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Horse, equine

Emilia Waraksa, Mateusz Kacper Woźniak, Ewa Kłodzińska, Robert Wrzesień, Barbara Bobrowska-Korczak, Jacek Namieśnik
Ibuprofen is widely used in human and veterinary medicine for the treatment of chronic pain as well as rheumatic and musculoskeletal disorders. However, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Ibuprofen have contributed to frequent drug abuse in equestrian sports. A sensitive and rapid GC-MS/MS-based method with a simple liquid-liquid extraction and derivatization requiring 200 μL volume of sample and 2 mL of extraction solvent for the simultaneous determination of ibuprofen and its metabolites was developed...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Nam Young Kim, Ha-Seung Seong, Dae Cheol Kim, Nam Geon Park, Byoung Chul Yang, Jun Kyu Son, Sang Min Shin, Jae Hoon Woo, Moon Cheol Shin, Ji Hyun Yoo, Jung-Woo Choi
The Jeju horse is an indigenous Korean horse breed that is currently registered with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. However, there is severe lack of genomic studies on Jeju horse. This study was conducted to investigate genetic characteristics of horses including Jeju horse, Thoroughbred and Jeju crossbred (Jeju × Thoroughbred) populations. We compared the genomes of three horse populations using the Equine SNP70 Beadchip array. Short-range Linkage disequilibrium was the highest in Thoroughbred, whereas r2 values were lowest in Jeju horse...
August 11, 2018: Genes & Genomics
Jennifer E Rawlinson, Luke Bass, Luis Campoy, Craig Lesser, Benjamin Prytherch
OBJECTIVE: To describe injectate diffusion for two equine mental foramen block techniques. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive anatomic study. ANIMALS: A total of 12 equine heads and three live horses. METHODS: Equine heads were longitudinally sectioned to create 24 hemi-heads for testing two mental foramen block techniques (T1 and T2) and two injectate volumes (3 and 5 mL) of mixed dye and contrast medium. T1 needles were directed rostrocaudally into the mental foramen for 3 cm, and T2 needles were directed dorsolaterally to ventromedially into the foramen for 1 cm...
June 19, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
S D Gutierrez-Nibeyro, A M McCoy, K T Selberg
Foot problems are very common causes of lameness in horses. With the recent diagnostic advances to evaluate and treat foot pathology as well as to monitor response to therapy, it is now possible to more accurately evaluate the effectiveness of many of these treatments. This review details some of the recent advances of the most common conservative and surgical treatment options for foot problems in horses, including an overview of evidence on the efficacy to support the use of these treatment options and on factors that may affect prognosis...
July 2018: Veterinary Journal
Rebecca M Harman, Megan K He, Sheng Zhang, Gerlinde R VAN DE Walle
BACKGROUND: Impaired cutaneous wound healing is common in humans, and treatments are often ineffective. Based on the significant emotional and economic burden of impaired wound healing, innovative therapies are needed. The potential of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-secreted factors to treat cutaneous wounds is an active area of research that is in need of refinement before effective clinical trials can be initiated. The aims of the present study were to (i) study which MSC-secreted factors stimulate dermal fibroblast (DF) migration in vitro and (ii) evaluate the potential of these factors to promote wound healing in vivo...
August 4, 2018: Cytotherapy
Ludovic Tanquerel, Gabrielle Fillion-Bertrand, Jean-Pierre Lavoie, Mathilde Leclere
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether MgSO4 solution administered IV would improve the clinical signs and lung function of horses with severe asthma and potentiate the effects of salbutamol inhalation in those horses. ANIMALS 6 adult horses with severe asthma. PROCEDURES Asthmatic horses were used in 3 crossover design experiments (6 treatments/horse). Clinical scores for nasal flaring and the abdominal component associated with breathing and lung function were determined before and after administration of salbutamol (800 μg, by inhalation), MgSO4 solution (2...
