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Horse, equine

Jakub Cieslak, Lukasz Wodas, Alicja Borowska, Piotr Pawlak, Grazyna Czyzak-Runowska, Jacek Wojtowski, Kamila Puppel, Beata Kuczynska, Mariusz Mackowski
Genes encoding casein proteins are important candidates for milk composition traits in mammals. In the case of the domestic horse, our knowledge of casein genes is limited mainly to coding sequence variants. This study involved screening for polymorphism in 5'-flanking regions of four genes encoding equine caseins (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, and CSN3) and making a preliminary assessment of their effect on the gene expression (on the mRNA and protein levels) and milk composition traits in selected horse breeds. Altogether, 23 polymorphisms (21 described previously SNPs and two novel InDels) were found in the studied sequences, the majority of which are common in various horse breeds...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Yuval Gottlieb, Dmitry A Apanaskevich, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Amir Steinman
BACKGROUND: Ticks are important ectoparasites of horses that can affect animal welfare and vector several infectious, including zoonotic, diseases. In order to investigate the species distribution, epidemiology and seasonal dynamics of ticks infesting horses in Israel, 3267 ticks were collected from 396 horses in 24 farms across the country from July 2014 to June 2015. RESULTS: Ticks were found on 50% of the farms and on 25% of the horses, with Hyalomma being the most prevalent genus (70% of ticks)...
October 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Laurence Tessier, Olivier Côté, Dorothee Bienzle
Background: Severe equine asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung in horses similar to low-Th2 late-onset asthma in humans. This study aimed to determine the utility of RNA-Seq to call gene sequence variants, and to identify sequence variants of potential relevance to the pathogenesis of asthma. Methods: RNA-Seq data were generated from endobronchial biopsies collected from six asthmatic and seven non-asthmatic horses before and after challenge (26 samples total)...
2018: PeerJ
Marion Leiberich, Hendrik Johannes Marais, Vinny Naidoo
Background: The plight of the white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum ) and the increasing need of treatment options for injured poaching victims led to the necessity to expand the knowledge on applicable drugs in this endangered species. With very little information available on drug pharmacokinetics in rhino, veterinarians have to rely on information generated from other species. The horse being a closely related species, has served as the model for dose extrapolations. However, from recent research on enrofloxacin and carprofen, the white rhino showed considerable differences in the pharmacokinetic properties of these drugs in comparison to the horse...
2018: PeerJ
Charlotte Sandersen, Justine Ceusters, Alexia Fourez, Irene Tosi, Helene Graide, Jean-Philippe Lejeune, Didier Serteyn
Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) commonly affects horses and is characterized by abnormal respiratory sounds and exercise intolerance. The recurrent laryngeal nerve shows lesions of demyelination. The benefit of applying stem cells to demyelinated nerves has been demonstrated in various animal models. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility and safety of a peri-neuronal injection of autologous muscle-derived mesenchymal stem cells to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve in healthy horses by using an electrical nerve stimulator...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kelsey Myers, Fatima Mohammed, Justin W Rickard, Donald E Meyer, Aslihan D Spaulding
This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine perceptions, awareness, and knowledge of the unwanted horse population in Illinois from the viewpoint of horse owners, non-horse owners, and equine industry stakeholders. A questionnaire included items that pertained to knowledge of current legislation, equine background, current methods of controlling the unwanted horse population, and methods that respondents believe would reduce the unwanted horse population in Illinois. Results indicated that 58% of horse owners viewed horses as companion animals...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Katharine E Muscat, Barbara Padalino, Carol A Hartley, Nino Ficorilli, Pietro Celi, Peter Knight, Sharanne Raidal, James R Gilkerson, Gary Muscatello
The risk of respiratory disease in the transported horse can increase as a consequence of immunosuppression and stress associated primarily with opportunistic bacterial proliferation and viral reactivation. This study examines the ecology of equid herpesviruses (EHV) in these horses, exploring reactivation and changes in infection and shedding associated with transport, and any potential contributions to transport-related respiratory disease. Twelve horses were subjected to an 8-h road-transport event. Antibodies to EHV-1 and EHV-4 were detected by ELISA in serum collected prior to, immediately after and 2 weeks post transport...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sudha M Srinivasan, David T Cavagnino, Anjana N Bhat
Literature on effects of equine therapy in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has grown in recent times. Equine therapy is an alternative multimodal intervention that involves utilizing a horse to enhance core impairments in ASD. Recent systematic reviews in this area have several limitations including inclusion of populations other than ASD, assessment of a variety of animal-assisted interventions other than equine therapy, and a failure to conduct quantitative analyses to provide accurate effect size estimates...
