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Emad Ali, Jamel Orfi, Abdullah Najib, Jehad Saleh
Desalination of geothermal brackish water by membrane distillation (MD) provides a low recovery rate, but integrating MD with reverse osmosis (RO) can maximize the production rate. In this study, different design configurations of a hybrid system involving brine recycling and cascading are studied via simulations, and the performance improvement due to the process integration is substantiated via the increased recovery rate and reduced specific energy consumption. Brine recycling is also found to improve the recovery rate considerably to 40% at an energy cost of 0...
2018: PloS One
Gyeongho Seon, Hyun Woo Joo, Yong Jae Kim, Juyi Park, Yong Keun Chang
Microalgal biomass was hydrolyzed by using a solid acid catalyst with the aid of liquid acid. The use of solid acid as the main catalyst instead of liquid acid was to omit subsequent neutralization and/or desalination steps, which are commonly required in using the resulting hydrolysates for microbial fermentation. The hydrolysis of 10 g/L of lipid-extracted Chlorella vulgaris containing 12.2% carbohydrates by using 7.6 g/L Amberlyst 36 and 0.0075 N nitric acid at 15 °C resulted in 1.08 g/L of mono-sugars with a yield of 88...
October 9, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
C Prehal, C Koczwara, H Amenitsch, V Presser, O Paris
A fundamental understanding of ion charge storage in nanoporous electrodes is essential to improve the performance of supercapacitors or devices for capacitive desalination. Here, we employ in situ X-ray transmission measurements on activated carbon supercapacitors to study ion concentration changes during electrochemical operation. Whereas counter-ion adsorption was found to dominate at small electrolyte salt concentrations and slow cycling speed, ion replacement prevails for high molar concentrations and/or fast cycling...
October 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Mohamed Alhaj, Sami G Al-Ghamdi
In many parts of the world, desalination is the only viable and economic solution to the problem of fresh water shortage. The current commercial desalination technologies rely on fossil fuels and are thus associated with high greenhouse gas emissions that are a major cause of climatic changes. Solar thermal-driven multi-effect distillation with thermal vapor compression is a clean alternative to conventional desalination technologies. To comprehend this process, as well as its features and limitations, extensive modeling is required...
September 2018: Heliyon
Ehsan Mohammad-Pajooh, Dirk Weichgrebe, Graham Cuff, Babak Mohamadpour Tosarkani, Karl-Heinz Rosenwinkel
On-site flowback treatment systems are typically rated and selected based on three fundamental categories: satisfying customer needs (e.g. meeting effluent quality, capacity, delivery time and time required to reach stable and steady effluent quality), common features comparison (e.g. treatment costs, stability of operation, scalability, logistics, and maintenance frequency) and through substantial product differentiation such as better service condition, overcoming current market limitations (e.g. fouling, salinity limit), and having lower environmental footprints and emissions...
December 2018: Chemosphere
Qi Wei, Junzeng Xu, Linxian Liao, Yawei Li, Haiyu Wang, Shah Fahad Rahim
To reveal the effect of irrigation salinity on soil nitrous oxide (N₂O) emission, pot experiments were designed with three irrigation salinity levels (NaCl and CaCl₂ of 1, 2.5 and 4 g/L equivalence, Ec = 3.6, 8.1 and 12.7 ds/m), either for 0 kg N/ha (N0) or 120 kg N/ha (N120) nitrogen inputs. N₂O emissions from soils irrigated at different salinity levels varied in a similar pattern which was triggered by soil moisture dynamics. Yet, the magnitudes of pulse N₂O fluxes were significantly varied, with the peak flux at 5 g/L irrigation salinity level being much higher than at 2 and 8 g/L...
September 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Depeng Zhang, Zhiyuan Zhang, Wanrun Jiang, Yi Gao, Zhigang Wang
Water exhibits different behaviors in confined space compared to free space, which is critical for desalination, biosensing, and many potential applications. Recent studies indicated that quantum tunnelling plays an important role in the orientation of H2O molecules and the H-bond network of water clusters, but whether this effect is important in confined space remains elusive. Here, we studied the quantum tunnelling effect of water dimers in carbon nanotubes with different sizes by first-principles calculations...