June 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sophie Mainguy-Seers, Khristine Picotte, Jean-Pierre Lavoie
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, decreased airway neutrophilia and improved clinical signs in an experimental model of equine asthma, and induced neutrophilic apoptosis in vitro. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Tamoxifen reduces airway neutrophilia and improves lung function in severe asthmatic horses. ANIMALS: Twelve severe asthmatic horses from a research herd. METHODS: Randomized controlled blinded study design...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
J Machin, W Duer, G Maylin, C Fenger, D Wilson, M Ivey, B Berthold, S Allison, T Tobin
BACKGROUND: Methylprednisolone (MP) acetate is a commonly used corticosteroid for suppression of inflammation in synovial structures in horses. Its use is often regulated in equine sports by plasma MP concentrations. OBJECTIVES: To describe variability of MP plasma concentrations after MP acetate injection in different synovial structures and with co-administration with hyaluronic acid (HA). STUDY DESIGN: Field study in actively racing horses in three disciplines (Thoroughbred, Standardbred and Quarter Horse)...
August 6, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Hiroshi Bannai, Manabu Nemoto, Koji Tsujimura, Takashi Yamanaka, Hiroshi Kokado, Takashi Kondo, Tomio Matsumura
Immune responses were compared after intranasal (IN) and intramuscular (IM) vaccination of horses with a modified live equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) vaccine, and the protective effect after EHV-1 challenge was evaluated. IN- and IM-vaccinated groups (n = 5 each) showed significant rises in serum virus-neutralizing titers with increased levels of IgGa and IgGb antibodies after the first vaccination (P < 0.05). In nasal secretions, the IN group had significantly increased levels of IgA antibodies after vaccination (P < 0...
August 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
E J T Finding, C Lawson, J Elliott, P A Harris, N J Menzies-Gow
Microvesicles are small (up to 1 μm) vesicles found in plasma and other bodily fluids. They are recognised as part of the normal system of inter-cellular communication but altered numbers are also used as biomarkers of disease. Microvesicles have not been studied in detail in the horse but may be relevant to diseases such as laminitis. Identification of equine cell specific microvesicles was performed by developing a panel of cross reactive antibodies to use in flow cytometry to detect microvesicles of platelet, leucocyte and endothelial origin in plasma from healthy ponies and those predisposed to laminitis...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Julia B Montgomery, Michelle L Husulak, Hayley Kosolofski, Scott Dos Santos, Hilary Burgess, Melissa D Meachem
The objective of this study was to determine if TNF-α protein concentration differs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from healthy horses, horses with naturally occurring exacerbations of severe equine asthma and horses in remission from severe equine asthma. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α) protein concentrations were determined in BALF by commercial equine ELISA. Horses with naturally occurring exacerbation of severe equine asthma were found to have significantly lower BALF TNF-α protein concentrations than healthy horses (p = 0...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Russell S Fraser, Luis G Arroyo, Ann Meyer, Brandon N Lillie
Collagenous lectins are a family of soluble pattern recognition receptors that play an important role in innate immune resistance to infectious disease. Through recognition of carbohydrate motifs on the surface of pathogens, some collagenous lectins can activate the lectin pathway of complement, providing an effective means of host defense. Genetic polymorphisms in collagenous lectins have been shown in several species to predispose animals to a variety of infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are an important cause of morbidity in horses, however little is known regarding the role of equine collagenous lectins...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Manabu Nemoto, Mizuho Inagaki, Norihisa Tamura, Hiroshi Bannai, Koji Tsujimura, Takashi Yamanaka, Hiroshi Kokado
BACKGROUND: Equine group A rotaviruses (RVAs) cause diarrhea in suckling foals. The dominant RVAs circulating among horses worldwide, including Japan, are G3P[12] and/or G14P[12] genotypes. Inactivated vaccines containing a G3P[12] RVA are commercially available in some countries for prevention of diarrhea caused by equine RVAs. However, there is no reported evidence whether vaccines containing a G3P[12] RVA are effective against G14P[12] RVAs or whether using a G14P[12] RVA results in a more effective vaccine...
July 31, 2018: Vaccine
M G Hemida, R A P M Perera, D K W Chu, A A Alnaeem, M Peiris
BACKGROUND: Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) is one of the main causes of viral respiratory affections in horses. Little is known about the prevalence of EIV in Saudi Arabia especially the H3N8 serotype. OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of equine influenza in horse populations in Eastern and Central Saudi Arabia. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study. METHODS: We collected 145 sera, 323 nasal and 323 rectal swabs from horses from six major cities in Eastern and Central regions...
