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Kai-Ge Lu, Haiou Huang
Silica scaling of reverse osmosis membranes in brackish water desalination is less understood than hardness scaling due to the complex silica behaviors at the membrane/water interface. In this study, -COOH, -SO3 H, -NH2 and -OH functional groups were introduced onto polyamide membranes to create distinct surface physicochemical properties. The resulting membranes were further studied under similar scaling conditions to yield temporal flux loss data that were empirically interpreted by a logistic growth model...
November 30, 2018: Water Research
Xueliang Wang, Guosheng Shi, Shanshan Liang, Jian Liu, Deyuan Li, Gang Fang, Renduo Liu, Long Yan, Haiping Fang
We experimentally demonstrate the formation of salt aggregations with unexpectedly high concentration inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) soaked only in dilute salt solution sand even in solutions containing only traces of salts. This finding suggests the blocking of fluid across CNTs by the salt aggregations when CNTs are soaked in a dilute salt solution with the concentration of seawater or even lower, which may open new avenues for the development of novel CNT-based desalination techniques. The high salt accumulation of CNTs also provides a new CNT-based strategy for the collection or extraction of noble metal salts in solutions containing traces of noble metal salts...
November 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Linh Duy Nguyen, Sana Gassara, Minh Quang Bui, François Zaviska, Philippe Sistat, André Deratani
The shortage of drinking water is a major problem in the rural areas of the Mekong Delta, especially, when surface water, a main local direct drinking water source is being threatened by pesticide pollution and salinity intrusion. A hybrid process coupling electrodialysis (ED) and nanofiltration (NF) is proposed as an effective process easy to setup in a small plant to treat complex matrix with high salinity and pesticide concentration as is the Mekong Delta surface water. Performance of the ED-NF integration was evaluated with synthetic solutions based on the comparison with a single NF step generally used for pesticide removal...
December 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ahmad Reza Yari, Mohammad Javad Mohammadi, Sahar Geravandi, Zohreh Doosti, Soudabeh Alizadeh Matboo, Shahram Arsang Jang, Shahram Nazari
Point-of-use household water desalination systems (HWDSs) are becoming popular in Iran because of the deterioration of drinking water. This study aimed to determine the microbial quality of output water from HWDSs in Qom, Iran by using the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method. Samples of input and output water from 30 HWDSs were collected over a six-month period. Heterotrophic bacteria were tested using the pour plate technique. At the first sampling stage, the HPC level in 23% of samples exceeded the 500 CFU/ml threshold level...
December 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Haiguang Zhang, Xie Quan, Xinfei Fan, Gang Yi, Shuo Chen, Hongtao Yu, Yongsheng Chen
Nanofiltration (NF) is considered a promising candidate for brackish and sea water desalination. NF exhibits high multivalent ion rejection, but the rejection rate for monovalent ions is relatively low. Besides, great challenges remain for conventional NF membranes to achieve high ion rejection without sacrificing water flux. This work presents an effective strategy for improving the ion rejection of conductive NF membrane without decreasing the permeability through electrically-assisted enhancement of surface charge density...
December 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Thomas A Cooper, Seyed H Zandavi, George W Ni, Yoichiro Tsurimaki, Yi Huang, Svetlana V Boriskina, Gang Chen
Steam generation using solar energy provides the basis for many sustainable desalination, sanitization, and process heating technologies. Recently, interest has arisen for low-cost floating structures that absorb solar radiation and transfer energy to water via thermal conduction, driving evaporation. However, contact between water and the structure leads to fouling and pins the vapour temperature near the boiling point. Here we demonstrate solar-driven evaporation using a structure not in contact with water...
December 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Fubin Liu, Lisheng Wang, Kuichang Zuo, Shuai Luo, Xiaoyuan Zhang, Peng Liang, Xia Huang
This study introduced a novel dual-anode assembled microbial desalination cell to enhance the performance of domestic wastewater treatment. Two parallel units were fabricated with two anodes and one cathode, which is separated by two ion exchange membrane stacks. A hollow fiber membrane module was inserted in the cathode to intercept suspended solids and microbes. Based on preliminary experiments where synthetic wastewater was utilized, anode hydraulic retention time of 10 h and cathode aeration rate of 0...
