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Takafumi Nakayama, Atsushi Okada, Takuya Hasegawa, Yoshiaki Morita, Hideaki Kanzaki, Kizuku Yamashita, Yusuke Shimahara, Tomoyuki Fujita, Satoshi Yasuda, Junjiro Kobayashi
OBJECTIVE: The standard treatment of prosthetic paravalvular leakage (PVL) accompanied by heart failure or hemolytic anemia is repeat open surgery. Although favorable outcomes for transcatheter prosthetic PVL closure in patients with a high surgical risk for repeat open surgery have been reported, procedural feasibility has not been examined in Japan. METHODS: From March 2015 to November 2015, transcatheter PVL closure in mitral position was performed in four patients (age range 41-78, three females) with high surgical risk due to history of repeated surgeries, chest radiation and reconstruction of the mitral annulus after debridement of abscess owing to infective endocarditis...
December 14, 2018: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Alessandro Cianfoni, Daniela Distefano, Maurizio Isalberti, Michael Reinert, Pietro Scarone, Dominique Kuhlen, Joshua A Hirsch, Giuseppe Bonaldi
OBJECTIVES: To describe a new technique to obtain minimally invasive but efficient vertebral body (VB) reconstruction, augmentation, and stabilization in severe osteoporotic and neoplastic fractures, combining two pre-existing procedures. The implant of vertebral body stents (VBS) is followed by insertion of percutaneous, fenestrated, cement-augmented pedicular screws that act as anchors to the posterior elements for the cement/stent complex. The screws reduce the risk of stent mobilization in a non-intact VB cortical shell and bridge middle column and pedicular fractures...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Akira Horiuchi, Tamaki Ikuse, Naoki Tanaka
Colonoscopy has been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer by enabling the removal of precancerous lesions. Although the cold snare and hot snare polypectomy have similar retrieval rates and complete resection rates, the rates of delayed bleeding tend to be lower with cold snare polypectomy than with hot snare polypectomy, especially for patients taking antithrombotic agents. However, among cold snares there may be differences in terms of the completeness of polyp excision, as complete removal appears more likely with thin-wire dedicated cold snares compared to the traditional, thick-wire cold snares...
December 14, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Emidio Capriotti, Kivilcim Ozturk, Hannah Carter
More reliable and cheaper sequencing technologies have revealed the vast mutational landscapes characteristic of many phenotypes. The analysis of such genetic variants has led to successful identification of altered proteins underlying many Mendelian disorders. Nevertheless the simple one-variant one-phenotype model valid for many monogenic diseases does not capture the complexity of polygenic traits and disorders. Although experimental and computational approaches have improved detection of functionally deleterious variants and important interactions between gene products, the development of comprehensive models relating genotype and phenotypes remains a challenge in the field of genomic medicine...
December 12, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Inge E M de Jong, Thomas A Jepps
In tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease with or without concomitant amyloid β plaques, cerebral arteries display pathological remodeling, leading to reduced brain tissue oxygenation and cognitive impairment. The precise mechanisms that underlie this vascular dysfunction remain unclear. Kv7 voltage-dependent K+ channels contribute to the development of myogenic tone in rat cerebral arteries. Thus, we hypothesized that Kv7 channel function would be impaired in the cerebral arteries of a tauopathy mouse model (rTg4510), which might underlie cerebral hypoperfusion associated with the development of neurofibrillary tangles in tauopathies...
December 2018: Physiological Reports
Luis A Bezares-Calderón, Jürgen Berger, Sanja Jasek, Csaba Verasztó, Sara Mendes, Martin Gühmann, Rodrigo Almeda, Réza Shahidi, Gáspár Jékely
Startle responses triggered by aversive stimuli including predators are widespread across animals. These coordinated whole-body actions require the rapid and simultaneous activation of a large number of muscles. Here we study a startle response in a planktonic larva to understand the whole-body circuit implementation of the behaviour. Upon encountering water vibrations, larvae of the annelid Platynereis close their locomotor cilia and simultaneously raise the parapodia. The response is mediated by collar receptor neurons expressing the polycystins PKD1-1 and PKD2-1...