August 3, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Victor C Mason, Robert J Schaefer, Molly E McCue, Tosso Leeb, Vinzenz Gerber
BACKGROUND: Severe equine asthma, also known as recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), is a debilitating, performance limiting, obstructive respiratory condition in horses that is phenotypically similar to human asthma. Past genome wide association studies (GWAS) have not discovered coding variants associated with RAO, leading to the hypothesis that causative variant(s) underlying the signals are likely non-coding, regulatory variant(s). Regions of the genome containing variants that influence the number of expressed RNA molecules are expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs)...
August 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Dan L Baker, Jenny G Powers, Jason I Ransom, Blake E McCann, Michael W Oehler, Jason E Bruemmer, Nathan L Galloway, Douglas C Eckery, Terry M Nett
Wildlife and humans are increasingly competing for resources worldwide, and a diverse, innovative, and effective set of management tools is needed. Controlling abundance of wildlife species that are simultaneously protected, abundant, competitive for resources, and in conflict with some stakeholders but beloved by others, is a daunting challenge. Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) present such a conundrum and managers struggle for effective tools for regulating their abundance. Controlling reproduction of female horses presents a potential alternative...
2018: PloS One
A Elbahi, A Kipar, L Ressel
This report describes a series of four equine mast cell tumours (MCTs) with atypical morphological features. The tumours were 1-2 cm in diameter and mostly localized to the eyes (one eyelid, two conjunctiva). Histologically, they were composed of very large (up to 35 μm) round pleomorphic cells with a large central to paracentral nucleus and abundant granular cytoplasm. A large number of viable mature eosinophils were detected intermingled with the large round cells. Histochemical staining (toluidine blue and Perls' Prussian blue) and immunohistochemistry (KIT, mast cell tryptase, lysozyme and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) confirmed the mast cell origin of the atypical cells and identified an aberrant KIT protein expression in three cases...
July 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Anouk Schurink, Vinicius H da Silva, Brandon D Velie, Bert W Dibbits, Richard P M A Crooijmans, Liesbeth Franҫois, Steven Janssens, Anneleen Stinckens, Sarah Blott, Nadine Buys, Gabriella Lindgren, Bart J Ducro
BACKGROUND: Many common and relevant diseases affecting equine welfare have yet to be tested regarding structural variants such as copy number variations (CNVs). CNVs make up a substantial proportion of total genetic variability in populations of many species, resulting in more sequence differences between individuals than SNPs. Associations between CNVs and disease phenotypes have been established in several species, but equine CNV studies have been limited. Aim of this study was to identify CNVs and to perform a genome-wide association (GWA) study in Friesian horses to identify genomic loci associated with insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), a common seasonal allergic dermatitis observed in many horse breeds worldwide...
July 30, 2018: BMC Genetics
Cordelie DuBois, Helen Hambly Odame, Derek B Haley, Katrina Merkies
The diversity of sectors that comprise the equine industry makes reaching a consensus regarding welfare issues a challenge. To allow for productive discussion, equine professionals (n = 34) chosen to represent the diverse specializations from across Canada were surveyed using the Delphi technique-a survey technique employing multiple, iterative "rounds" to consolidate viewpoints-to gather and consolidate information regarding areas of welfare concern in the Canadian equine industry. Only participants who completed the prior round could participate in subsequent rounds...
2018: PloS One
Michelle C Coleman, Jim K Belknap, Susan C Eades, Hannah L Galantino-Homer, Robert J Hunt, Ray J Geor, Molly E McCue, C Wayne McIlwraith, Rustin M Moore, John F Peroni, Hugh G Townsend, Nathaniel A White, Kevin J Cummings, Renata Ivanek-Miojevic, Noah D Cohen
OBJECTIVE To investigate risk factors for the development of pasture- and endocrinopathy-associated laminitis (PEAL) in horses and ponies in North America. DESIGN Case-control study. ANIMALS 199 horses with incident cases of PEAL and 351 horses from 2 control populations (healthy horses [n = 198] and horses with lameness not caused by laminitis [153]) that were evaluated in North America between January 2012 and December 2015 by veterinarian members of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. PROCEDURES North American members of the American Association of Equine Practitioners were contacted to participate in the study, and participating veterinarians provided historical data on incident cases of PEAL, each matched with a healthy control and a lameness control...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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