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emerging pathogen

Des Field, Tony Blake, Harsh Mathur, Paula M O'Connor, Paul D Cotter, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill
The emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major medical challenge. Lantibiotics are highly modified bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides that have attracted considerable interest as alternatives or adjuncts to existing antibiotics. Nisin, the most widely studied and commercially exploited lantibiotic, exhibits high efficacy against many pathogens. However, some clinically relevant bacteria express highly specific membrane-associated nisin resistance proteins. One notable example is the nisin resistance protein (NSR) that acts by cleaving the peptide bond between ring E and the adjacent serine 29, resulting in a truncated peptide with significantly less activity...
December 11, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Molly A Albecker, Lisa K Belden, Michael W McCoy
Amphibians host a community of microbes on their skin that helps resist infectious disease via the dual influence of anti-pathogenic microbial species and emergent community dynamics. Many frogs rely on freshwater habitats, but salinization is rapidly increasing saltwater concentrations in wetlands around the globe, increasing the likelihood that frogs will come into contact with salt-contaminated habitats. Currently, we know little about how increased salt exposure will affect the symbiotic relationship between the skin microbes and frog hosts...
December 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Xia Zhang, Manlin Xu, Juxiang Wu, Weibo Dong, Dianxu Chen, Lei Wang, Yucheng Chi
Peanut web blotch, a peanut disease with both web and blotch symptom leaflets, is an emerging threat for peanut cultivation worldwide and one of the most important fungal diseases in China. However, the limited pieces of information in genomic resources and pathogenesis are the major constraints to integrated disease management. The genome contains a large number of pathogenicity-related genes, but the genomic information of the pathogen is still blank. Considering this fact, current study presented the draft genome sequence of a Phoma arachidicola isolate named Wb2...
December 10, 2018: Current Microbiology
Cláudia S Rodrigues, Cláudia F Campos, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho
In recent years, the renewed interest in immune cell metabolism has driven the emergence of a research field aimed at studying the role of metabolic processes during innate and adaptive immune responses. Although the specific requirements of myeloid cells after the canonical lipopolysaccharide/TLR4 stimulation have been extensively addressed, recent evidence suggests that this model may not represent a universally accurate metabolic blueprint. Instead, different microbial stimuli, pathogens, or tissue microenvironments trigger specific and complex metabolic rewiring of myeloid cells...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
F Guilhelmelli, C De-Souza-Silva, B L Chagas, S Frazão, L Trilles, M S Lazera, A M Nicola, P Albuquerque, I Silva-Pereira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Ana R Millanao, Carolina Barrientos-Schaffeld, Claudio D Siegel-Tike, Alexandra Tomova, Larisa Ivanova, Henry P Godfrey, Humberto J Dölz, Alejandro H Buschmann, Felipe C Cabello
The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) is currently seen as one of the major threats to human and animal public health. Veterinary use of antimicrobials in both developing and developed countries is many-fold greater than their use in human medicine and is an important determinant in selection of ARB. In light of the recently outlined National Plan Against Antimicrobial Resistance in Chile, our findings on antimicrobial use in salmon aquaculture and their impact on the environment and human health are highly relevant...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Pablo San Juan M, Angélica Pérez J, Cornelio Barrientos A
BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is the most important and frequent complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Bacterial infections are responsible in most cases, with characteristic symptoms. AIM: To determine the most frequent pathogens in peritonitis associated with PD in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Methodos: Retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional and observational study of patients with peritonitis in PD with CRF of the emergency department, between July 2012 and June 2013...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Lori R Shapiro, Andres Andrade, Erin D Scully, Jorge Rocha, Joseph N Paulson, Roberto Kolter
Erwinia tracheiphila is a bacterial plant pathogen emerging in eastern North America. To aid in understanding genetic variation within E. tracheiphila, here we sequence the first reference genome of an infected muskmelon (Cucumis melo). The genome assembles into a single chromosomal contig, three plasmid contigs, and one bacteriophage contig.
November 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Xiaoming Bian, Steven Huynh, Mary H Chapman, Christine M Szymanski, Craig T Parker, William G Miller
With increasing reports of Campylobacter hyointestinalis species associated with human diseases, more genome sequences are required to understand the virulence mechanisms of this emerging pathogen. Here, we describe the genome sequences of nine C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii strains.
September 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Daniel W Nielsen, Nicole Ricker, Nicolle L Barbieri, James L Wynn, Oscar G Gómez-Duarte, Junaid Iqbal, Lisa K Nolan, Heather K Allen, Catherine M Logue
Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) is the second leading cause of neonatal bacterial meningitis worldwide. We report the genome sequence of the multidrug-resistant NMEC serotype O75:H5:K1 strain mcjchv-1, which resulted in an infant's death. The O75 serogroup is rare among NMEC isolates; therefore, this strain is considered an emergent pathogen.
September 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Nma Bida Alhaji, Tajudeen Opeyemi Isola
Antimicrobials are used to maintain good health and productivity of food animals. Misuse of antibiotics in livestock contributes to development of antimicrobial resistance, an emerging One Health issue. This study assessed pastoralists' knowledge and practices regarding antimicrobial usage, explore pathways for resistant pathogens emergence and associated social drivers for antimicrobial misuse in pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria. An interview questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in randomly selected pastoral households...
