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emerging pathogen

Salmaan Keshavjee, Farhana Amanullah, Adithya Cattamanchi, Richard Chaisson, Karen M Dobos, Gregory J Fox, Howard E Gendelman, Richard Gordon, Anneke Hesseling, Le Van Hoi, Beate Kampmann, Bavesh Kana, Gopal Khuller, David M Lewinsohn, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Philiana Ling Lin, Lenette Lin Lu, Gary Maartens, Andrew Owen, Marina Protopopova, Jyothi Rengarajan, Eric Rubin, Padmini Salgame, Erwin Schurr, James A Seddon, Susan Swindells, David M Tobin, Zarir Udwadia, Gerhard Walzl, Sudha Srinivasan, Roxana Rustomjee, Payam Nahid
Tuberculosis (TB) has surpassed HIV to become the leading infectious killer of adults globally, causing almost 2 million deaths annually. Although this airborne disease has been treatable since 1948, global rates of TB have dropped less than two percent per year; an estimated 10 million incident cases continue to occur annually, including one million in children. While transmission of active disease is an important driver of the epidemic, the seedbed that feeds the epidemic is the more than two billion people estimated to have TB infection, five to ten percent of whom will progress to active disease during their lifetime...
October 18, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Cassandra Koh, Scott L Allen, Rosemarie I Herbert, Elizabeth A McGraw, Stephen F Chenoweth
Dengue fever is the most prevalent arboviral disease globally. Dengue virus is transmitted primarily by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. One measure of the mosquito's efficiency as a vector is the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), which is the time between the ingestion of viremic blood and the emergence of virions in the saliva. The longer it takes virus to infect the midgut and traverse to the saliva, the fewer opportunities the mosquito will have to transmit the pathogen over its lifetime. We have shown previously that EIP for dengue virus is highly heritable and that it is negatively correlated with vector lifespan...
October 18, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Wanjun Zhang, Jingyi Wang, Yashu Chen, Hongbin Zheng, Bijun Xie, Zhida Sun
The flavonoid compositions, extracted from leaves, peel and flesh of white guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. Pearl), were identified and quantified by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and HPLC. The main components of three extracts all were quercetin-glycosides, but the proportion and content of quercetin-hexoside and quercetin-pentoside in each extract were different. Based on the measurements of MIC, MBC value and time killing curve, it emerged that 3 flavonoid extracts of white guava had good antibacterial effects on four pathogenic bacteria...
October 18, 2018: Natural Product Research
Alexander Dimitri Yermanos, Andreas Kevin Dounas, Tanja Stadler, Annette Oxenius, Sai T Reddy
Antibody evolution studies have been traditionally limited to either tracing a single clonal lineage (B cells derived from a single V-(D)-J recombination) over time or examining bulk functionality changes (e.g., tracing serum polyclonal antibody proteins). Studying a single B cell disregards the majority of the humoral immune response, whereas bulk functional studies lack the necessary resolution to analyze the co-existing clonal diversity. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies and bioinformatics have made it possible to examine multiple co-evolving antibody monoclonal lineages within the context of a single repertoire...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dipak Kathayat, Yosra A Helmy, Loic Deblais, Gireesh Rajashekara
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), a most common bacterial pathogen of poultry, causes multiple extra-intestinal diseases in poultry which results in significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. In addition, APEC are a subgroup of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), and APEC contaminated poultry products are a potential source of foodborne ExPEC infections to humans and transfer of antimicrobial resistant genes. The emergence of multi-drug resistant APEC strains and the limited efficacy of vaccines necessitate novel APEC control approaches...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gary Wong, Shihua He, Anders Leung, Wenguang Cao, Yuhai Bi, Zirui Zhang, Wenjun Zhu, Liang Wang, Yuhui Zhao, Keding Cheng, Di Liu, Wenjun Liu, Darwyn Kobasa, George F Gao, Xiangguo Qiu
Sequencing of Ebola virus (EBOV) genomes during the 2014-16 epidemic identified several naturally-occurring, dominant mutations potentially impacting virulence or tropism. Here, we characterized EBOV variants carrying one of the following substitutions: A82V in the glycoprotein (GP), R111C in the nucleoprotein (NP), or D759G in the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (L). Compared with wild-type EBOV/C07 (WT), NP and L mutants conferred a replication advantage in monkey VeroE6, human A549 and insectivorous bat Tb1...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
Pamela S Tietz-Bogert, Minsuk Kim, Angela Cheung, James H Tabibian, Julie K Heimbach, Charles B Rosen, Madhumitha Nandakumar, Konstantinos N Lazaridis, Nicholas F LaRusso, Jaeyun Sung, Steven P O'Hara