December 1, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Wangwang Tang, Jie Liang, Di He, Jilai Gong, Lin Tang, Zhifeng Liu, Dongbo Wang, Guangming Zeng
Substantial consumption and widespread contamination of the available freshwater resources necessitate a continuing search for sustainable, cost-effective and energy-efficient technologies for reclaiming this valuable life-sustaining liquid. With these key advantages, capacitive deionization (CDI) has emerged as a promising technology for the facile removal of ions or other charged species from aqueous solutions via capacitive effects or Faradaic interactions, and is currently being actively explored for water treatment with particular applications in water desalination and wastewater remediation...
November 26, 2018: Water Research
Yubing Ye, Shuili Yu, Li'an Hou, Baosen Liu, Qing Xia, Guicai Liu, Pan Li
Membrane fouling, especially inorganic fouling due to salt crystal formation and deposition on the membrane surface, is still a major technical issue in membrane distillation (MD) applications. In this study, microbubble aeration (MBA) was included in a laboratory-scale vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) rig and its effect on a desalination process was examined. Without MBA, serious membrane scaling occurred during desalination of simulated high-salinity sea water (100 g.L-1 salt concentration), which resulted in a dramatic reduction of permeate flux to essentially zero after 120 min...
November 20, 2018: Water Research
G C Loh
The well-being of the ever-escalating world population hinges largely upon the adequacy of clean, fresh water. Desalination is one of the most promising approaches in such an endeavor. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we take a close look at nanoporous hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets as desalination membranes, and study how C dopants affect their performance. The calculations predict that the desalination performance of C-doped BN membranes compares favorably to that of MoS2 membranes: the water flux through the 0% (0CB -0CN ), 25% (3CB -0CN ), 75% (3CB -6CN ), and 100% C terminated BN membrane (6CB -6CN ) is 29...
February 1, 2019: Nanotechnology
Mahdi Mohammadi Ghaleni, Abdullah Al-Balushi, Shayan Kaviani, Elham Tavakoli, Mona Bavarian, Siamak Nejati
Desalination of oil-contaminated saline water using membrane distillation requires hydrophobic membranes with underwater superoleophobic surfaces. For designing such membranes, the chemistry and morphology of the interfacial domains in contact with the contaminated water need to be adjusted such that a stable water layer, adhering to the surface, prevents oil droplets from wetting the membrane. In this article, we present an approach that relies on the controlled functionalization of the surface of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) membranes; we adjust the surface topography of the membranes and introduce chemical heterogeneity to them...
December 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wouter Pronk, An Ding, Eberhard Morgenroth, Nicolas Derlon, Peter Desmond, Michael Burkhardt, Bing Wu, Anthony G Fane
Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration has been investigated for almost 10 years. The technology is characterized not only by relatively lower transmembrane pressures which can be achieved by gravity (extremely low energy consumption), but also by the phenomenon of flux stabilization: A biofilm is allowed to form on the membrane and a stabilization of flux occurs which is related to biological processes within the biofilm layer on the membrane. This enables stable operation during a year or longer without any cleaning or flushing...
November 25, 2018: Water Research
Zhiqiang Huang, Chen Cheng, Liqing Li, Zhizhong Guo, Guichun He, Xinyang Yu, Rukuan Liu, Haijun Han, Lanqing Deng, Weng Fu
Potassium fertilizer plays a critical role in increasing the food production. Carnallite is concentrated by reverse froth flotation and used as a raw material to produce potassium fertilizer (KCl) in agriculture. However, all the surfactants used in the carnallite reverse flotation process are conventional monomeric surfactants contain a single similar hydrophobic group in the molecule, which results in a low production efficiency. In this work, a new morpholine-based Gemini surfactant, 1,4-bis (morpholinododecylammonio) butane dibromide (BMBD) was prepared, and originally recommended as a collector for reverse froth flotation separation of halite (NaCl) from carnallite ore...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Dongsheng Zhao, Chang Su, Guicai Liu, Youbing Zhu, Zhengyang Gu
In this study, the long-term operational performance of an on-site NF facility at a full-scale oil-field wastewater desalination plant was monitored. The NF facility with poor permeability due to membrane fouling enables efficient multivalent salt removal (rejections of Mg2+ , Ca2+ , Fe3+ , and Al3+ were approximately 100%). Moreover, a comparison of the cleaning efficiencies of two on-site cleaning modes indicated that PL-007 cleaning helped to improve the effectiveness of subsequent acid cleaning in the removal of inorganic foulants...
