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Dyslipidemia children adolescent

Renya Rodriguez Mortera, Yasmin Bains, Alejandro Gugliucci
In this review, we highlight the specific metabolic effects of fructose consumption that are involved in the development of metabolic syndrome non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with obesity. The specifics effects of fructose on the liver are particularly germane to the development of a vicious cycle that starts with liver steatosis driving insulin resistance. These effects include 1) increased de novo lipogenesis, 2) increased liver fat, 3) dyslipidemia 4) increased uric acid production which feeds back on increased fructose metabolism and, 5) increased methylglyoxal and Maillard reaction that may affect adenosyl-monophosphate-dependent kinase Fructose increases cortisol activation especially in visceral fat...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Pei Xiao, Tao Huang, Yinkun Yan, Xiaoyuan Zhao, Haibo Li, Jie Mi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Considerable attention is given nowadays to the presence of cardiovascular diseases risk factors in children. The current blood lipid classification system for Chinese children was based on the United States National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) cutpoints, which did not take the age, gender and race differences into consideration. This study aimed to develop gender- and age-specific lipid cutpoints for dyslipidemia screening in Chinese children and compare the ability of new cutpoints and NCEP pediatric cutpoints to predict obesity and unfavorable blood pressure (BP) levels...
November 10, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Pooneh Angoorani, Majid Khademian, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Ramin Heshmat, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Mahya Vafaeenia, Gita Shafiee, Armita Mahdivi-Gorabi, Mostafa Qorbani, Roya Kelishadi
BACKGROUND: Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) is considered as a valuable predictor for dyslipidemia and subclinical atherosclerosis which can be an appropriate index for identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between non-HDL-C MetS and determine the optimal cut-points of non-HDL-C fractions for identifying MetS in Iranian children and adolescents. METHODS: This nationwide study was conducted in the framework of the fifth survey of a national school-based surveillance program on children and adolescents aged 7-18 years...
November 14, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
H Cheng, F F Chen, P Y Ye, J Mi
Objective: To describe characteristics of cardiometabolic risk factors of children and adolescents aged 6-17 years in 7 cities in China from 2013 to 2015. Methods: Data was from the China Child and Adolescent Cardiovascular Health (CCACH) study. 12 590 children and adolescents were selected from 24 schools (3 kindergartens, 7 primary schools, 7 junior high schools and 7 senior high schools) in seven cities (Changchun, Yinchuan, Beijing, Jinan, Shanghai, Chongqing and Tianjin) during 2013-2015 by using a stratified cluster random sampling method...
November 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
D Q Hou, A Y Gao, Z X Zhu, Z C Yu, N X Lin, J T Liu, X Y Zhao, G M Huang, S Y Chang, J Mi
Objective: To describe the baseline characteristics of School-based Cardiovascular and Bone Health Promotion Program(SCVBH) in Beijing. Methods: Children and adolescents were selected in 30 schools (8 primary schools, 21 middle schools and one 12-year education school) from Dongcheng, Tongzhou, Fangshan and Miyun districts of Beijing by using a stratified cluster sampling method. 15 391 students in grade 1 to 4 from primary schools, grade 1 from junior and senior high schools were enrolled in the investigation with an exclusion of students who were not able to participate due to trauma or other uncomfortable physical conditions...
November 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Nirav K Desai, Michael M Mendelson, Annette Baker, Heather Harker Ryan, Suzanne Griggs, Meera Boghani, Elizabeth Yellen, Lucy Buckley, Mathew W Gillman, Justin P Zachariah, Dionne Graham, Maureen M Jonas, Sarah D de Ferranti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hepatotoxicity of statins, as determined by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), in children and adolescents with dyslipidemia in real world clinical practice. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical and laboratory data were prospectively collected between September 2010 and March 2014. We compared ALT levels between patients prescribed versus not prescribed 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), and then compared ALT before and after initiation of statins...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Helena Gylling, Matilda Korhonen, Annika Mutanen, Markku J Nissinen, Mikko Pakarinen, Piia Simonen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The profile of cholesterol metabolism, i.e., high absorption vs. high synthesis, may have a role in the development of atherosclerosis, the early lesions of which can be present already in childhood. Since there is no information on cholesterol metabolism in children from birth to adolescence, we evaluated cholesterol metabolism in 0-15 year-old children and adolescents without dyslipidemia. METHODS: The study population consisted of 96 children (39 girls, 57 boys) divided into age groups <1 (n = 14), 1-5 (n = 37), 6-10 (n = 24), and 11-15 (n = 21) years...