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a pathogenically complex, chronic, fibroinflammatory disorder of the bile ducts without known etiology or effective pharmacotherapy. Emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence support fundamental pathophysiologic mechanisms in PSC centered on enterohepatic circulation. To date, no studies have specifically interrogated the chemical footprint of enterohepatic circulation in PSC. Herein, we evaluated the metabolome and lipidome of portal venous blood and bile obtained at the time of liver transplantation in patients with PSC ( n = 7) as compared to individuals with noncholestatic, end-stage liver disease (viral, metabolic, etc...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
T L Masters, C A Hilker, P R Jeraldo, A V Bhagwate, K E Greenwood-Quaintance, B W Eckloff, N Chia, A D Hanssen, M P Abdel, J Z Yao, J Jen, R Patel
With the emergence of RNA sequencing technologies, metatranscriptomic studies are rapidly gaining attention as they simultaneously provide insight into gene expression profiles and therefore disease association pathways of microbial pathogens and their hosts. This approach, therefore, holds promise for applicability in infectious disease diagnostics. A challenge of this approach in the clinical setting is the low amount and quality of RNA, especially microbial RNA in most clinically-infected specimens. Here, we compared two commercially available stranded cDNA library preparation kits, the NuGEN Ovation SoLo RNA-Seq System and the Illumina TruSeq Stranded Total RNA, using RNA extracted from synovial and sonicate fluids from a subject with periprosthetic joint infection...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Meghan L Bentz, D Joseph Sexton, Rory M Welsh, Anastasia P Litvintseva
Candida auris is an emerging, multidrug-resistant yeast that can spread rapidly in healthcare settings. Phenotypic switching has been observed in other Candida species and can potentially interfere with correct identification. The aim of this study is to address misidentification of C. auris by describing alternate phenotypes after broth enrichment and subculturing on CHROMagar Candida. Each isolate displayed different frequencies of phenotypic switching, suggesting a strain to strain variability. Increased knowledge of the multiple phenotypes of C...
October 16, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Marcela Patricia Eraso-Cadena, Licet Paola Molina-Guzmán, Ximena Cardona, Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias, Leonardo Alberto Ríos-Osorio, Lina Andrea Gutierrez-Builes
Bacteria belonging to Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia and Coxiella genera are considered emerging pathogens and livestock is one of the contexts where the transmission of these microorganisms can occur. The goal of this study was to determine serological evidence for the exposure to these bacteria in cattle and humans with occupational exposure to livestock in the subregions North and Magdalena Medio, Antioquia, Colombia, and to explore related factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 livestock farms distributed in six municipalities from both subregions: Belmira, Entrerríos and San Pedro de los Milagros (North), and Puerto Berrío, Puerto Nare and Puerto Triunfo (Magdalena Medio)...
October 11, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Jae Hyoung Im, JiHyeon Baek, Areum Durey, Hea Yoon Kwon, Moon-Hyun Chung, Jin-Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: Bites with tick-borne pathogens can cause various bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases in humans. Tick-transmitted diseases are known as contributing factors to the increasing incidence and burden of diseases. The present article investigated the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases in South Korea. METHODS: The incidence and distribution of common tick-borne diseases in Korea (Lyme disease, Q fever, and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome [SFTS]) were investigated and analyzed, using data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) infectious disease reporting system...
October 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Megha Kaushik, Neha Khare, Sanjay Kumar, Pooja Gulati
The contamination of surface waters with multidrug resistant (MDR) coliforms is a major public health concern in developing countries. This study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence of antibiotic resistance and role of integrons in the spread of resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from urban waters of river Yamuna. One hundred and forty-one strains of E. coli were isolated and assessed for antibiotic resistance wherein high resistance was observed for Cefazolin. Integrons (class 1 and class 2) were detected in 32% of the isolates...
October 16, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Maud-Emmanuelle Gilles, Frank J Slack
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small non-coding RNA that play a major role in various cellular processes by negatively regulating gene expression. In the past decade, miRNA dysregulation has been reported to be closely linked to inflammatory diseases. The immune response modulates cancer initiation and progression; miRNAs including let-7 family members have been shown to act as key regulators of the immune responses in various diseases and cancers. Notably, the let-7 miRNA has been reported to be closely associated with immunity, specifically with Toll-like receptors that mediate cytokine expression during pathogen infection and with the regulation of various other immune effectors...
