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Sohail Qayyum, Grant C Bullock, Steven H Swerdlow, Raven Brower, Marina Nikiforova, Nidhi Aggarwal
Objectives: T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement studies are widely used for assessing T-cell clonality. The frequency and significance of clonal peaks restricted to TCR β (TCRB) tube C are uncertain. We retrospectively reviewed 80 TCR studies performed on bone marrow/peripheral blood. Methods: TCRB and TCR γ (TCRG) analyses were performed using BIOMED-2 primers. A peak was considered clonal or atypical if it was reproducible and 5× or more or 3× to 5× polyclonal background, respectively...
December 8, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Susanna K P Lau, Rachel Y Y Fan, Hayes K H Luk, Longchao Zhu, Joshua Fung, Kenneth S M Li, Emily Y M Wong, Syed Shakeel Ahmed, Jasper F W Chan, Raven K H Kok, Kwok-Hung Chan, Ulrich Wernery, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Patrick C Y Woo
Previous findings of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-related viruses in bats, and the ability of Tylonycteris-BatCoV HKU4 spike protein to utilize MERS-CoV receptor, human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 hDPP4, suggest a bat ancestral origin of MERS-CoV. We developed 12 primary bat cell lines from seven bat species, including Tylonycteris pachypus, Pipistrellus abramus and Rhinolophus sinicus (hosts of Tylonycteris-BatCoV HKU4, Pipistrellus-BatCoV HKU5, and SARS-related-CoV respectively), and tested their susceptibilities to MERS-CoVs, SARS-CoV, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)...
December 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Raven Cooksey, Susan Y Wu, Laura Klesse, Jon D Oden, Ross E Bland, Joseph C Hodges, Lynn Gargan, Gloria Lena Vega, Daniel C Bowers
Survivors of childhood brain tumors may be at risk for early onset of metabolic syndrome, possibly secondary to surgery and/or radiation exposure. This study examines effects of radiation exposure to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) on metabolic risk among survivors of childhood brain tumors. One hundred forty-two met inclusion criteria; 60 had tumor surgery plus radiation exposure (<u>></u>1 Gray (Gy)) to HPA. The second subgroup of 82 subjects had surgery only and were not exposed to radiation...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Maria C Raven, Lauren M Kaplan, Marina Rosenberg, Lina Tieu, David Guzman, Margot Kushel
BACKGROUND: The median age of single homeless adults is approximately 50 years. Older homeless adults have poor social support and experience a high prevalence of chronic disease, depression, and substance use disorders. Access to mobile phones and the internet could help lower the barriers to social support, social services, and medical care; however, little is known about access to and use of these by older homeless adults. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the access to and use of mobile phones, computers, and internet among a cohort of 350 homeless adults over the age of 50 years...
December 10, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Anne Katrine Andreasen, Pernille Iversen, Lisbet Marstrand, Volkert Siersma, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Finn Sellebjerg
BACKGROUND: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating symptom and experienced by most patients. In recent studies investigating this phenomenon, the majority of patients had a relapsing-remitting disease course. METHODS: Patients with progressive MS participating in one of three treatment trials during a period from 2010 to 2014 were included. Fatigue was assessed with the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC) and patients were further examined with a cognitive test battery, including Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and 3 T MRI with subsequent quantitative analyses of 13 cortical regions of interest, deep grey matter and lesion volume...
December 4, 2018: Neurological Research
Sabrina Guzzetti, Francesca Mancini, Alessandra Caporali, Luigi Manfredi, Roberta Daini
INTRODUCTION: The cognitive reserve (CR) theory has been proposed to account for the mismatch between the degree of neuropathological changes and clinical outcome in dementias. Recently, it has also been applied to Parkinson's disease (PD) with promising results, but mostly just focusing on separate proxy measures of CR, such as education, working and leisure time activities, instead of adopting a more comprehensive approach. Using the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq), this study examined the association of CR with motor functions and cognition in patients with medium-low (1-9 years) and medium-high (>9 years) PD duration...
