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Resistance hiv

Paula C Aulicino, Ines Zapiola, Silvia Kademian, María M Valle, Silvina Fernandez Giuliano, Rosana Toro, Gabriela Barbas, Ana M Cañizal, Paula Mayon, Marcelo D Golemba, Marcela Ortiz de Zarate, Marisa S Corazza, Analía Cudola, Débora Mecikovsky, Rosa Bologna, Andrea Mangano, Luisa Sen
Objectives: To assess the prevalence and patterns of pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) and HIV-1 subtype in infants from Argentina with exposure to different antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Patients and methods: HIV-1 genotyping was performed in 115 infants (median age = 2.3 months) born between 2007 and 2014 to screen for drug resistance mutations (DRMs) before starting first-line ART. HIV-1 subtype was characterized by phylogenetic and recombination analysis...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Kathryn Peebles, R Scott McClelland, Julie Overbaugh, Barbra A Richardson, Rose Bosire, James N Kiarie, Carey Farquhar, Brandon L Guthrie
BACKGROUND: HIV-1-discordant couples that remain discordant despite repeated exposure may differ from the general population in their distribution of transmission risk factors, including low plasma viral load (PVL) in the infected partner even in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: We followed two cohorts of HIV-1-infected Kenyan women: females in discordant couples (FDC) and female sex workers (FSW). We compared the distribution of undetectable (<150 copies/mL) and low PVL (<1,000 copies/mL) between the cohorts using bootstrap methods and exact Poisson regression...
2018: PloS One
Vigneshwaran Namasivayam, Murugesan Vanangamudi, Victor G Kramer, Sonali Kurup, Peng Zhan, Xinyong Liu, Jacob Kongsted, Siddappa N Byrareddy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is now pandemic. Targeting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) has been considered one of the most successful targets for the development of anti-HIV treatment. Among the HIV-1 RT inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have gained a definitive place due to their unique antiviral potency, high specificity and low toxicity in antiretroviral combination therapies used to treat HIV. Till now, >50 structurally diverse classes of compounds have been reported as NNRTIs...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
C K Indumathi, Aruna Sethuraman, Saurav Jain, Savita Krishnamurthy
OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of anti tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) with those on old vs. revised WHO doses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative children. The secondary objective was to determine the overall incidence of hepatitis in children on Anti tubercular treatment (ATT) and isoniazid prophylactic therapy (IPT). METHODS: Children attending pediatric outpatient / admitted in wards, on ATT/ IPT between January 2007 and December 2017 (11 y) were included...
December 4, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Kara S McGee, Nwora Lance Okeke, Christopher B Hurt, Mehri S McKellar
Transmitted drug resistance to the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) class of antiretrovirals is very rare. We present a case of a treatment-naive female patient with human immunodeficiency virus harboring resistance to all INSTIs, including bictegravir and dolutegravir.
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Reneé de Waal, Richard Lessells, Anthony Hauser, Roger Kouyos, Mary-Ann Davies, Matthias Egger, Gilles Wandeler
The prevalence of pretreatment resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) is >10% in many low-income countries. As a consequence, several sub-Saharan African countries have implemented, or are considering the introduction of, non-NNRTI-based first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients. This is occurring at a time when ART programmes are expanding, in response to the World Health Organization guidelines, which recommend ART initiation regardless of CD4 cell count...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
April D Kimmel, Rose S Bono, Olivia Keiser, Jean D Sinayobye, Janne Estill, Deo Mujwara, Olga Tymejczyk, Denis Nash
Objective: Despite widespread uptake, only half of sub-Saharan African countries have fully implemented the World Health Organization's 'treat all' policy, hindering achievement of global HIV targets. We examined literature on mathematical modelling studies that sought to inform scale-up and implementation of 'treat all' in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We conducted a scoping review, a research synthesis to assess emerging evidence and identify gaps, of peer-reviewed literature, extracting study characteristics on 'treat all' policies and assumptions, setting, key populations, outcomes and findings...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Leslie A Enane, Mary-Ann Davies, Valériane Leroy, Andrew Edmonds, Edith Apondi, Adebola Adedimeji, Rachel C Vreeman