October 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Cheryl Shoubridge, Robert J Harvey, Tracy Dudding-Byth
The IQSEC2- related disorders represent a spectrum of X-chromosome phenotypes with intellectual disability (ID) as the cardinal feature. Here we review the increasing number of reported families and isolated cases have been reported with a variety of different pathogenic variants. The spectrum of clinical features is expanding with early-onset seizures as a frequent comorbidity in both affected male and female patients. There is a growing number of female patients with de novo loss-of-function variants in IQSEC2 have a more severe phenotype than the heterozygous state would predict, particularly if IQSEC2 is thought to escape X-inactivation...
October 17, 2018: Human Mutation
Jaroslava Dekkerová, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Helena Bujdáková
Fungal biofilm has remained a serious medical problem that complicates treatment of mycoses. In particular, once biofilms are formed, they display high levels of resistance against most common antifungals. Candida auris is currently considered as a serious emerging fungal pathogen frequently exhibiting high levels of resistance to antifungals. Recent studies have confirmed that C. auris shares similarity with Candida albicans in regards to virulence-associated proteins involved in adherence and biofilm development...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Honghai Xu, Yuanyuan Wei, Hongqiu Ma, Yanyan Liu, Yalong Zhang, Lifen Hu, Jiabin Li
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease caused by SFTS virus, and the number of SFTS cases increased year by year in China. Previous studies had indicated that gut microbiome closely associated with human health and diseases, including infection diseases, liver diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and metabolic diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the alterations and involvements of gut microbial in SFTS patients. We compared the gut microbiome of 26 SFTS patients between 20 health controls using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, Mahtab Moayeri, Jian Sha, William S Lawrence, Stephen H Leppla, Ashok K Chopra, Venigalla B Rao
Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis , the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, are two of the deadliest pathogenic bacteria that have been used as biological warfare agents. Although Biothrax is a licensed vaccine against anthrax, no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine exists for plague. Here, we report the development of a dual anthrax-plague nanoparticle vaccine employing bacteriophage (phage) T4 as a platform. Using an in vitro assembly system, the 120- by 86-nm heads (capsids) of phage T4 were arrayed with anthrax and plague antigens fused to the small outer capsid protein Soc (9 kDa)...
October 16, 2018: MBio
Stephen M Kissler, Julia R Gog, Cécile Viboud, Vivek Charu, Ottar N Bjørnstad, Lone Simonsen, Bryan T Grenfell
A key issue in infectious disease epidemiology is to identify and predict geographic sites of epidemic establishment that contribute to onward spread, especially in the context of invasion waves of emerging pathogens. Conventional wisdom suggests that these sites are likely to be in densely-populated, well-connected areas. For pandemic influenza, however, epidemiological data have not been available at a fine enough geographic resolution to test this assumption. Here, we make use of fine-scale influenza-like illness incidence data derived from electronic medical claims records gathered from 834 3-digit ZIP (postal) codes across the US to identify the key geographic establishment sites, or "hubs", of the autumn wave of the 2009 A/H1N1pdm influenza pandemic in the United States...
October 10, 2018: Epidemics
Guilherme G Verocai, Kimberly J Nelson, R Trey Callahan, Joseph Wakoli Wekesa, Hassan K Hassan, Eric P Hoberg
BACKGROUND: Entomological surveillance for pathogens based on molecular screening of putative arthropod vectors such as blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) is becoming increasingly important. Surveillance provides a means to understand host and geographical patterns of underestimated biodiversity among North American species of Onchocerca and a pathway to identify and track expanding emergence of the zoonotic Onchocerca lupi. Herein, we have screened two blackfly species, Simulium tescorum and Simulium vittatum (s...
October 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ping-Ping Cao, Zhi-Chao Wang, Robert P Schleimer, Zheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disorder with distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms. Based on the transcription factor expression and cytokine production patterns in different types of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), in parallel with those of adaptive CD4+ T helper (Th) cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T (Tc) cells, new perspectives on endotypes of patients are emerging around the immune response deviation into type 1 (orchestrated by ILC1s, Tc1 and Th1 cells), type 2 (characterized by ILC2s, Tc2 and Th2 cells), and type 3 (mediated by ILC3s, Tc17 and Th17 cells) responses...
October 13, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
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