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emerging pathogen

Emilie Talagrand-Reboul, Fadua Latif-Eugenín, Roxana Beaz-Hidalgo, Sophie Colston, Maria-Jose Figueras, Joerg Graf, Estelle Jumas-Bilak, Brigitte Lamy
Many virulence factors have been described for opportunistic pathogens within the genus Aeromonas. Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCRs) are commonly used in population studies of aeromonads to detect virulence-associated genes in order to better understand the epidemiology and emergence of Aeromonas from the environment to host, but their performances have never been thoroughly evaluated. We aimed to determine diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of PCR assays for the detection of virulence-associated genes in a collection of Aeromonas isolates representative for the genetic diversity in the genus...
2018: PloS One
T C Barnett, A C Bowen, J R Carapetis
Streptococcus pyogenes (or Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is a Gram-positive human pathogen responsible for a diverse array of superficial, invasive and immune-related diseases. GAS infections have historically been diseases of poverty and overcrowding, and remain a significant problem in the developing world and in disadvantaged populations within developed countries. With improved living conditions and access to antibiotics, the rates of GAS diseases in developed societies have gradually declined during the 20th century...
August 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Andrew Blauvelt, Andrea Chiricozzi
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease that is pathogenically driven by proinflammatory cytokines. This article reviews the immunologic role of interleukin (IL)-17, the major effector cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriatic disease, along with the rationale for targeting the IL-17 cytokine family (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17 receptor A) in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Emerging evidence indicates that major sources of IL-17A in patients with psoriatic disease are mast cells, γδ T cells, αβ T cells, and innate lymphoid cells in lesional skin and synovial fluid...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Yoon-Hee Oh, Dong-Chan Moon, Young Ju Lee, Bang-Hun Hyun, Suk-Kyung Lim
Pasteurella multocida is one of the significant causes of respiratory infection outbreaks in the Korean pig industry. Although antimicrobial treatment is an effective strategy for controlling respiratory diseases, limited information is available regarding the antimicrobial susceptibility of the pathogens infecting Korean pigs. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial resistance of P multocida against widely used antimicrobials in order to enable the selection of appropriate drugs and to evaluate any trends in resistance...
2018: Veterinary Record Open
Hatsuo Yamamura, Miho Nonaka, Shingo Okuno, Ryogo Mitsuhashi, Hisato Kato, Takashi Katsu, Kazufumi Masuda, Koichi Tanimoto, Haruyoshi Tomita, Atsushi Miyagawa
The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria has led to the high demand for new antibiotics. In this report, we investigated membrane-active antimicrobial β-cyclodextrins. These contain seven amino-modified alkyl groups on a molecule, which act as functional moieties to permeabilize bacterial cell membranes. The polyfunctionalization of cyclodextrins was achieved through a click reaction assisted by microwave irradiation. A survey using derivatives with systematically varied functionalities clarified the unique correlation of the antimicrobial activity of these compounds with their molecular structure and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity balances...
