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Eric L Pierce, Vahid Sadri, Beatrice Ncho, Keshav Kohli, Siddhi Shah, Ajit P Yoganathan
While transcatheter mitral valve (TMV) replacement technology has great clinical potential for surgically inoperable patients suffering from mitral regurgitation, no TMV has yet achieved regulatory approval. The diversity of devices currently under development reflects a lack of consensus regarding optimal design approaches. In Part I of this two-part study, a test system was developed for the quantification of paravalvular leakage (PVL) following deployment of a TMV or TMV-like device in pressurized, explanted porcine hearts (N = 7)...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Gillian S Townend, Raymond van de Berg, Laurèl H M de Breet, Monique Hiemstra, Laura Wagter, Eric Smeets, Josine Widdershoven, Herman Kingma, Leopold M G Curfs
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT) are notoriously reliant on the use of eye gaze as a primary means of communication. Underlying an ability to communicate successfully via eye gaze is a complex matrix of requirements, with an intact oculomotor system being just one element. To date, the underlying neural and motor pathways associated with eye gaze are relatively under-researched in RTT. PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to plug this gap in knowledge and to further the understanding of RTT in one specific area of development and function, namely oculomotor function...
August 30, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Hanyi Zhong, Guangcheng Shen, Peng Yang, Zhengsong Qiu, Junbin Jin, Xiaodong Xing
In order to mitigate the loss circulation of oil-based drilling fluids (OBDFs), an oil-absorbent polymer (OAP) composed by methylmethacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), and hexadecyl methacrylate (HMA) was synthesized by suspension polymerization and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The oil-absorptive capacity of OAP under different solvents was measured as the function of temperature and time. The effect of the OAP on the rheological and filtration properties of OBDFs was initially evaluated, and then the sealing property of OAP particles as lost circulation materials (LCMs) was examined by a high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) filtration test, a sand bed filtration test, a permeable plugging test, and a fracture sealing testing...
October 18, 2018: Materials
Blandine Tramunt, Philippe Imbert, Solange Grunenwald, Franck Boutault, Philippe Caron
CONTEXT: Sight-threatening Graves' orbitopathy affects 3 to 5% of patients with Graves' orbitopathy. OBJECTIVES: To describe the management of patients with sight-threatening Graves' orbitopathy seen in a multidisciplinary thyroid-eye outpatient clinic dedicated to Graves' orbitopathy (GO). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled all patients with sight-threatening GO (dysthyroid optic neuropathy and corneal ulcer as defined in the EUGOGO statement) seen and treated in our GO multidisciplinary thyroid-eye outpatient clinic over the last two decades...
October 19, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
John M Rickman, James Shackel
When perforated by a projectile, sandwich bones typically exhibit wounds with a distinct conoidal morphology that is widely utilised both in wound diagnosis and trajectory determinations. However, the dynamic fracture mechanisms underlying this intriguing wound type have yet to be experimentally verified. The most frequently quoted hypothesis for their formation, plug and spall, is difficult to reconcile with the conoidal morphology exhibited by such wounds. The present article carries out a high-speed videographic and micro-computerised tomographic (μ-CT) analysis of perpendicularly produced projectile wounds induced from 139...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Ann-Margret Ervin, Andrew Law, Andrew D Pucker
Dry eye disease is a disorder of the tear film associated with ocular signs and symptoms. Punctal occlusion aids the preservation of natural tears. We conducted a Cochrane systematic review to assess the effectiveness of punctal plugs for managing dry eye. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials were included. The primary outcome was symptomatic improvement (SI) at 2-12 months. Nine databases were searched with no date or language restrictions. Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. Summary risk ratios and mean differences were calculated...
October 18, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
John Eichwald, Franco Scinicariello, Jana L Telfer, Yulia I Carroll
Tens of millions of U.S. residents have a range of adverse health outcomes caused by noise exposure (1). During 2011-2012, 21 million U.S. adults who reported no exposure to loud or very loud noise at work exhibited hearing damage suggestive of noise-induced hearing loss (2). In addition to the known risk for hearing damage, nonauditory adverse health outcomes and health risks from excessive environmental sound exposure can include effects on the cardiovascular system, metabolism, blood pressure, body weight, cognition, sleep, mental health, quality of life, and overall well-being (1,3,4)...