December 14, 2018: ELife
Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M Francis
The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Disruptions in dendritic spine development have been implicated in many neurological disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Jan Palán, Radek Procházka, Jan Džugan, Jan Nacházel, Michal Duchek, Gergely Németh, Kristián Máthis, Peter Minárik, Klaudia Horváth
This paper describes the mechanical properties and microstructure of commercially pure titanium (Grade 2) processed with Conform severe plastic deformation (SPD) and rotary swaging techniques. This technology enables ultrafine-grained to nanocrystalline wires to be produced in a continuous process. A comprehensive description is given of those properties which should enable straightforward implementation of the material in medical applications. Conform SPD processing has led to a dramatic refinement of the initial microstructure, producing equiaxed grains already in the first pass...
December 11, 2018: Materials
Anni Feng, Jiankang Cao, Junying Wei, Feng Chang, Yang Yang, Zongyuan Xiao
We report on a reverse microemulsion method for the synthesis of silver nanocrystals and examine their antibacterial activities. As the molar ratio of water to sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) increases to 25, a morphology transition from a sphere-like nanocrystal to a wire-like one was observed. For both the gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, the wire-like silver nanocrystal showed higher antibacterial activities. We conclude that the morphology of silver nanocrystals dominates their antibacterial activity...
December 8, 2018: Materials
Mingjun Shi, Shifeng Liu, Qingge Wang, Xin Yang, Guangxi Zhang
Porous titanium is a functional structural material with certain porosity, which is prepared from titanium powder and titanium fiber. In order to study the porosity, phase structure, microstructure, sintering mechanism and mechanical properties of porous titanium obtained by spark plasma sintering of a Ti powder⁻fiber mixture at different sintering temperatures, a spherical titanium powder (D50 of 160 μm) was prepared via plasma rotating electrode processing, and titanium fiber (average wire diameter of fiber of 110 μm) was prepared by drawing, and they were mixed as raw materials according to different mass ratios...
December 10, 2018: Materials
Marc Arnela, Oriol Guasch, Patricia Sánchez-Martín, Joan Camps, Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès, Carme Martínez-Suquía
Omnidirectional sound sources are needed to perform a large variety of tests in acoustics. Typically, they consist of conventional speaker drivers arranged in a dodecahedron. However, the directivity of the speaker drivers sharpens with frequency, which induces an intense decrease of the sound pressure levels at the edges of the dodechaedron. In this work, the problem is mitigated by building an Omnidirectional Parametric Loudspeaker (OPL), which contains hundreds of small ultrasound transducers set on a sphere...
December 7, 2018: Sensors
Wenlai Guo, Baoming Yuan, Zhe Zhu, Chao Huang, Rui Li, Dankai Wu
RATIONALE: Lunate fractures are very rare, accounting for only 0.5% to 6.5% of all carpal fractures. They are mostly caused by high-energy trauma and commonly occur with fractures and dislocations of other carpal bones. It is rarely combined with Colles' fracture and the underlying pathogenesis and prognostic significance still remain controversial. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here we report a case of a fresh lunate fracture combined with Colles' fracture, without dislocations of other carpal bones caused by a low-energy fall injury...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jian-Wu Zhao, Tong Yu, Guang-Yu Chu, Xi-Wen Zhang, Yao Wang, Xiu-Jie Zhu, Qi-Yao Jiang, Zhen-De Jiang, Dong-Sheng Wang
RATIONALE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous periacetabular screw (PPS) insertion assisted by screw view model of navigation (SVMN) to treat fracture of acetabulum. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old male patient was injured in a motorcycle accident, which caused pain, swelling, deformity and limited mobility on his right hip. DIAGNOSES: He was diagnosed with fracture of acetabulum. INTERVENTIONS: We used PPS insertion assisted by SVMN to treat fracture of acetabulum in this patient...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Paulo Jorge Palma, Ana Messias, António Rosa Cerqueira, Luís Diogo Tavares, Francisco Caramelo, Luís Roseiro, João Miguel Santos
To evaluate the effect of immersion in 3% sodium hypochlorite solution in the resistance to cyclic fatigue of three nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file systems, ProTaper Next (PTN), Hyflex CM (CM), and Hyflex EDM (EDM), in a mechanical model featuring axial movement. Ninety instruments of three different NiTi rotary file systems, PTN (size 25, 0.06 taper), CM (25, 0.06), and EDM (25/~, variable taper), were randomly divided according to a 3 × 3 factorial design and tested under dynamic immersion in a 3% NaOCl solution (1 or 5 min) or without immersion, making a total of 9 groups (n = 10)...
