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Horse, equine

Hualei Wang, Gary Wong, Wenjun Zhu, Shihua He, Yongkun Zhao, Feihu Yan, Md Niaz Rahim, Yuhai Bi, Zirui Zhang, Keding Cheng, Hongli Jin, Zengguo Cao, Xuexing Zheng, Weiwei Gai, Jieying Bai, Weijin Chen, Yong Zou, Yuwei Gao, George F Gao, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia, Xiangguo Qiu
Ebola virus (EBOV) infections result in aggressive hemorrhagic fever in humans with fatality rates reaching 90%, with no licensed, specific therapeutics to treat ill patients. Advances over the past 5 years have firmly established monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based products as the most promising therapeutics for treating EBOV infections, but production is costly, quantities are limited, and thus mAbs are not the best candidates for mass use in the case of an epidemic. To address this need, we generated EBOV-specific polyclonal immunoglobulin fragments F(ab')2 from horses hyperimmunized with an EBOV vaccine...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
K Roszkowska, O Witkowska-Pilaszewicz, M Przewozny, A Cywinska
Whole body and partial body cryotherapies (WBC and PBC) have been successfully used in human medicine, and currently also are being proposed in veterinary practice.In horses, only the partial body cryotherapy provided in cryosauna is considered, due to the technical conditions. These therapies have been dedicated to human patients with rheumatic and inflammatory diseases as well as an assistance during training in athletes. The anti-inflammatory effects have been demonstrated clinically and indicated by the changes in several hematological and immunological parameters, however, various patterns have been described, depending on the protocols and the treating subjects...
December 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Roxane Boivin, Frédérique Pilon, Jean-Pierre Lavoie, Mathilde Leclere
Treatments for mild forms of equine asthma are extrapolated from those recommended for severe equine asthma (heaves), but little is known about owner's adherence to recommendations and treatment efficacy. The objective was to determine which recommendations are implemented by owners and their perception of the clinical response to treatment. Medical records of 43 horses diagnosed with moderate asthma between 2010 and 2012 were retrieved from the Université de Montréal database. Treatments and perceived responses were recorded by telephone survey, 2 to 35 months after diagnosis...
December 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Jill Bryan, Celia M Marr, Catriona J Mackenzie, Tim S Mair, Adam Fletcher, Robert Cash, Monica Phillips, Nicola Pusterla, Samantha Mapes, Alastair K Foote
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2018: Veterinary Record
Heidi L Reesink, Alan J Nixon, Jin Su, Sherry Liu, Ryan M Sutton, Sabine Mann, Ashlee E Watts, Ryan P Peterson
Galectins are potent regulators of cell adhesion, growth and apoptosis in diverse cell types, including chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts. Elevations in synovial fluid galectin-3 have been observed in rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and experimental inflammatory arthritis in animal models, whereas galectin-1 is thought to be protective. Less is known about galectins-1 and-3 in osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, the purpose of this study was: (1) to determine whether galectin-1 and-3 synovial fluid concentrations and synovial membrane and cartilage histochemical staining were altered following osteochondral injury in an experimental equine osteoarthritis (OA) model and (2) to measure galectin-1 and-3 mRNA expression and synovial fluid concentrations in naturally occurring equine carpal OA...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Vanessa G Peter, Thomas A O'Keeffe, Lewis C R Smith, Daniela Schweizer-Gorgas
Reasons for performing study: To investigate the racing performance of Thoroughbred horses with osseous cyst-like lesions (OCLLs) in the distal phalanx causing lameness and treated conservatively. Objectives: To assess horses' ability to race and perform after radiographic identification of OCLL in the distal phalanx of Thoroughbred horses with lameness at the time of detection and undergoing conservative treatment. Study Design: Retrospective case control study. Methods: The clinical database of one equine clinic was reviewed in a 10-year period for Thoroughbreds showing lameness localized to the foot and a radiographic diagnosis of OCLL in the distal phalanx...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
D Pollard, C E Wylie, J R Newton, K L P Verheyen
BACKGROUND: Previous robust epidemiological studies of equine laminitis have utilised only veterinary-diagnosed episodes of disease, potentially underestimating true disease frequency. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of, and describe clinical signs associated with, owner-reported active laminitis in horses/ponies, using both veterinary-diagnosed and non-veterinary-diagnosed episodes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. METHODS: Data were collected from horse/pony owners in Great Britain between August 2014 and December 2016 using a web-based application...