September 15, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Piers Blackett, Minu George, Don P Wilson
Pediatric lipid screening and management with the aim of reducing and preventing adult disease is an internationally accepted concept, and guidelines have been published in several countries. However, implementation by the practicing pediatric community in the United States has been less than expected and delays have been attributed to uncertainty among providers. Reduced screening rates have also been reported for conditions contributing to arterial wall pathology such as obesity, hypertension, and prediabetes despite accumulating evidence that detection and intervention can lead to risk reversal...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Z H Wang, Z Y Zou, Y D Yang, S Wang, Y H Dong, Z G Yang, Z P Yang, X J Wang, Y H Li, D Gao, J Ma
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and related factors of dyslipidemia among children and adolescents aged 6-17 years in 7 provinces in China. Methods: Using the method of stratified cluster random sampling, 93 primary and secondary schools were selected from Guangdong, Hunan, Liaoning provinces, Shanghai, Chongqing, Tianjin municipalities and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China, 2012. A total of 16 434 students aged 6-17 years old with completed physical and lipid profiles parameters were selected into this study from above 93 primary and secondary schools...
August 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Hamid R Marateb, Mohammad Reza Mohebian, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard, Amir Ali Tavallaei, Mohammad Hasan Tajadini, Motahar Heidari-Beni, Miguel Angel Mañanas, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Ramin Heshmat, Marjan Mansourian, Roya Kelishadi
Dyslipidemia, the disorder of lipoprotein metabolism resulting in high lipid profile, is an important modifiable risk factor for coronary heart diseases. It is associated with more than four million worldwide deaths per year. Half of the children with dyslipidemia have hyperlipidemia during adulthood, and its prediction and screening are thus critical. We designed a new dyslipidemia diagnosis system. The sample size of 725 subjects (age 14.66 ± 2.61 years; 48% male; dyslipidemia prevalence of 42%) was selected by multistage random cluster sampling in Iran...
2018: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
J W Balder, P J Lansberg, M H Hof, A Wiegman, B A Hutten, J A Kuivenhoven
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis starts in childhood and its progression is influenced by lifelong low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) exposure, the so-called cholesterol burden. Early identification of children and adolescents with severely elevated LDL-c is thus of major clinical significance. This is especially true for children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a frequent but undertreated genetic disorder. To identify children with possible FH, insight in the distribution of lipid levels in children is a prerequisite...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Victoria Garcia-Espinosa, Daniel Bia, Juan Castro, Agustina Zinoveev, Mariana Marin, Gustavo Giachetto, Pedro Chiesa, Yanina Zócalo
AIM: The aim was to analyze and compare the associations between body mass index (BMI) and structural and functional cardiovascular variables measured in children and adolescents. METHODS: 609 healthy subjects (mean age/range 12/4-18 years, 45% females) were studied. Subjects' BMI and the corresponding z-scores (z-BMI) were determined. Cardiovascular measurements: peripheral and aortic blood pressure (BP), aortic wave-derived parameters, common carotid, femoral and brachial artery diameters and stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid-radial and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (crPWV, cfPWV) and cfPWV/crPWV ratio...