June 2018: Review journal of autism and developmental disorders
Aila Solimar Gonçalves Silva, Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Marcos Antônio Correia Rodrigues da Cunha, Izabelle Silva Rehfeld, Grazielle Conssenzo Florentino Galinari, Sóstenes Apolo Correia Marcelino, Luis Henrique Gouvêa Saraiva, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins, Renata de Pino Albuquerque Maranhão, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato, Felipe Pierezan, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Erica Azevedo Costa
Mosquito-borne arboviruses are a major public health concern worldwide and are responsible for emerging and re-emerging diseases. Taken together, the arboviruses have a strong impact on public health and are the most common causes of equine encephalitis. In-depth diagnostic investigation of equine viral encephalitis is of utmost importance for the epidemiological surveillance and control of this disease. Regarding neurological disorders in equids, in April-May 2018, at least 12 cases of equid mortality with acute neurological signs were reported in six farms from Espirito Santo state, Brazil...
October 14, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Aram Saadi,, Mousa Tavassoli,, Bahram Dalir-Naghadeh,, Awat Samiei
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi is a lungworm commonly found in equids; however, relatively little is known about it. The aim of the present study was to establish the prevalence of equine lungworms in naturally-infected working and sporting horses, donkeys and mules in rural areas of Urmia, northwest Iran. The fecal samples were collected from 299 working horses, 57 sporting horses, 66 donkeys and 37 mules during the period March 2014 to June 2016. The collected fecal samples were processed within 48 hours following rectal sampling...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
Guillermo de la Rosa, Felipe Olvera, Epifanio Cruz, Dayanira Paniagua, Gerardo Corzo
This work evaluated the feasibility of using toxoids obtained by gamma radiation in the production of antivenoms in small and large animals. Mixtures of African snake venoms from viperids or elapids were used. The viperid mixture contained the crude venom of five species of the genera Echis and Bitis, while the elapid mixture contained the crude venom of six species of the genera Naja and Dendroaspis. The viperid mixture had an LD50 of 1.25 mg/kg in mice, and the elapid mixture had an LD50 of 0.46 mg/kg. Both viper and elapid aqueous mixtures were subjected to Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation in three physical states: lyophilized, frozen and liquid...
October 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
E N Burns, M H Bordbari, M J Mienaltowski, V K Affolter, M V Barro, F Gianino, G Gianino, E Giulotto, T S Kalbfleisch, S A Katzman, M Lassaline, T Leeb, M Mack, E J Müller, J N MacLeod, B Ming-Whitfield, C R Alanis, T Raudsepp, E Scott, S Vig, H Zhou, J L Petersen, R R Bellone, C J Finno
The Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG) project aims to identify genomic regulatory elements in both sexes across multiple stages of development in domesticated animals. This study represents the first stage of the FAANG project for the horse, Equus caballus. A biobank of 80 tissue samples, two cell lines and six body fluids was created from two adult Thoroughbred mares. Ante-mortem assessments included full physical examinations, lameness, ophthalmologic and neurologic evaluations. Complete blood counts and serum biochemistries were also performed...
October 11, 2018: Animal Genetics
Jordan E Read, Victoria Cabrera-Sharp, Victoria Offord, Samantha M Mirczuk, Steve P Allen, Robert C Fowkes, Amanda M de Mestre
Equine chorionic girdle trophoblast cells play important endocrine and immune functions critical in supporting pregnancy. Very little is known about the genes and pathways that regulate chorionic girdle trophoblast development. Our aim was to identify genes and signalling pathways active in vivo in equine chorionic girdle trophoblast within a critical 7-days window. We exploited the late implantation of the equine conceptus to obtain trophoblast tissue. An Agilent equine 44K microarray was performed using RNA extracted from chorionic girdle and chorion (control) from equine pregnancy days 27, 30, 31 and 34 (n = 5), corresponding to the initiation of chorionic girdle trophoblast proliferation, differentiation and migration...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Marjorie Chassier, Eric Barrey, Céline Robert, Arnaud Duluard, Sophie Danvy, Anne Ricard
Genotype imputation is now a key component of genomic analyses as it increases the density of available genotypes within a population. However, many factors can influence imputation accuracy. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the accuracy of imputation of high-density genotypes (Affymetrix Axiom Equine genotyping array, 670,806 SNPs) from two moderate-density genotypes (Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, 54,602 SNPs and Illumina Equine SNP70 BeadChip, 65,157 SNPs), using single-breed or multiple-breed reference sets...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
Katarzyna Kornicka, Agnieszka Śmieszek, Jolanta Szłapka-Kosarzewska, Jennifer M Irwin Houston, Michael Roecken, Krzysztof Marycz
Endocrine disorders are becoming an increasing problem in both human and veterinary medicine. In recent years, more and more horses worldwide have been suffering from equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). This metabolic disorder is characterized by pathological obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. Although metabolic disorders, including diabetes, have been extensively studied, there are still no data on the molecular effects of EMS in horses. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate apoptosis, oxidative stress, autophagy and microRNA (miR) expression in multipotent intestinal epithelial stem cells (IECs) and pancreatic islets (PIs) isolated post mortem form healthy and EMS diagnosed horses...