December 12, 2018: Odontology
Ryu Yoshida, Elifho Obopilwe, Craig M Rodner
Background: Fractures and dislocations of the base of the fifth metacarpal can lead to arthritis of the fifth carpometacarpal (CMC) joint. For patients who are symptomatic and fail conservative management, arthrodesis of the fifth CMC joint can be offered. The fusion can be performed using Kirschner wires (K-wires), but can lead to complications such as pin tract infection and pin migration. A low-profile locking plate may represent an attractive alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability of these 2 fusion techniques...
December 2018: Techniques in Orthopaedics: TIO
Huan Liu, Shu Zhang, Xi Jiang, Tuo Zhang, Heng Huang, Fangfei Ge, Lin Zhao, Xiao Li, Xintao Hu, Junwei Han, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu
The human cerebral cortex is highly folded into diverse gyri and sulci. Accumulating evidences suggest that gyri and sulci exhibit anatomical, morphological, and connectional differences. Inspired by these evidences, we performed a series of experiments to explore the frequency-specific differences between gyral and sulcal neural activities from resting-state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Specifically, we designed a convolutional neural network (CNN) based classifier, which can differentiate gyral and sulcal fMRI signals with reasonable accuracies...
December 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Guangxian Yang, Xicheng Deng, Yifeng Yang, Ni Yin, Jinhua Wang, Pingbo Liu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe an effective surgical strategy for the treatment of children with pectus excavatum (PE) and concurrent congenital heart defect (CHD). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all children (n = 16) who underwent simultaneous repair of PE with concurrent CHD at the Hunan Children's Hospital from July 2007 to December 2017. Among them, 7 patients had a simple atrial septal defect (ASD); 4 patients had a simple ventricular septal defect (VSD); 3 patients had both VSD and ASD; 1 patient had VSD, ASD and patent ductus arteriosus; and 1 patient had VSD complicated by pulmonary hypertension...
December 11, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Philippe Ariès, Kahina Bensafia, Ali Mansour, Benoît Clément, Jean-Louis Vincent, Ba Vinh Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Wired electrocardiogram monitors are an important component of current perioperative monitoring. Wireless monitoring units could help reduce the number of cables attached to patients and thus improve anesthesia ergonomics and patient management. However, there is concern that electromagnetic interference generated by electrosurgical units may prevent effective wireless signals in the operating room. To evaluate the extent of this problem, we developed a Bluetooth electrocardiogram prototype monitor and compared its electrocardiogram traces to those captured with a standard wired electrocardiogram monitor in our operating room...
December 11, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Yuki Fujihara, Hideyuki Ota, Kentaro Watanabe
INTRODUCTION: Flexor tendon injury often occurs with concomitant injuries such as fracture, vascular injury, and extensor tendon injury. These injuries are repaired independently, without a comprehensive strategy. We aimed to identify the effect of concomitant injuries and treatment choice on the outcome of flexor tendon repair. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 118 fingers of 102 adult patients with zone 1-3 flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon injuries who underwent primary surgery at our hospital between April 2009 and December 2017...
December 2018: Injury
Nicoline C W van der Kaaij, Maria J Faaij, Jacob M Ten Cate, Monique H van der Veen
BACKGROUND: A quantitative light-induced fluorescence digital (QLF-D) camera is able to assess demineralizations adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Rotations of teeth during and the presence of the orthodontic appliances may influence the longitudinal follow-up of such lesions over time. METHODS: Brackets were bonded on extracted teeth: 54 incisors and 31 canines. Demineralizations were formed in vitro directly cervical of the bracket. Images were captured using a QLF-D camera mounted on an optical bench, equipped with a goniometer on a turntable...
December 11, 2018: BMC Oral Health
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