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Public health ethics

Gustavo Rosa Gameiro, Viktor Sinkunas, Gabriel Romero Liguori, José Otavio Costa Auler-Júnior
Health care has changed since the decline in mortality caused by infectious diseases as well as chronic and non-contagious diseases, with a direct impact on the cost of public health and individual health care. We must now transition from traditional reactive medicine based on symptoms, diagnosis and treatment to a system that targets the disease before it occurs and, if it cannot be avoided, treats the disease in a personalized manner. Precision Medicine is that new way of thinking about medicine. In this paper, we performed a thorough review of the literature to present an updated review on the subject, discussing the impact of the use of genetics and genomics in the care process as well as medical education, clinical research and ethical issues...
December 3, 2018: Clinics
Sergio Iavicoli, Antonio Valenti, Diana Gagliardi, Jorma Rantanen
The authors would like to extend their thanks for the fruitful comments and suggestions, which are useful for conducting deeper analyses of the ethical concerns related to occupational health. [...].
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Derrick Aarons
Guideline 20 of the updated International Ethics Guidelines for Health-related Research Involving Humans (2016) by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) provides guidance on research in disasters and disease outbreaks against the background of the need to generate knowledge quickly, overcome practical impediments to implementing such research, and the need to maintain public trust. The guideline recommends that research ethics committees could pre-screen study protocols to expedite ethical reviews in a situation of crisis, that pre-arrangements be made regarding data sharing and biomedical sample sharing, and that sponsors and research ethics committees seek to minimize risk to researchers conducting research during a disaster...
December 4, 2018: Bioethics
Olga Gershuni, Katarzyna Czabanowska, Genc Burazeri, Anna Cichowska Myrup, Martin Krayer Von Krauss
Background: This study intended to design a suitable and comprehensive approach for a public health workforce development plan with the ultimate goal of meeting the health objectives in different European Region countries. Methods: We performed a scoping review, including an accurate and exhaustive country-specific hand-search process, mapping the key concepts and practices used in public health workforce development based on the available evidence worldwide. Results: We identified nine comparative measures, based on common features from a scoping literature review, for the assessment of public health workforce development plans available in selected countries...
November 30, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Lisa Hui
The field of prenatal screening and diagnosis has undergone enormous progress over the past four decades. Most of this period has been characterized by gradual improvements in the technical and public health aspects of prenatal screening for Down syndrome. Compared to the direct analysis of fetal cells from amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, noninvasive approaches using maternal blood or ultrasound have the great advantage of posing no risk of miscarriage to the pregnancy. Recent advances in molecular genetics and DNA sequencing have revolutionized both the accuracy and the range of noninvasive testing for genetic abnormalities using cell-free DNA in maternal plasma...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Joel T Wu, Jennifer B McCormick
Broad dissemination and consumption of false or misleading health information, amplified by the internet, poses risks to public health and problems for both the health care enterprise and the government. In this article, we review government power for, and constitutional limits on, regulating health-related speech, particularly on the internet. We suggest that government regulation can only partially address false or misleading health information dissemination. Drawing on the American Medical Association's Code of Medical Ethics , we argue that health care professionals have responsibilities to convey truthful information to patients, peers, and communities...
November 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Mark W Skinner, Rachel V Herron, Rachel J Bar, Pia Kontos, Verena Menec
INTRODUCTION: This study examines the potential of dance to improve social inclusion for people living with dementia and carers. Research suggests that arts-based programmes can improve the health of people living with dementia and carers; however, little is known about how these programmes might address barriers to social inclusion. Addressing barriers requires the development and evaluation of accessible, non-stigmatising and affordable programmes that facilitate social inclusion across the continuum of institutional, community and household care settings...
November 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Jose M Castillo, Jennifer R Wolgemuth, Diana S Ginns, Joseph Latimer, Nicholas Scheel, Meaghan McKenna, Amanda L March, Sara Moulton, Joy Wang, Sarah Thoman, Andrew Jenkins, Kelli Henson, John M Ferron
INTRODUCTION: A multitiered system of supports (MTSS) represents a widely adopted public health approach to education in the USA. Researchers agree professional learning is critical for educators to implement the critical components of MTSS; however, professional learning approaches vary in their designs and targeted outcomes. While researchers increasingly focus their inquiries on professional learning for MTSS, no systematic research review exists. OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives for this mixed-methods review are to (1) understand how professional learning focused on MTSS has been operationalised (2) determine the impact of professional learning on educator (eg, knowledge) and implementation (eg, data-based decision-making processes) outcomes and (3) understand the contextual variables that influence professional learning in the USA...
November 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Jennifer J Ayoub, May Abiad, Michele R Forman, Gladys Honein-AbouHaidar, Farah Naja
BACKGROUND: Declining participation rates are impeding health research. Little is known about factors influencing the decision to participate in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Therefore, this paper reports on the various individual factors and their with contextual factors in influencing participation in research among pregnant women and the recommendations to enhance their recruitment in Lebanon. METHODS: This study used a qualitative research design drawing on focus groups and in-depth interviews...