November 28, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Calum X Cunningham, Christopher N Johnson, Leon A Barmuta, Tracey Hollings, Eric J Woehler, Menna E Jones
Top carnivores have suffered widespread global declines, with well-documented effects on mesopredators and herbivores. We know less about how carnivores affect ecosystems through scavenging. Tasmania's top carnivore, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) , has suffered severe disease-induced population declines, providing a natural experiment on the role of scavenging in structuring communities. Using remote cameras and experimentally placed carcasses, we show that mesopredators consume more carrion in areas where devils have declined...
November 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Raven Diacou, Yilin Zhao, Deyou Zheng, Ales Cvekl, Wei Liu
Gene regulation of multipotent neuroretinal progenitors is partially understood. Through characterizing Six3 and Six6 double knockout retinas (DKOs), we demonstrate Six3 and Six6 are jointly required for the maintenance of multipotent neuroretinal progenitors. Phenotypes in DKOs were not found in either Six3 nulls or Six6 nulls. At the far periphery, ciliary margin (CM) markers Otx1 and Cdon together with Wnt3a and Fzd1 were ectopically upregulated, whereas neuroretinal progenitor markers Sox2, Notch1, and Otx2 were absent or reduced...
November 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Leïla Essaddam, Asma Ben Mansour, Arwa Ben Amor, Ulribe Ravens-Sieberer, Toni Maria Klein, Saayda Ben Becher
AIM: We aimed to validate the Arabic and Tunisian Arabic versions of diabetes- specific quality of life (QOL) instrument KINDL-R Diabetes Module for Tunisian children population with type 1 diabetes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This a cross-sectional study to validate Arabic and Tunisian KINDL QOL instrument that we translate in literary and dialectal Arabic. Both forward and backward translations from the German version of KINDL QOL into Arabic version were performed...
December 2019: Libyan Journal of Medicine
Elizabeth C Randall, Kristina B Emdal, Janice K Laramy, Minjee Kim, Alison Roos, David Calligaris, Michael S Regan, Shiv K Gupta, Ann C Mladek, Brett L Carlson, Aaron J Johnson, Fa-Ke Lu, X Sunney Xie, Brian A Joughin, Raven J Reddy, Sen Peng, Walid M Abdelmoula, Pamela R Jackson, Aarti Kolluri, Katherine A Kellersberger, Jeffrey N Agar, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Kristin R Swanson, Nhan L Tran, William F Elmquist, Forest M White, Jann N Sarkaria, Nathalie Y R Agar
Therapeutic options for the treatment of glioblastoma remain inadequate despite concerted research efforts in drug development. Therapeutic failure can result from poor permeability of the blood-brain barrier, heterogeneous drug distribution, and development of resistance. Elucidation of relationships among such parameters could enable the development of predictive models of drug response in patients and inform drug development. Complementary analyses were applied to a glioblastoma patient-derived xenograft model in order to quantitatively map distribution and resulting cellular response to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib...
November 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Inga Sandrock, Annika Reinhardt, Sarina Ravens, Christoph Binz, Anneke Wilharm, Joana Martins, Linda Oberdörfer, Likai Tan, Stefan Lienenklaus, Baojun Zhang, Ronald Naumann, Yuan Zhuang, Andreas Krueger, Reinhold Förster, Immo Prinz
γδ T cells are highly conserved in jawed vertebrates, suggesting an essential role in the immune system. However, γδ T cell-deficient Tcrd -/- mice display surprisingly mild phenotypes. We hypothesized that the lack of γδ T cells in constitutive Tcrd -/- mice is functionally compensated by other lymphocytes taking over genuine γδ T cell functions. To test this, we generated a knock-in model for diphtheria toxin-mediated conditional γδ T cell depletion. In contrast to IFN-γ-producing γδ T cells, IL-17-producing γδ T cells (Tγδ17 cells) recovered inefficiently after depletion, and their niches were filled by expanding Th17 cells and ILC3s...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Jameson K Mattingly, Irina Castellanos, Aaron C Moberly
HYPOTHESIS: Significant variability in speech recognition persists among postlingually deafened adults with cochlear implants (CIs). We hypothesize that scores of nonverbal reasoning predict sentence recognition in adult CI users. BACKGROUND: Cognitive functions contribute to speech recognition outcomes in adults with hearing loss. These functions may be particularly important for CI users who must interpret highly degraded speech signals through their devices. This study used a visual measure of reasoning (the ability to solve novel problems), the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM), to predict sentence recognition in CI users...