December 2018: One Health
Marcos Rogério André
Recently, the incidence and awareness of tick-borne diseases in humans and animals have increased due to several factors, which in association favor the chances of contact among wild animals and their ectoparasites, domestic animals and humans. Wild and domestic carnivores are considered the primary source of tick-borne zoonotic agents to humans. Among emergent tick-borne pathogens, agents belonging to family Anaplasmataceae (Order Rickettsiales) agents stand out due their worldwide distribution and zoonotic potential...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Shao-Xin Cai, Fan-De Kong, Shu-Fei Xu, Cui-Luan Yao
Background: Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is a newly emerged microsporidian parasite that causes retarded shrimp growth in many countries. But there are no effective approaches to control this disease to date. The EHP could be an immune risk factor for increased dissemination of other diseases. Further, EHP infection involves the absence of obvious clinical signs and it is difficult to identify the pathogen through visual examination, increasing the risk of disease dissemination. It is urgent and necessary to develop a specific, rapid and sensitive EHP-infected shrimp diagnostic method to detect this parasite...
2018: PeerJ
Wolfgang Ries, Ahmed Sheriff, Franz Heigl, Oliver Zimmermann, Christoph D Garlichs, Jan Torzewski
C-reactive protein (CRP) may be causative in cardiovascular disease. As yet, no specific CRP inhibitor for human application has been described. A 69-year-old male was referred with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Typical symptoms of chest pain started at 10.00 p.m. The patient was admitted to the hospital at 1.30 a.m. the next day. As ECG showed anterior wall myocardial infarction, the patient was immediately transferred to successful emergency angioplasty/drug-eluting- (DE-) stenting of the subtotally occluded left anterior descending artery...
2018: Case Reports in Cardiology
Afreen Idris Shariff, Sohail Syed, Rebecca A Shelby, Jeremy Force, Jeffrey Melson Clarke, David D'Alessio, Leonor Corsino
Over the last decade, there has been a shift in the focus of cancer therapy from conventional cytotoxic drugs to therapies more specifically directed to cancer cells. These novel therapies include immunotherapy, targeted therapy and precision medicine, each developed in great part with a goal of limiting collateral destruction of normal tissues, while enhancing tumor destruction. Although this approach is sound in theory, even new, specific therapies have some undesirable, 'off target effects', in great part due to molecular pathways shared by neoplastic and normal cells...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Mukta Das Gupta, Arup Sen, Ashutosh Das
Background and Aim: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has emerged as significant foodborne pathogens. Ruminants are the primary reservoir of the zoonotic STEC. In Bangladesh, previous studies reported the presence of STEC in cattle, goat, and sheep; however, there is little information about STEC carriage by buffaloes. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of STEC in healthy (absence of clinical signs and symptoms) buffaloes on smallholdings in Bangladesh and to assess the antimicrobial resistance pattern of identified STEC isolates...
November 2018: Veterinary World
Tapan Kumar Dutta, Satyaki Chakraborty, Malay Das, Rajkumari Mandakini, Vanrahmlimphuii, Parimal Roychoudhury, Santanu Ghorai, Suvendu Kumar Behera
Background and Aim: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are considered to be one of the emerging pathogens in human and animals in recent times. Staphylococcus pettenkoferi , a novel pathogen under CoNS, is discovered in 2002 in humans with multiple clinical manifestations in various patients. To date, the pathogens have not yet been reported from any animals. The present study reported the first ever isolation, identification, and characterization of multidrug-resistant S. pettenkoferi from a cat with peritonitis in India...
November 2018: Veterinary World
Shannon Hunter, Nari Williams, Rebecca McDougal, Peter Scott, Matteo Garbelotto
Chemical treatments are used widely in agricultural and natural settings to protect plants from diseases; however, they may exert an important selection pressure on plant pathogens, promoting the development of tolerant isolates through adaptive evolution. Phosphite is used to manage diseases caused by Phytophthora species which include a large number of the most economically damaging plant pathogens worldwide. Phosphite controls the growth of Phytophthora species in planta without killing it; as a result, isolates can develop tolerance to phosphite after prolonged exposure...
2018: PloS One
Jie Cui, Fang Li, Zheng-Li Shi
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are two highly transmissible and pathogenic viruses that emerged in humans at the beginning of the 21st century. Both viruses likely originated in bats, and genetically diverse coronaviruses that are related to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were discovered in bats worldwide. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge on the origin and evolution of these two pathogenic coronaviruses and discuss their receptor usage; we also highlight the diversity and potential of spillover of bat-borne coronaviruses, as evidenced by the recent spillover of swine acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) to pigs...
December 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Giuliana Papoff, Dario Presutti, Cristiana Lalli, Giulia Bolasco, Simonetta Santini, Candida Manelfi, Valentina Fustaino, Stefano Alemà, Giovina Ruberti
Inflammatory caspases, including human caspase-4 (CASP4), play key roles in innate immune responses to promote fusion of phagosomes harboring pathogenic bacteria with lysosomes, halt intracellular replication of pathogens, maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The role of inflammatory caspases in cancer cells remains poorly investigated. Here, we explored the consequences of modulating CASP4 expression levels on the migratory behavior of epithelial cancer cell lines. By a gene silencing approach and in vitro and in vivo studies we show that down-regulation of CASP4 leads to impaired cell migration and cell-matrix adhesion...
December 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
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