March 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Anna Maikova, Konstantin Severinov, Olga Soutourina
Over the last decades the enteric bacterium Clostridium difficile (novel name Clostridioides difficile ) - has emerged as an important human nosocomial pathogen. It is a leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and represents a major challenge for healthcare providers. Many aspects of C. difficile pathogenesis and its evolution remain poorly understood. Efficient defense systems against phages and other genetic elements could have contributed to the success of this enteropathogen in the phage-rich gut communities...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wichuda Phothichaisri, Puey Ounjai, Tanaporn Phetruen, Tavan Janvilisri, Pongsak Khunrae, Sombat Singhakaew, Piyada Wangroongsarb, Surang Chankhamhaengdecha
Clostridium difficile is recognized as a problematic pathogen, causing severe enteric diseases including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The emergence of antibiotic resistant C. difficile has driven a search for alternative anti-infection modalities. A promising strategy for controlling bacterial infection includes the use of bacteriophages and their gene products. Currently, knowledge of phages active against C. difficile is still relatively limited by the fact that the isolation of phages for this organism is a technically demanding method since bacterial host themselves are difficult to culture...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Elisa Rampacci, Maria Luisa Marenzoni, Elisabetta Chiaradia, Fabrizio Passamonti, Maurizio Ricci, Marco Pepe, Mauro Coletti, Stefano Giovagnoli
This work was aimed at providing clues on the in vitro performances of novel azithromycin/rifampicin combinations, in the form of co-spray-dried microparticles (AZM/RIF MP), against Rhodococcus equi, an animal and emerging human pathogen found responsible for worrying zoonosis. Various AZM/RIF combinations were spray-dried and characterized for their morphology and size. Susceptibility studies included determination of MIC, MBC, Fractional Inhibitory/Bactericidal Concentration Indexes and intracellular activity in R...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jesper Z Haeggström
Leukotrienes are powerful immune-regulating lipid mediators with established pathogenic roles in inflammatory allergic diseases of the respiratory tract - in particular, asthma and hay fever. More recent work indicates that these lipids also contribute to low-grade inflammation, a hallmark of cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and metabolic diseases as well as cancer. Biosynthesis of leukotrienes involves oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid and proceeds via a set of soluble and membrane enzymes that are primarily expressed by cells of myeloid origin...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Wonyong Kim, Cristina Miguel-Rojas, Jie Wang, Jeffrey P Townsend, Frances Trail
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays important roles in sexual development in eukaryotes. In filamentous fungi, however, little is known about the expression and roles of lncRNAs during fruiting body formation. By profiling developmental transcriptomes during the life cycle of the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum , we identified 547 lncRNAs whose expression was highly dynamic, with about 40% peaking at the meiotic stage. Many lncRNAs were found to be antisense to mRNAs, forming 300 sense-antisense pairs...
August 14, 2018: MBio
Kalyan K Dewan, Amanda L Skarlupka, Israel Rivera, Laura E Cuff, Monica C Gestal, Dawn L Taylor-Mulneix, Shannon Wagner, Valerie E Ryman, Coralis Rodriguez, Illiassou Hamidou Soumana, Bruce R Levin, Eric T Harvill
Background: Why resistance to specific antibiotics emerges and spreads rapidly in some bacteria confronting these drugs but not others remains a mystery. Resistance to erythromycin in the respiratory pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae emerged rapidly and increased problematically. However, resistance is uncommon amongst the classic Bordetella species despite infections being treated with this macrolide for decades. Objectives: We examined whether the apparent progenitor of the classic Bordetella spp...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Alejandro Iregui, Karen Ha, Katharine Meleney, David Landman, John Quale
Objectives: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are important nosocomial pathogens in many medical centres. Surveillance is needed to track trends and detect emergence of new carbapenemases. Methods: Single-patient isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were gathered from seven medical centres in New York City over a 3 month period in 2017. Susceptibility testing was performed and isolates were screened for selected carbapenemases. Additional isolates referred to our laboratory in 2018 were also tested...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Atsushi Ishimatsu, Hieu Van Mai, Karen L M Martin
Although fishes by nature are aquatic, many species reproduce in such a way that their embryos are exposed to air either occasionally or constantly during incubation. We examine the ecological context and review specific examples of reproduction by fishes at the air-water interface, including fishes that do and do not breathe air. Four modes of reproduction at the air-water interface are described across 18 teleost Orders, from fresh water, estuaries and sea water. Mode 1, the most common type of reproduction by fishes at the air-water interface, includes 21 Families of mostly marine teleosts that spawn in water onto a substrate surface, on vegetation, or into hollow objects such as shells that will later be continuously or occasionally exposed to air...
