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Life style

Safwat Y Diab, Esa Palosaari, Raija-Leena Punamäki
Mental health problems are common in war-affected areas, but children have different levels of vulnerability. Based on ecological theory (Bronfenbrenner, 2005), this study analyses how factors related to the child (cognitive capacity), their family (parental depression and parenting styles), and their school (teachers' practices and peer relations) mediate the association between traumatic stress (traumatic war experiences and stressful life-events) and child mental health (posttraumatic stress and psychological distress symptoms)...
August 14, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Emilie A C Dronkers, Arta Hoesseini, Maarten F de Boer, Marinella P J Offerman
OBJECTIVES: In shared decision making it is important to adequately, timely and actively involve patients in treatment decisions. Sharing prognostic information can be of key importance. This study describes whether and how prognostic information on life expectancy is included during communication on diagnosis and treatment plans between physicians and head and neck (H&N) oncologic patients in different phases of disease. METHODS: A descriptive, qualitative study was performed of n = 23 audiotaped physician-patient conversations in which both palliative and curative treatment options were discussed and questions on prognosis were expected...
September 2018: Oral Oncology
Daniela Sandoval, Carolina Nazzal, Tomás Romero
Background: Limited information exists on blood pressure (BP) control factors and adherence to antihypertensive drug therapy (Rx) in developing countries. Methods: Cross-sectional study in randomly selected 992 hypertensive patients under a Chilean national comprehensive Cardiovascular Health Program (CVHP). Association of education, income, diabetes, obesity, physical activity, psychosocial characteristics, smoking, and alcohol abuse with BP control and adherence were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression...
2018: International Journal of Hypertension
Petter Andreas Ringen, Ragnhild S Falk, Bjørnar Antonsen, Ann Faerden, Asgeir Mamen, Eline B Rognli, Dag K Solberg, Egil W Martinsen, Ole A Andreassen
BACKGROUND: People with severe mental illness have markedly reduced life expectancy; cardiometabolic disease is a major cause. Psychiatric hospital inpatients have elevated levels of cardiometabolic risk factors and are to a high degree dependent of the routines and facilities of the institutions. Studies of lifestyle interventions to reduce cardiometabolic risk in psychiatric inpatients are few. The current study aimed at assessing the feasibility and effects of a lifestyle intervention including Motivational Interviewing (MI) on physical activity levels, cardiometabolic risk status and mental health status in psychotic disorder inpatients...
August 15, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Inga C Teller, Heike Hoyer-Kuhn, Hella Brönneke, Pia Nosthoff-Horstmann, Annemarie Oosting, Gregor Lippach, Maria Wohlfarth, Manfred Rauh, Eline M van der Beek, Jörg Dötsch, Kai D Nüsken
Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adverse metabolic outcome later in life. Healthy mice challenged with a Western-style diet (WSD) accumulated less body fat when previously fed a diet containing large lipid globules (complex lipid matrix (CLM)). This study was designed to clarify whether an early-life CLM diet mitigates 'programmed' visceral adiposity and associated metabolic sequelae after IUGR. In rats, IUGR was induced either by bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG) or sham operation (i...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
George W Brown, Tirril O Harris, Thomas K J Craig
BACKGROUND: Both childhood maltreatment and insecure attachment are known to be associated with depression in adulthood. The extent insecure attachment increases the risk of adult clinical depression over that of parental maltreatment among women in the general population is explored, using those at high risk because of their selection for parental maltreatment together with an unselected sample. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and investigator-based measures are employed...
August 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Zheng Liu, Yu-Ying Sun, Bao-Liang Zhong
BACKGROUND: Caring for people with dementia is highly challenging, and family carers are recognised as being at increased risk of physical and mental ill-health. Most current interventions have limited success in reducing stress among carers of people with dementia. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) draws on a range of practices and may be a promising approach to helping carers of people with dementia. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of MBSR in reducing the stress of family carers of people with dementia...