September 27, 2018: Nanoscale
Liang Huang, Suting Huang, Surendar R Venna, Haiqing Lin
Membranes with high water permeance, near-zero rejection to inorganic salts (such as NaCl and Na2SO4), and almost 100% rejection to organic dyes are of great interest for the dye desalination (the separation of dyes and salts) of textile wastewater. Herein, we prepared reduced graphene oxide membranes in a solvation state (S-rGO) with nanochannel sizes rightly between the salt ions and dye molecules. The S-rGO membrane rejects >99.0% of Direct Red 80 (DR 80) and has almost zero rejection for Na2SO4. By contrast, conventional GO or rGO membranes often have the channel sizes smaller than divalent ions (such as SO42-) and thus high rejection for Na2SO4...
September 26, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yuanhong Hu, David Lindo-Atichati
A central question in science and technology of desalting is, can we predict optimal coastal sites to implement seawater irrigation? Freshwater only makes up 2.5% of all water on Earth but crop irrigation is responsible for 70% of freshwater demand. First, we compared the growth rates and the dehydration rates of 5 alternative seawater irrigation experiments of wheatgrass over 3 weeks' periods. The average salt tolerance threshold of wheatgrass is 6 dS m-1 . When seawater salinity is increased >10...
September 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xitong Liu, Jay F Whitacre, Meagan S Mauter
Though electrochemical deionization technologies have been widely explored for brackish water desalination and selective ion removal, their sustained performance in the presence of foulants common to environmental waters remains unclear. This study investigates the fundamental mechanisms by which carbonaceous electrodes used in capacitive deionization and insertion electrodes used for high-capacity selective ion removal are affected by the presence of humic acid (HA). We evaluate HA adsorption behavior and the resulting impact on the ion storage capacity and cycling stability of the electrode materials...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sharafat Ali, Syed Aziz Ur Rehman, Hong-Yan Luan, Muhammad Usman Farid, Haiou Huang
Environmental applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have grabbed worldwide attentions due to their excellent adsorption capacities and promising physical, chemical and mechanical properties. The functionalization of CNTs, which involves chemical/physical modification of pristine CNTs with different types of functional groups, improves the capabilities of CNT for desalination and/or removals of waterborne contaminants. This paper intends to provide a comprehensive review of functional CNT materials (f-CNT) and their existing and potential applications in membrane-based water treatment and desalination processes, with focuses on critical evaluation of advances, knowledge gaps and future research directions...
January 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Timothy V Bartholomew, Nicholas Stephen Siefert, Meagan S Mauter
We develop a nonlinear optimization model to identify minimum cost designs for osmotically assisted reverse osmosis (OARO), a multi-staged membrane-based process for desalinating high salinity brines. The optimization model enables comprehensive evaluation of a complex process configuration and operational decision space that includes nonlinear process performance and implicit relationships between membrane stages, saline sweep cycles, and make-up, purge, and recycle streams. The objective function minimizes cost, rather than energy or capital expenditures, to accurately account for the tradeoffs in capital and operational expenses inherent in multi-staged membrane processes...
September 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yusuf Shi, Chenlin Zhang, Renyuan Li, Sifei Zhuo, Yong Jin, Le Shi, Seunghyun Hong, Jian Chang, Chisiang Ong, Peng Wang
A sustainable supply of clean water is essential for the development of modern society, which has become increasingly dependent on desalination technology since 96.5% of the water on Earth is salt water. Thousands of desalination plants are producing massive waste brine as byproduct, and the direct discharge of brine raises serious concerns about its ecological impact. The concept of zero liquid discharge (ZLD) desalination is regarded as the solution, but the current ZLD technologies are hampered by their intensive use of energy and high cost...
October 1, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hiran D Kiriarachchi, Fathi S Awad, Amr A Hassan, Julian A Bobb, Andrew Lin, M Samy El-Shall
Water desalination and wastewater treatment via solar photothermal energy conversion are among the most important technologies to address the increasing pressing global water scarcity. Solar energy is the cleanest, most abundant, renewable natural resource available. Herein, we report the development of highly efficient, flexible, low weight, and cost effective Plasmonic Functionalized Cotton (PFC) nanocomposite materials for solar steam generation through the efficient evaporation of surface water pools. The PFC nanocomposites contain metallic nanoparticles that exhibit strong solar absorption followed by non-radiative relaxation causing the absorbed energy to be converted into heat for efficient water evaporation...