December 5, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Stephen D Cole, Darko Stefanovski, Simon Towl, Ashley G Boyle
Abstract There is a lack of epidemiological studies about equine subsolar (hoof) abscesses even though they are among one of the most common causes of acute, severe lameness. The goals of this study were to (1) describe the equine subsolar abscess patient population of the University of Pennsylvania's New Bolton Center's Field Service and (2) to determine the factors that are associated with increased veterinary visits, prolonged treatment and complications. Descriptive statistics were performed on data collected from 160 cases of equine subsolar abscess...
December 4, 2018: Veterinary Record
Karolina A Chodkowska, Anna Ciecierska, Kinga Majchrzak, Piotr Ostaszewski, Tomasz Sadkowski
Gamma-oryzanol (GO) is a popular supplement for performance horses, dogs, and humans. Previous studies indicated that GO supplementation decreases creatine kinase activity and lactate level after exercise and may affect oxidative stress in Thoroughbred horses. GO may change genes expression in equine satellite cells (ESC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of GO on miRNA, gene expression, oxidative stress, and cell damage and viability in differentiating ESC pretreated with hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)...
December 2, 2018: Nutrients
J Cuervo-Arango, A N Claes, T A E Stout
Equine embryos tolerate an unusually large degree of negative uterine asynchrony (recipient mare up to 5 days behind the donor mare). By contrast, positive asynchrony of more than 2 days results in a high incidence of early embryonic loss (EEL). Day 8 embryos range in diameter from approximately 130-1300 μm, with embryos smaller than 300 μm reported to suffer an increased incidence of EEL. However, it is not known whether this reduced viability is due to intrinsically poor embryo quality, or to inadvertent recipient uterine stage-embryo (positive) asynchrony...
November 26, 2018: Theriogenology
Anna Karolina Matczuk, Małgorzata Skarbek, Natalia Anna Jackulak, Barbara Anna Bażanów
BACKGROUND: Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is one of the main infectious causative agents of abortion in mares and can also be associated with stillbirth, neonatal foal death, rhinopneumonitis in young horses and a neurological disorder called equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). The neuropathogenicity of the virus was shown to be significantly higher in EHV-1 strains that carry a single nucleotide point (SNP) mutation in the ORF30, which encodes a catalytic subunit of viral DNA polymerase (ORF30 D752 )...
December 3, 2018: Virology Journal
Lucia Natalia Moro, Guadalupe Amin, Veronica Furmento, Ariel Waisman, Ximena Garate, Gabriel Neiman, Alejandro La Greca, Natalia Lucia Santín Velazque, Carlos Luzzani, Gustavo E Sevlever, Gabriel Vichera, Santiago Gabriel Miriuka
Cell reprogramming has been well described in mouse and human cells. The expression of specific microRNAs has demonstrated to be essential for pluripotent maintenance and cell differentiation, but not much information is available in domestic species. We aim to generate horse iPSCs, characterize them and evaluate the expression of different microRNAs (miR-302a,b,c,d, miR-205, miR-145, miR-9, miR-96, miR-125b and miR-296). Two equine iPSC lines (L2 and L3) were characterized after the reprogramming of equine fibroblasts with the four human Yamanaka's factors (OCT-4/SOX-2/c-MYC/KLF4)...