September 2018: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Usha Sethuraman, Marwan A Zidan, Lynae Hanks, Minoo Bagheri, Ambika Ashraf
Background: Obesity is affecting children in epidemic proportions in the United States with nearly 25% of children being obese. Consequences of obesity including dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are leading to morbidity at younger ages. Parallel to the obesity and diabetes epidemics, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has reached very high levels and has been associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Studies exploring the impact of vitamin D repletion on insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia in children are sparse...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Isabela de Carlos Back, Everson Araújo Nunes, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Edio Luiz Petroski
This study aimed to investigate if moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and aerobic fitness are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in HIV+ children and adolescents. Sixty-five children and adolescents (8 to 15 years) provided minutes of MVPA measured by accelerometers and peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2 ) by breath-by-breath respiratory exchange. Cardiovascular risk factors were characterized by body fat, blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and carotid intima-media thickness...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Jacob C Hartz, Sarah de Ferranti, Samuel Gidding
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It is estimated that the risk of CVD in diabetes mellitus (DM) is 2 to 10 times higher than in the general population. Much of this increased risk is thought to be related to the development of an atherogenic lipid profile, in which hypertriglyceridemia is an essential component. Recent studies suggest that dyslipidemia may be present in children and adolescents with DM, particularly in T2DM and in association with poor control in T1DM...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Amanda R Dahl, Anoop Mohamed Iqbal, Aida N Lteif, Siobhan T Pittock, Peter J Tebben, Seema Kumar
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of consensus on the cardiometabolic consequences of mild subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) among children. The objective of the current study was to compare lipid profiles in children with mild SCH with those of euthyroid children. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review. PATIENTS: Children (ages 2-18 years) who had undergone simultaneous measurement of TSH, free thyroxine (T4) and lipids. Lipids in children with mild SCH (TSH 5-<10 mIU/L and normal free T4, n = 228) were compared with those in euthyroid children (n = 1215)...
September 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Dinh-Toi Chu, Nguyen Thi Minh Nguyet, Thien Chu Dinh, Nguyen Vu Thai Lien, Khanh-Hoang Nguyen, Vo Truong Nhu Ngoc, Yang Tao, Le Hoang Son, Duc-Hau Le, Vu Bich Nga, Adam Jurgoński, Quoc-Hung Tran, Pham Van Tu, Van-Huy Pham
Overweight and obesity (OW and OB) have been on the increase globally and posed health risks to the world's population of all ages, including pre-born babies, children, adolescents, adults and elderly people, via their comorbid conditions. Excellent examples of comorbidities associated with obesity include cancer, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this article, we aimed to review and update scientific evidence regarding the relationships between obesity and its common physical health consequences, including CVD, T2DM, hypertension, ischemic stroke, cancer, dyslipidemia and reproductive disorders...
November 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Cíntia Castro-Correia, Rita Santos-Silva, Marta Pinheiro, Carla Costa, Manuel Fontoura
BACKGROUND: The incidence of pediatric metabolic syndrome (MS) has progressively increased. The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has also increased. Thus, some children and adolescents with T1DM exhibit MS parameters. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of MS parameters in female adolescents with T1DM based on their nutritional status. METHODS: We evaluated 44 adolescents with T1DM (consecutive non-randomized sample) aged between 14 and 18 years, who were on intensive therapy with insulin...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
M L Calero Bernal, J M Varela Aguilar
In recent years, we have witnessed an increase in the number of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in children and adolescents, which has paralleled the increase in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Although screening the general population does not appear to be cost-effective, special attention should be paid to children with excess weight, obesity or other factors that predispose them to a state of insulin resistance. When faced with the diagnosis of childhood DM2, the presence of comorbidities (such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and microalbuminuria) should be assessed, and appropriate treatment and follow-up should be administered to prevent the onset of complications, given that the DM2 in this population group will last longer than that started in adulthood...
October 2018: Revista Clínica Española
Maddalena Macedoni, Tinka Hovnik, Emil Plesnik, Primoz Kotnik, Natasa Bratina, Tadej Battelino, Urh Groselj
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Limited data is available on the factors influencing the lipid profiles and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. We aimed at assessing the influences of metabolic control and ApoE genotypes on lipid profiles and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes from our nationwide cohort attending the annual check-up were prospectively included...
June 2018: Atherosclerosis
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