothesised that patients from areas further away from the hospital face higher costs to attend and may not present with minor problems as often as those who live nearby. We therefore retrospectively reviewed all those (n=216) who had presented for orthognathic surgery over a six-year period (May 2011 to May 2017)...
October 25, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
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