2018: PloS One
Lucia Unger, Vidhya Jagannathan, Alicja Pacholewska, Tosso Leeb, Vinzenz Gerber
BACKGROUND: Currently no methods are available to predict the clinical outcome of individual horses with equine sarcoid (ES) disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if whole blood microRNA (miRNA) profiles can predict the long-term development of ES tumors. ANIMALS: Five horses with regression and 5 with progression of ES lesions monitored over 5-7 years and 5 control horses free of ES for at least 5 years. METHODS: For this cohort study, RNA extracted from whole blood samples from the regression, progression, and control groups was used for high throughput sequencing...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Anju Manuja, Balvinder K Manuja, Harisankar Singha
Significant structural differences in the extracellular domain of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) account for species-specific recognition of its ligand CpG-ODN sequences. TLR9 is extensively studied in human, mice and some domestic animals. The recognition ability appears to be utilized differently by various species and breeds, but so far no comprehensive study exists about the equine TLR9 gene. We characterized TLR9 sequences of Marwari and Zanskari breeds of horses and Poitu donkey. We sequenced and identified the protein coding regions of equine TLR9 and compared with other animals and human beings...
November 28, 2018: Molecular Immunology
J P A M van Loon, M C Van Dierendonck
In recent decades, much effort has been invested in scientific studies of objective and reliable assessment of pain in horses. Various types of pain assessment tools have been described and (partly) validated for different types of pain in horses. Currently, composite pain scales and facial expression-based pain scales seem to be the most promising tools for pain assessment in horses and numerous studies have recently been published on the use of these pain scales in horses. Therefore, this narrative review mainly focusses on these two types of pain scales and on the studies that have appeared describing these type of pain scales in horses...
December 2018: Veterinary Journal
Rafael Françoso, Amanda Vallone Riccio, Claudia Barbosa Fernandes, Maria Augusta Alonso, Carla Bargi Belli
Equine piroplasmosis, disease globally responsible for significant economic losses, is caused by the transmission of the hemoprotozoa Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by ticks. Transplacental transmission has been reported previously in horses, which is not the case for mules´ foals. The present study investigated, by Real Time-PCR (RT-PCR), the presence of both Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in newborn mules before the ingestion of colostrum. Blood samples of 18 mares and their respective mules´ foals were collected and analyzed by RT-PCR...
December 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Sandra Schöniger, Hilke Gräfe, Maritta Wipplinger, Heinz-Adolf Schoon
In mares, placental diseases are a common cause of pregnancy failure and they can have an economic impact on the horse breeding industry. To our knowledge no published data on TLR expression in the equine placenta exist. This study examined the expression of TLR 2, 4 and 6 as transcript and protein in the placenta (chorioallantois) of 14 foals born alive. By PCR, all examined placental samples contained TLR 2, 4 and 6 transcripts. Using immunohistochemistry, trophoblasts and allantoic epithelium were immunopositive for TLR 2, 4 and 6 in all placental samples...
December 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
S A Durward-Akhurst, N E Schultz, E M Norton, A K Rendahl, H Besselink, P A Behnisch, A Brouwer, R J Geor, J R Mickelson, M E McCue
Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is characterized by abnormalities in insulin regulation, increased adiposity and laminitis, and has several similarities to human metabolic syndrome. A large amount of environmental variability in the EMS phenotype is not explained by commonly measured factors (diet, exercise, and season), suggesting that other environmental factors play a role in EMS development. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are associated with metabolic syndrome and other endocrine abnormalities in humans...
November 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Benjamin W Sykes, Mark Bowen, Jocelyn L Habershon-Butcher, Martin Green, Gayle D Hallowell
BACKGROUND: To date, risk factors for equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD) have not been described in Thoroughbred racehorses. OBJECTIVES: To determine management factors associated with EGGD, identify clinical signs in affected horses, and compare these to equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD). ANIMALS: The study was carried out on 109 Thoroughbred racehorses from 8 training yards (3 in the United Kingdom and 5 in Australia). METHODS: Gastroscopic examination alongside a questionnaire regarding management, feeding, exercise, and health...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
L Elisabeth Burton, Fares Qeadan, Mark R Burge
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common and debilitating disorder among war veterans. Although complementary and alternative therapies are gaining acceptance in the treatment of PTSD, the efficacy of animal-based therapies in this disorder is unknown. The goal of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is to improve the social, emotional, and/or cognitive functions of individuals with PTSD. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the effects of EAP on PTSD symptoms...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
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