August 13, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Daisy Elizabeth Gates, John Joseph Valletta, Camille Bonneaud, Mario Recker
Emergent infectious diseases can have a devastating impact on host populations. The high selective pressures on both the hosts and the pathogens frequently lead to rapid adaptations not only in pathogen virulence but also host resistance following an initial outbreak. However, it is often unclear whether hosts will evolve to avoid infection-associated fitness costs by preventing the establishment of infection (here referred to as qualitative resistance) or by limiting its deleterious effects through immune functioning (here referred to as quantitative resistance)...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Barry J McMahon, Serge Morand, Jeremy S Gray
Changes in land use, animal populations and climate, primarily due to increasing human populations, drive the emergence of zoonoses. Force of infection (FOI), which for these diseases is a measure of the ease with which a pathogen reaches the human population, can change with specific zoonoses and context. Here, we outline three ecosystem categories-domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic, where disease ecology alters the FOI of specific zoonoses. Human intervention is an overriding effect in the emergence of zoonoses; therefore, we need to understand the disease ecology and other influencing factors of pathogens and parasites that are likely to interact differently within ecological and cultural contexts...
August 13, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi, José Giraldo, Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales, Oriana Pacheco, Germán Y Lombó-Lucero, Juan D Plaza, Fabio J Adami-Teppa, Alejandra Carrillo, Carlos E Hernandez-Pereira, Gabriela M Blohm
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus endemic in Africa and Southern Asian countries, which has recently emerged in unprecedented epidemic proportions around the world. Although ZIKV infection is often asymptomatic or distinguished by non-specific influenza-like symptoms, an increase in its pathogenicity and biological behavior has been the hallmark of the current pandemic. Increasing evidence suggests that neurotropic strains of ZIKV have evolved from less pathogenic strains of the virus. Neurological manifestations of ZIKV infection include a spectrum of congenital and non-congenital clinical entities, however visual somatosensory perceptual disorders have not been recorded to date...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Arunkumar Karunanidhi, Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad, Rukman Awang Hamat, Mallikarjuna Rao Pichika, Leslie Than Thian Lung, Fazlin Mohd Fauzi, Sridevi Chigurupati, Alex van Belkum, Vasanthakumari Neela
The present study assessed the in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of hexane (ASHE) and dichloromethane (ASDE) extracts of Allium stipitatum (Persian shallot) against planktonic cells and biofilm structures of clinically significant antibiotic resistant pathogens, with a special emphasis on methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and emerging pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia . Antibacterial activities were determined through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill kinetics, and electron microscopy...
2018: BioMed Research International
Sang-Im Yun, Young-Min Lee
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic flavivirus, is an enveloped positive-strand RNA virus that can cause a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild febrile illness to severe neuroinvasive disease. Today, several killed and live vaccines are available in different parts of the globe for use in humans to prevent JEV-induced diseases, yet no antivirals are available to treat JEV-associated diseases. Despite the progress made in vaccine research and development, JEV is still a major public health problem in southern, eastern, and southeastern Asia, as well as northern Oceania, with the potential to become an emerging global pathogen...
August 13, 2018: Pathogens
Gina Wall, Ashok K Chaturvedi, Floyd L Wormley, Nathan P Wiederhold, Hoja P Patterson, Thomas F Patterson, José L Lopez-Ribot
Since its original isolation in 2009, Candida auris has spread across the globe as a causative agent of invasive candidiasis. C. auris is usually intrinsically resistant to fluconazole and can also be resistant to echinocandins and even amphotericin B. Thus, finding new treatment options against this emerging pathogen is urgent. To address this growing problem, we have performed a screen of the Prestwick Chemical Library, a repurposing library of 1,280 small molecules, consisting mostly of approved off-patent drugs, in search for those with activity against a multidrug resistant C...
August 13, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kaiyu Fu, Wei Xu, Jiayun Hu, Arielle Lopez, Paul W Bohn
Detecting and identifying infectious agents and potential pathogens in complex environments and characterizing their mode of action is a critical need. Traditional diagnostics have targeted a single characteristic (e.g., spectral response, surface receptor, mass, intrinsic conductivity, etc.). However, advances in detection technologies have identified emerging approaches in which multiple modes of action are combined to obtain enhanced performance characteristics. Particularly appealing in this regard, electrophotonic devices capable of coupling light to electron translocation have experienced rapid recent growth and offer significant advantages for diagnostics...
August 13, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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