September 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Graeme F Clark, Nathan A Knott, Brett M Miller, Brendan P Kelaher, Melinda A Coleman, Shinjiro Ushiama, Emma L Johnston
Desalination is an increasingly common method of meeting potable water demands, but the associated ecological risks are not well understood. Seawater desalination plants discharge large volumes of hypersaline brine directly into the ocean, raising concerns about potential impacts to marine life. In order to reduce impacts of brine, newer desalination outfalls are often fitted with high-pressure diffusers that discharge brine at high velocity into the water column, increasing the mixing and dilution of brine with ocean water...
September 1, 2018: Water Research
Udayan Singh, Lisa M Colosi
Management of coalbed methane (CBM)-produced water is a crucial part of the water-energy nexus, especially as CBM is projected to play a key role as a bridge fuel in major economies. In this paper, we consider one management technique, i.e., desalination of CBM-produced water to generate potable water. We discuss a confluence of geographic, sociotechnical, regulatory, and other circumstances that could make this concept viable for select coal-bearing regions. Having said that, for maximizing benefits, it is prudent to take a synergistic view targeting multiple objectives (water access, health, environmental impacts, and ease of waste management)...
September 14, 2018: Ambio
Jesus Aparicio, Antonio J Tenza-Abril, Malcolm Borg, John Galea, Lucila Candela
Maltese agriculture faces great challenges due to the severe scarcity of water. Sufficient water resources, in quantity and quality, are necessary to cover the demand in the production of wine grape, one of the most important crops in Maltese agriculture. But also, economic efficiency is essential in the grape cultivation. A Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) is defined for Maltese vineyards in the Siġġiewi region, considering two irrigation scenarios, irrigation with groundwater or "do-nothing", compared with the "use non-conventional waters" from mixing water from a small desalination plant and groundwater...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Navaladian Subramanian, Adnan Qamar, Ahmad Alsaadi, Adair Gallo, Muhammed Ghifari Ridwan, Jung-Gil Lee, Sreekiran Pillai, Sankara Arunachalam, Dalaver Anjum, Felix Sharipov, Noreddine Ghaffour, Himanshu Mishra
HYPOTHESIS: Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) processes exploit water-repellant membranes to desalt warm seawaters by allowing only water vapor to transport across. While perfluorinated membranes/coatings are routinely used for DCMD, their vulnerability to abrasion, heat, and harsh chemicals necessitates alternatives, such as ceramics. Herein, we systematically assess the potential of ceramic membranes consisting of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) for DCMD. EXPERIMENTS: We rendered AAO membranes superhydrophobic to accomplish the separation of hot salty water (343 K, 0...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Daizhen Zhang, Tingting Qi, Jun Liu, Qiuning Liu, Senhao Jiang, Huabin Zhang, Zhengfei Wang, Ge Ding, Boping Tang
Desalination of marine species has become an important development direction for aquaculture in China and other countries. However, that how to regulate the salt balance to adapt to new freshwater habitats is a serious challenge for marine species in desalination of aquaculture. In the study, Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir japonica sinensis) was selected to analyse the adaptively differential expression in salinity changes for their novel characteristics of life history. The results showed that gill was the most relevant tissue in osmoregulation that was validated by biomarkers (Na+ /K+ -ATP, V-type H+ -ATPase) with qPCR...
September 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Parham Jafari, Ali Masoudi, Peyman Irajizad, Masoumeh Nazari, Varun Kashyap, Bahareh Eslami, Hadi Ghasemi
Evaporation is a fundamental and core phenomenon in a broad range of disciplines including power generation and refrigeration systems, desalination, electronic/photonic cooling, aviation systems, and even biosciences. Despite its importance, the current theories on evaporation suffer from fitting coefficients with reported values varying in a few orders of magnitude. Lack of a sound model impedes simulation and prediction of characteristics of many systems in these disciplines. Here, we studied evaporation at a planar liquid-vapor interface through a custom-designed, controlled, and automated experimental setup...
October 2, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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