November 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yuquan Li, Xingtao Xu, Shujin Hou, Jiaqi Ma, Ting Lu, Jiachen Wang, Yefeng Yao, Likun Pan
For the first time, N,B dual-doped porous carbon spheres (denoted as PCSs) were prepared through direct carbonization of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) and used as an electrode material for membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI). Due to their high accessible surface area and defect-abundant structure offered by N,B-co-doping, the nanostructured PCSs exhibit high desalination ability and are expected to be promisingly applied in MCDI.
November 28, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Massimiliano Fabbricino, Mingquan Yan, Gregory V Korshin
Chlorination of coastal (CS) and deep ocean (DO) seawater was accompanied by a prominent decrease (of up to 70%) of the intensity of its emission which was measured using a 315 nm excitation wavelength. Deconvolution of the emission spectra of CS and DO seawater showed that these spectra comprised three Gauss-shaped bands. The intensities of two of these bands decreased rapidly as the halogenation proceeded. For both DO and CS seawater, two stages of changes of their fluorescence were observed. The first stage in which the relative changes of the fluorescence intensity (ΔF/F) were between zero to 0...
November 23, 2018: Chemosphere
Zishu Cao, Shixuan Zeng, Zhi Xu, Antonios Arvanitis, Shaowei Yang, Xuehong Gu, Junhang Dong
The tremendous potential of zeolite membranes for efficient molecular separation via size-exclusion effects is highly desired by the energy and chemical industries, but its practical realization has been hindered by nonselective permeation through intercrystalline spaces and high resistance to intracrystalline diffusion in the conventional zeolite membranes of randomly oriented polycrystalline structures. Here, we report the synthesis of ZSM-5 zeolite nanosheets with very large aspect ratios and nanometer-scale thickness in the preferred straight channel direction...
November 2018: Science Advances
Kuiling Li, Deyin Hou, Chaochen Fu, Kai Wang, Jun Wang
To improve the mechanical properties of the electrospun nanofibrous membrane, the nonwoven fabrics and spacer fabrics were employed as support substrates to fabricate polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibrous composite membranes. The influences of the substrate on membrane morphology, hydrophobicity, pore size and pore size distribution, porosity, mechanical strength and permeability were comprehensive evaluated. The electrospun composite membranes had a three dimension bead-fiber interconnected open structure and a rough membrane surface...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Yang Hu, Chengrong Bai, Jian Cai, Keqiang Shao, Xiangming Tang, Guang Gao
BACKGROUND: Understanding the recovery of bacterial communities after extreme environmental disturbances offers key opportunities to investigate ecosystem resilience. However, it is not yet clear whether bacterial communities can rebound to their pre-disturbance levels. To shed light on this issue, we tracked the responses of bacterial communities during an extreme salinization-desalinization cycle. RESULTS: Our results showed that salinization-up process induced an ecological succession, shifting from a community dominated by Betaproteobacteria to Gammaproteobacteria...
November 23, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Mathew J B Swallow, Gwen O'Sullivan
Soil salinization impacts millions of hectares of land around the world and threatens many soil ecosystem services. Impacts of soil salinization are long lasting and impact agriculture productivity, reduce plant diversity and cause increase soil erosion due a reduction or loss in surface vegetation. Generally, remediation of saline soil relies on soil washing methods and phytoremediation to translocate salts below the rooting depth of plants. However, standard methods can often be unsuccessful as leached salts are able to return to the rooting zone through subsequent capillary rise in the soil...
November 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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