December 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Yun Zhou, Tao Xu, Shiqian Li, Shaoqi Li
Confusion, as an affective state, has been proved beneficial for learning, although this emotion is always mentioned as negative affect. Confusion causes the learner to solve the problem and overcome difficulties in order to restore the cognitive equilibrium. Once the confusion is successfully resolved, a deeper learning is generated. Therefore, quantifying and visualizing the confusion that occurs in learning as well as intervening has gained great interest by researchers. Among these researches, triggering confusion precisely and detecting it is the critical step and underlies other studies...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Xiao Li, Thenkurussi Kesavadas
We present a new surgical robot hardware-in-the-loop simulator, with 3D surgical field reconstruction in RGB-D sensor range, which allows tool-tissue interactions to be presented as haptic feedback and thus provides the situation awareness of unwanted collision. First, the point cloud of the complete surgical environment is constructed from multiple frames of sensor data to avoid the occlusion issue. Then the user selects a region of interest where the robot's tool must avoid (also called forbidden region)...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Franziska Schneider-Warme, Ursula Ravens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
R D Moore, V Sicard, D Pindus, L B Raine, E S Drollette, M R Scudder, S Decker, D Ellemberg, C H Hillman
Experimental research suggests that sport-related concussion can lead to persistent alterations in children's neurophysiology and cognition. However, the search for neuropsychological tests with a similar ability to detect long-term deficits continues. PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed whether a target battery of neuropsychological measures of higher cognition and academic achievement would detect lingering deficits in children 2 years after injury. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional...
November 14, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Marta Lemme, Bärbel M Ulmer, Marc D Lemoine, Antonia T L Zech, Frederik Flenner, Ursula Ravens, Hermann Reichenspurner, Miriam Rol-Garcia, Godfrey Smith, Arne Hansen, Torsten Christ, Thomas Eschenhagen
Cardiomyocytes (CMs) generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are under investigation for their suitability as human models in preclinical drug development. Antiarrhythmic drug development focuses on atrial biology for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Here we used recent retinoic acid-based protocols to generate atrial CMs from hiPSCs and establish right atrial engineered heart tissue (RA-EHT) as a 3D model of human atrium. EHT from standard protocol-derived hiPSC-CMs (Ctrl-EHT) and intact human muscle strips served as comparators...
October 27, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Meghan K Shirley, Owen J Arthurs, Kiran K Seunarine, Tim J Cole, Simon Eaton, Jane E Williams, Chris A Clark, Jonathan C K Wells
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Major organ-specific and tissue-specific metabolic rate (Ki ) values were initially estimated using in vivo methods, and values reported by Elia (Energy metabolism: tissue determinants and cellular corollaries, Raven Press, New York, 1992) were subsequently supported by statistical analysis. However, the majority of work to date on this topic has addressed individuals of European descent, whereas population variability in resting energy metabolism has been reported...
November 7, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Mitchell Andrews, Leo M Condron, Peter D Kemp, Jennifer F Topping, Keith Lindsey, Simon Hodge, John A Raven
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) increased from around 280 ppm in 1750 to 400 ppm in 2016 and is likely to continue to increase throughout this century. Bloom (2015 a,b) and Rubio-Asensio and Bloom (2017) argued that wheat, Arabidopsis and C3 plants in general respond more positively to elevated atmospheric [CO2] under ammonium (NH4+) nutrition than under nitrate (NO3-) nutrition because elevated CO2 inhibits their photoreduction of NO3- and hence reduces their total plant nitrogen (N) assimilation and ultimately growth...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Beneharo Rodríguez, Airam Rodríguez, Felipe Siverio, Manuel Siverio
The specific spatial distribution and habitat association-strongly influenced by environmental factors or competitive interactions-are major issues in ecology and conservation. We located and georeferenced nesting sites of five cliff-nesting raptors (Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus [a locally extinct species], common buzzard Buteo buteo , osprey Pandion haliaetus , common kestrel Falco tinnunculus , Barbary falcon Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides ), and common raven Corvus corax on one of the most biodiverse hotspot within the Canary Islands (Teno, Tenerife)...
April 2018: Current Zoology
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