August 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M V Uthaug, K van Oorsouw, K P C Kuypers, M van Boxtel, N J Broers, N L Mason, S W Toennes, J Riba, J G Ramaekers
RATIONALE: Ayahuasca is a psychotropic plant tea from South America used for religious purposes by indigenous people of the Amazon. Increasing evidence indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of mental health disorders and can enhance mindfulness-related capacities. Most research so far has focused on acute and sub-acute effects of ayahuasca on mental health-related parameters and less on long-term effects. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to assess sub-acute and long-term effects of ayahuasca on well-being and cognitive thinking style...
August 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Timothy W Churchill, Supriya Krishnan, Marc Weisskopf, Brandon Yates, Frank E Speizer, Jonathan H Kim, Lee E Nadler, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Ross Zafonte, Aaron L Baggish
BACKGROUND: Professional American-style football players are among the largest athletes across contemporary sporting disciplines, and weight gain during the years of football participation is common. At present, the health implications of this early-life weight gain remain incompletely understood. We sought to define weight trajectories of former professional American-style football athletes and to establish their relationship with 5 health afflictions common in this population (cardiovascular disease, cardiometabolic disease, neurocognitive impairment, sleep apnea, and chronic pain)...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Audrey J Gaskins, Yu-Han Chiu, Carmen Messerlian, Paige L Williams, Jennifer B Ford, Irene Souter, Russ Hauser, Jorge E Chavarro
STUDY QUESTION: Is self-reported type of underwear worn associated with markers of testicular function among men at a fertility center? SUMMARY ANSWER: Men who reported most frequently wearing boxers had higher sperm concentration and total count, and lower FSH levels, compared to men who did not. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Elevated scrotal temperatures are known to adversely affect testicular function. However, the epidemiologic literature on type of underwear, as a proxy of scrotal temperature, and male testicular function is inconsistent...
August 8, 2018: Human Reproduction
Hiroshi Katsuki
Narcolepsy is a kind of sleep disorder featured by selective loss of orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Several lines of evidence, including association with specific HLA haplotypes, gene polymorphism in T cell receptor and detection of autoantibodies in a subpopulation of patients, suggest that autoimmune responses play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Potential relationship with influenza virus infection has also been a matter of interest. However, these events may not be able to explain all cases of narcolepsy...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Jaqueline Garcia-Silva, María Isabel Peralta-Ramírez, Nuria Navarrete Navarrete, Daniele Silva-Silva, Vicente E Caballo
OBJECTIVE: Self-efficacy refers to beliefs in individuals' own capacities to do something. With the intent of evaluate the validity and reliability, we investigated the psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy to Regulate Exercise Scale (SERES) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: 135 participants with medical diagnosis of MetS took part in the study (Mage=55.5, SD=7.6). We investigated sociodemographic, psychological, and life-style variables...
August 14, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Stefanie Gilles, Cezmi Akdis, Roger Lauener, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier, Thomas Bieber, Georg Schäppi, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann
Allergies are usually referred to as type I hypersensitivity reactions against innocuous environmental antigens, characterized by a Th2/IgE-dominated inflammation. They can manifest themselves in various organs, such as skin, gastro-intestinal and respiratory tract, and comprise diseases as diverse as allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, bronchial asthma, oral allergy syndrome, food allergy, urticaria and atopic eczema, but also anaphylactic shock. Within the last decades there was a significant global increase in allergy prevalence, which has been mostly attributed to changes in environment and life style...