October 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Stephanie Bond, Renaud Léguillette, Eric A Richard, Laurent Couetil, Jean-Pierre Lavoie, James G Martin, R Scott Pirie
The term "equine asthma" has been proposed as a unifying descriptor of inflammatory airway disease (IAD), recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), and summer pasture-associated obstructive airway disease. Whilst the term will increase comprehensibility for both the lay and scientific communities, its biologic relevance must be compared and contrasted to asthma in human medicine, recognizing the limited availability of peer-reviewed equine-derived data, which are largely restricted to clinical signs, measures of airway obstruction and inflammation and response to therapy...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Amy S Biddle, Jean-Francois Tomb, Zirui Fan
Due to modern management practices and the availability of energy dense feeds, obesity is a serious and increasingly common health problem for horses. Equine obesity is linked to insulin resistance and exacerbation of inflammatory issues such as osteoarthritis and laminitis. While the gut microbiome is thought to play a part in metabolic status in horses, bacterial communities associated with obesity have yet to be described. Here we report differences in metabolic factors in the blood of obese, normal and lean horses correlated with differences in gut microbiome composition...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sezayi Ozubek, Munir Aktas
Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a protozoon disease caused by Babesia caballi and Theileria equi transmitted by ticks from the Ixodidae family. This study investigated the genetic heterogeneity and diversity of piroplasm genotypes using the Reverse Line Blotting (RLB) technique for piroplasm species in equids in Turkey. A total of 233 blood samples from 142 horses and 91 donkeys were collected in Şanlıurfa, Tunceli, and Iğdır. The RLB assay was performed for simultaneous detection of piroplasm species. The prevalence of piroplasm infection was 33...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Stephanie J Valberg, Sudeep Perumbakkam, Erica C McKenzie, Carrie J Finno
Equine myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) causes exertional muscle pain and is characterized by myofibrillar disarray and ectopic desmin aggregates of unknown origin. To investigate the pathophysiology of MFM, we compared resting and 3 h post-exercise transcriptomes of gluteal muscle and the resting skeletal muscle proteome of MFM and control Arabian horses using RNA-sequencing and iTRAQ analyses. Three hours after exercise, 191 genes were identified as differentially expressed (DE) in MFM vs. control muscle with > 1 log2 fold change [FC] in genes involved in sulfur compound/ cysteine metabolism such as cystathionine-beta-synthase [CBS, ↓4...
October 5, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Ruth A Morgan, John A Keen, Natalie Homer, Mark Nixon, Anna McKinnon-Garvin, Jodie Moses-Williams, Sarah Davis, Patrick W F Hadoke, Brian R Walker
Equine Cushing's Disease (Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID)) is a common condition of older horses but its pathophysiology is complex and poorly understood. In contrast to pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in other species, PPID is characterised by elevated plasma ACTH but not elevated plasma cortisol. In this study, we address this paradox and the hypothesis that PPID is a syndrome of ACTH excess in which there is dysregulation of peripheral glucocorticoid metabolism and binding. In 14 PPID horses compared with 15 healthy controls, we show that: in plasma, cortisol levels and cortisol binding to CBG were not different; in urine, glucocorticoid and androgen metabolites were increased up to four-fold; in liver, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) expression was reduced; in peri-renal adipose tissue 11β-HSD1 and carbonyl reductase 1 expression was increased; and tissue cortisol levels were not measurably different...
October 4, 2018: Endocrinology
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