Children and adolescents living with HIV (CALHIV) in sub-Saharan Africa experience significant morbidity and alarmingly high mortality rates due to critical gaps in the HIV care cascade, including late diagnosis and initiation of treatment, as well as poor retention in care and adherence to treatment. Interventions to strengthen the adult HIV care cascade may not be as effective in improving the cascade for CALHIV, for whom specific strategies are needed. Particular attention needs to be paid to the contexts of sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 85% of the world's CALHIV live...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Joseph Rocco, John W Mellors, Bernard Jc Macatangay
Despite significant advances in the understanding of HIV-1 infection, a cure remains out of reach. This is, in part, due to a long-lived HIV-1 reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells, which do not express viral antigens, and thus are invisible to the immune system. These latently infected cells carry replication-competent proviruses and can cause rebound viraemia if antiretrovirals are interrupted. Characterising this HIV-1 reservoir is a challenging task, requiring identification of CD4+ T cell subsets carrying intact proviruses, as well as defining their distribution within the body...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Diego S Ojeda, Daniel Grasso, Javier Urquiza, Andreas Till, María Inés Vaccaro, Jorge Quarleri
Despite more than 30 years of extensive research efforts, a complete understanding of the neurological consequences of HIV central nervous system (CNS) infection remains elusive. HIV is not only able to establish a viral reservoir in the CNS but also to initiate manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases. These neurological disorders may arise because of virus-induced activation of the inflammasome in CNS cells, including astrocytes. Nevertheless, in some productive viral infection scenarios, selective autophagy may reduce inflammation through mitochondrial degradation ("mitophagy") to counteract inflammasome activation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Qinghua Wu, Jiri Patocka, Eugenie Nepovimova, Kamil Kuca
Beauvericin (BEA) is an emerging Fusarium mycotoxin that contaminates food and feeds globally. BEA biosynthesis is rapidly catalyzed by BEA synthetase through a nonribosomal, thiol-templated mechanism. This mycotoxin has cytotoxicity and is capable of increasing oxidative stress to induce cell apoptosis. Recently, large evidence further shows that this mycotoxin has a variety of biological activities and is being considered a potential candidate for medicinal and pesticide research. It is noteworthy that BEA is a potential anticancer agent since it can increase the intracellular Ca2+ levels and induce the cancer cell death through oxidative stress and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Erik Tenland, Nitya Krishnan, Anna Rönnholm, Sadaf Kalsum, Manoj Puthia, Matthias Mörgelin, Mina Davoudi, Magdalena Otrocka, Nader Alaridah, Izabela Glegola-Madejska, Erik Sturegård, Artur Schmidtchen, Maria Lerm, Brian D Robertson, Gabriela Godaly
Tuberculosis has been reaffirmed as the infectious disease causing most deaths in the world. Co-infection with HIV and the increase in multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains complicate treatment and increases mortality rates, making the development of new drugs an urgent priority. In this study we have identified a promising candidate by screening antimicrobial peptides for their capacity to inhibit mycobacterial growth. This non-toxic peptide, NZX, is capable of inhibiting both clinical strains of M...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Cissy Kityo, Alexander J Szubert, Abraham Siika, Robert Heyderman, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Abbas Lugemwa, Shalton Mwaringa, Anna Griffiths, Immaculate Nkanya, Sheila Kabahenda, Simon Wachira, Godfrey Musoro, Chatu Rajapakse, Timothy Etyang, James Abach, Moira J Spyer, Priscilla Wavamunno, Linda Nyondo-Mipando, Ennie Chidziva, Kusum Nathoo, Nigel Klein, James Hakim, Diana M Gibb, A Sarah Walker, Sarah L Pett
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, individuals infected with HIV who are severely immunocompromised have high mortality (about 10%) shortly after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). This group also has the greatest risk of morbidity and mortality associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), a paradoxical response to successful ART. Integrase inhibitors lead to significantly more rapid declines in HIV viral load (VL) than all other ART classes. We hypothesised that intensifying standard triple-drug ART with the integrase inhibitor, raltegravir, would reduce HIV VL faster and hence reduce early mortality, although this strategy could also risk more IRIS events...