November 29, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Teresa Leonardo Alves, Elita Poplavska, Signe Mezinska, Ieva Salmane-Kulikovska, Liga Andersone, Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse, Barbara Mintzes
BACKGROUND: European legislation prohibits direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines, but allows drug manufacturers to provide information to the public on health and diseases. Our aim was to measure the frequency of disease awareness campaigns in Latvian media and assess their compliance with international and European standards. METHODS: Materials on health/disease and treatments were collected between April and September 2015 from 12 newspapers and magazines and six online portals...
November 28, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ming-Jui Yeh, Hsi-Chen Liu
In their recent paper, Iavicoli and colleagues provided a narrative review on the historical development of ethics in occupational health and discussed several ethical concerns; they also hinted the "next step" for resolving the ethical challenges that occupational health professionals (OHPs) will encounter [...].
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ayako Matsuda, Yosuke Yamada, Noriko Ishizuka, Eisuke Matsushima, Kunihiko Kobayashi, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Kazue Yamaoka
Background: Previous studies suggest the use of patient-reported outcome measures in routine clinical practice has important benefits for patients with cancer, particularly as feedback regarding patients’ quality of life (QOL) improves doctor-patient communication and clinical decision making. This study aimed to examine the effect of using the Care Notebook as a routine self-monitoring QOL intervention in clinical practice for patients with cancer receiving palliative care. The results are expected to clarify the practical use of the Care Notebook in this population...
November 28, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Kamal M Yakoub, Patrick O'Halloran, David J Davies, Conor Bentley, Callum N Watson, Mario Forcione, Ugo Scarpa, Jonathan R B Bishop, Emma Toman, Douglas Hammond, Matthew J Cross, Keith A Stokes, Simon P T Kemp, David K Menon, Valentina Di Pietro, Antonio Belli
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury or sports-related concussion is a challenge for all clinicians, players, coaches and parents involved in contact sports. Currently, there is no validated objective biomarker available to assess the presence or severity of concussion in sport, and so it is necessary to rely on subjective measures like self-reporting of symptoms which depend on the cooperation of the athlete. There is a significant health risk associated with repetitive injury if the diagnosis is missed, and so there is great value in an objective biomarker to assist diagnostic and prognostic decisions...
November 25, 2018: BMJ Open
Wondale Getinet Alemu, Tadele Amare Zeleke, Wubet Worku Takele
INTRODUCTION: These days, in Ethiopia, khat chewing is one of the widely spreading public health problems affecting the most productive segment of the population. The health implications of khat chewing among students are strongly linked with poor mental, physical and social performances. However, the national magnitude of khat chewing and the associated factors among Ethiopian students are unknown. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis will answer the national prevalence of khat chewing and the associated factors among students in Ethiopia...
November 25, 2018: BMJ Open
Michael O S Afolabi, Stephen O Sodeke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Saumil Y Dholakia
Weighing competing obligations and achieving the "greatest balance" of right over wrong guides an individual, an agency or a country in determining what ought to be done in an ethically challenging situation. Conducting controlled human infection model (CHIM) studies in India is one such situation. The ethical challenge in conducting a CHIM study lies in completing the difficult task of introducing standardised, attenuated strains of micro-organisms into normal healthy volunteers, at the same time ensuring the safety of these healthy individuals from potential and completely informed risks in a fashion that is transparent and accountable...
November 8, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Alex Pollock, Pauline Campbell, Caroline Struthers, Anneliese Synnot, Jack Nunn, Sophie Hill, Heather Goodare, Jacqui Morris, Chris Watts, Richard Morley
BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that it is good practice to involve stakeholders (meaning patients, the public, health professionals and others) in systematic reviews, but limited evidence about how best to do this. We aimed to document the evidence-base relating to stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews and to use this evidence to describe how stakeholders have been involved in systematic reviews. METHODS: We carried out a scoping review, following a published protocol...
November 24, 2018: Systematic Reviews
T Jacob John, Dhanya Dharmapalan
Medical ethics is invoked for immunisation of children as it involves an interaction between a healthcare professional and the child. Immunisation under the national immunisation programme is a public health intervention and the common belief is that ethics is not relevant. Two vaccines with contrasting safety and efficacy profiles were available against polio before the national immunisation programme was launched: the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)...
September 21, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Gabriel Choukroun, Bruno Moulin
The objective of this review is to illustrate the interests of registries in terms of clinical research, using practical examples from the French REIN registry. In addition to their interest in terms of observation and decision-making for public health, registries may also be used to compare structures, and to evaluate causality in clinical research. Indeed, even though randomized controlled trials are the gold standard to assess causality, they may be difficult to perform, with an applicability in daily life that remains to be demonstrated since patients are highly selected patients with a very close follow-up...
November 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Paul Wicks
The past 15 years have seen the emergence of a new paradigm in medical research, namely of people living with medical conditions (whether patients, parents, or caregivers) using digital tools to conduct N-of-1 trials and scientifically grounded research on themselves, whilst using the Internet to form communities of like-minded individuals willing to self-experiment. Prominent examples can be found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neurone disease (the 'lithium study' on PatientsLikeMe), Parkinson's disease ('digital patient' Sara Riggare), and diabetes (the 'open artificial pancreas' of the #WeAreNotWaiting movement)...
November 23, 2018: BMC Medicine
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