August 12, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Bao-Zhen Tang, E Meng, Hua-Jian Zhang, Xiao-Mei Zhang, Sassan Asgari, Ya-Ping Lin, Yun-Ying Lin, Zheng-Qiang Peng, Ting Qiao, Xia-Fang Zhang, You-Ming Hou
The venom apparatus is a conserved organ in parasitoids that shows adaptations correlated with life-style diversification. Combining transcriptomics and label-free quantitative proteomics, here we explored the venom apparatus components of the endoparasitoid Tetrastichus brontispae (Eulophidae), and provide a comparison of the venom apparatus proteomes between its two closely related strains, T. brontispae-Octodonta nipae (Tb-On) and T. brontispae-Brontispa longissima (Tb-Bl). Tb-Bl targets the B. longissima pupa as its habitual host...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
John Muench, Sheldon Levy, Rebecca Rdesinski, Rebekah Schiefer, Kristin Gilbert, Joan Fleishman
Objective This article will describe a pilot study to explore associations between adult attachment style, resilience, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and adult health. Method A self-report survey was mailed to 180 randomly selected primary care patients and linked to a retrospective chart review. The patients met the following criteria: (1) enrolled for at least the previous year at their primary care clinic, (2) 21 years of age or greater, (3) English as their primary language, and (4) were seen by their provider on selected dates of the study...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Chih-Tao Cheng, Samuel M Y Ho, Wing-Kei Liu, Yi-Chen Hou, Lay-Chin Lim, Shi-Ying Gao, Wen-Yi Chang, Ging-Long Wang
PURPOSE: Cancer survivors experience significant psychosocial distress even after completion of cancer treatment. The association between cancer coping and cancer recovery is not well established. The present study investigated the cancer-coping profile and cancer outcomes in breast cancer survivors. METHODS: A three-wave longitudinal study was conducted. In 2009 (wave 1), 248 breast cancer survivors completed a package of psychological inventories to evaluate cancer copying style, psychological distress, anxiety and depression, and quality of life...
August 7, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Tuomas Immonen, Eric Brymer, Keith Davids, Jarmo Liukkonen, Timo Jaakkola
Currently, there are various definitions for extreme sports and researchers in the field have been unable to advance a consensus on what exactly constitutes an 'extreme' sport. Traditional theory-led explanations, such as edgeworks, sensation seeking and psychoanalysis, have led to inadequate conceptions. These frameworks have failed to capture the depth and nuances of experiences of individuals who refute the notions of risk-taking, adrenaline- and thrill-seeking or death-defiance. Instead, participants are reported to describe experiences as positive, deeply meaningful and life-enhancing...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ji Won Han, Tae Hui Kim, Kyung Phil Kwak, Kayoung Kim, Bong Jo Kim, Shin Gyeom Kim, Jeong Lan Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Seok Woo Moon, Jae Young Park, Joon Hyuk Park, Seonjeong Byun, Seung Wan Suh, Ji Young Seo, Yoonseop So, Seung-Ho Ryu, Jong Chul Youn, Kyoung Hwan Lee, Dong Young Lee, Dong Woo Lee, Seok Bum Lee, Jung Jae Lee, Ju Ri Lee, Hyeon Jeong, Hyun-Ghang Jeong, Jin Hyeong Jhoo, Kyuhee Han, Jong Woo Hong, Ki Woong Kim
Objective: Due to an unprecedented rate of population aging, South Korea is facing a dementia epidemic. For this reason, the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD) was launched in 2009 with support from the Korean Health Industry Development Institute to investigate the epidemiology, biopsychosocial risk factors, and outcomes of dementia and dementia-related conditions. Methods: The KLOSCAD is the first nationwide multi-center population-based prospective cohort study...
August 9, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Rivka Hillel Lavian
The aim of this research is to give voice to a single mother of two grown up daughters with cognitive disabilities in order to examine her parental experience. The narrative approach is used in this study. The research tool is an in-depth narrative interview. The interview was recorded and transcribed and the findings divided into key themes that were analyzed in a holistic fashion combining formative and content related aspects. The research finds that this special type of parenting is complex and full of challenges...
2018: AIMS Public Health
Nicole Tichenor Blackstone, Naglaa H El-Abbadi, Margaret S McCabe, Timothy S Griffin, Miriam E Nelson
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based nutrition policy is a key mechanism to promote planetary health. In the USA, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are the foundation of nutrition policy and guide more than US$80 billion in federal spending. Recent attempts have been made to incorporate sustainability into the development of the Dietary Guidelines. However, the sustainability of the 2015-20 Dietary Guidelines remains unclear; research has not yet assessed the environmental impacts of the distinct healthy patterns recommended by the policy...
August 2018: The Lancet. Planetary health
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