December 2018: PLoS Medicine
Diana Machado, Isabel Couto, Miguel Viveiros
Tuberculosis, disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is currently the leading cause of death by a single infectious agent worldwide. Early, rapid and accurate identification of M. tuberculosis and the determination of drug susceptibility is essential for the treatment and management of this disease. Tuberculosis diagnosis is mainly based on chest radiography, smear microscopy and bacteriological culture. Smear microscopy has variable sensitivity, mainly in patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
November 30, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Although a preventable and treatable disease, tuberculosis causes more than a million deaths each year. As countries work towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target to end the tuberculosis epidemic by 2030, robust assessments of the levels and trends of the burden of tuberculosis are crucial to inform policy and programme decision making. We assessed the levels and trends in the fatal and non-fatal burden of tuberculosis by drug resistance and HIV status for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016...
December 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Chirasmita Nayak, Ishwar Chandra, Sanjeev Kumar Singh
Protease inhibitors (PIs) are crucial drugs in highly active antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infections. However, resistance owing to mutations challenge the long-term efficacy in the medication of HIV-1-infected individuals. Lopinavir (LPV) and darunavir (DRV), two second-generation drugs are the most potent among PIs, hustling the drug resistance when mutations occur in the active and nonactive site of the protease (PR). Herein, we strive for compounds that can stifle the function of wild-type (WT) HIV-1 PR along with four major single mutants (I54M, V82T, I84V, and L90M) instigating resistance to the PIs using in silico approach...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Francine Teixeira, Sonia M Raboni, Clea El Ribeiro, João Cb França, Anne C Broska, Nathalia Ls Souza
Worldwide, the convergence of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection epidemics is a public health challenge. In Brazil, TB is the leading cause of death by infectious disease in people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to report the clinical, demographic, epidemiological, and laboratory data for TB in PLWH. This cross-sectional study involved a retrospective analysis of data for patients with TB/HIV coinfection who attended from 2006 to 2015 through a review of medical records...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Andrew N Phillips, Francois Venter, Diane Havlir, Anton Pozniak, Daniel Kuritzkes, Annemarie Wensing, Jens D Lundgren, Andrea De Luca, Deenan Pillay, John Mellors, Valentina Cambiano, Loveleen Bansi-Matharu, Fumiyo Nakagawa, Thokozani Kalua, Andreas Jahn, Tsitsi Apollo, Owen Mugurungi, Polly Clayden, Ravindra K Gupta, Ruanne Barnabas, Paul Revill, Jennifer Cohn, Silvia Bertagnolio, Alexandra Calmy
BACKGROUND: The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir could have a major role in future antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in sub-Saharan Africa because of its high potency and barrier to resistance, good tolerability, and low cost, but there is uncertainty over appropriate policies for use relating to the potential for drug resistance spread and a possible increased risk of neural tube defects in infants if used in women at the time of conception. We used an existing individual-based model of HIV transmission, progression, and the effect of ART with the aim of informing policy makers on approaches to the use of dolutegravir that are likely to lead to the highest population health gains...
November 29, 2018: Lancet HIV
Stephanie E Cohen, Darpun Sachdev, Sulggi A Lee, Susan Scheer, Oliver Bacon, Miao-Jung Chen, Hideaki Okochi, Peter L Anderson, Mary F Kearney, Susa Coffey, Hyman Scott, Robert M Grant, Diane Havlir, Monica Gandhi
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly protective against HIV infection. We report a case of tenofovir-susceptible, emtricitabine-resistant HIV acquisition despite high adherence to daily PrEP. METHODS: Adherence to PrEP was assessed by measuring concentrations of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or their metabolites in plasma, dried blood spots, and hair. After seroconversion, genotypic and phenotypic resistance of the acquired virus was determined by standard clinical tests and by single-genome sequencing of proviral genomes...
November 29, 2018: Lancet HIV
Ayesha Javed, Fahed Parvaiz, Sobia Manzoor
Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a complex polymicrobial infection of vagina that shifts the paradigms of vaginal flora from lactobacilli to opportunistic pathogens. BV is catagorized by greyish white discharge, pH greater than 4.5. It results in the preterm labor, abortion, pelvic inflammatory disorders, post cesarean infections. BV is associated with Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) or immune deficiency disorders like Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Human Papilloma Virus, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae...
November 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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