October 19, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Alessandra Pierangeli, Carolina Scagnolari, Guido Antonelli
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of infant hospitalization and causes a high burden of disease in the elderly, too. This enveloped negative-stranded RNA virus has been recently reclassified in the Pneumoviridae family. Infections of the respiratory cells happens when the two major surface glycoproteins, G and F, take contact with the cell receptor CX3CR1 and mediate entry by fusion, respectively. Viral mRNA transcription, genomic RNA synthesis and nucleocapsid formation occur in large cytoplasmic inclusion bodies to avoid recognition by the host innate immune response...
October 18, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Hailing Feng, Bozhi Shi, Xiaoying Cao, Xinyi Hong, Xiaolian Duan, Daidi Zhong
BACKGROUND: Heart sound monitor (HSM), a device suitable for home-use, can be used to acquire heart sounds. It enables the telemonitoring of cardiac function, which has been largely evolved and widely used in recent years. Nevertheless, the designers paid little attention to the consistency of information model and data interaction of HSM, thus the data could not be shared and aggregated among healthcare systems. Consequently, the device's development and its application in person-centered telehealth are hindered...
October 17, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Haiyang Zhang, Chunhua Liu, Yang Ou, Ting Chen, Lan Yang, Zicheng Hu
In this study, an innovative helical coagulation reactor (HCR) was developed for harvesting microalgae by sedimentation with polyaluminium chloride (PAC). The effects of construction and hydrodynamic characteristics on harvesting performance were investigated. Results showed that a higher harvesting efficiency, 96.37%, was achieved for the large and compact flocs generated by the HCR, and the settling rate of flocs was substantially influenced by the velocity gradient (G) and the Reynolds number (Re). When the Reynolds number closed to the transition between laminar and turbulent flow (4000), the flocs settled faster (20...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Saška Brajkovic, Benjamin Pelz, Maria-Giuseppina Procopio, Anne-Laure Leblond, Grégoire Repond, Ariane Schaub-Clerigué, Diego G Dupouy, Alex Soltermann
BACKGROUND: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a key oncogenic driver in lung adenocarcinoma patients and its fusion proteins are routinely assessed. The microfluidic tissue processor (MTP) device is based on a chip-confined low-volume technology allowing for rapid immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence (IHC/IF) stainings of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue samples. METHODS: A novel ALK IF protocol was developed for the MTP device using the primary mouse anti-human ALK antibody clone 5A4...
October 16, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
Hosung Joe, Young Joon Seo
Biofilm formation has been implicated as a cause of post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea in patients suffering from otitis media with effusion, and biofilms have been found to adhere to all available types of tympanostomy tubes (TT) made from silicone. In this study, we present a novel stent designed with a reduced surface area and a titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) coating to prevent biofilm formation. Using a radio frequency power supply, tympanostomy stents (TS) made from Nitinol (Nikel-titanium) were coated with TiO2 to form an oxide layer on the metallic target...
October 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
L S Gu, X Cai, J M Guo, D H Pashley, L Breschi, H H K Xu, X Y Wang, F R Tay, L N Niu
Instability of resin-dentin bonds is the Achilles' heel of adhesive dentistry. To address this problem, a chelate-and-rinse extrafibrillar dentin demineralization strategy has been developed that keeps intrafibrillar minerals within collagen fibrils intact to prevent activation of endogenous proteases that are responsible for collagen degradation within hybrid layers. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of using chitosan >40 kDa as an antimicrobial extrafibrillar dentin-chelating agent to enhance bond durability...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Stuart N Riddick, Denise L Mauzerall, Michael A Celia, Mary Kang, Kara Bressler, Christopher Chu, Caleb D Gum
Recent studies have reported methane (CH4 ) emissions from abandoned and active oil and gas infrastructure across the United States, where measured emissions show regional variability. To investigate similar phenomena in West Virginia, we measure and characterize emissions from abandoned and active conventional oil and gas wells. In addition, we reconcile divergent regional CH4 emissions estimates by comparing our West Virginia emissions estimates with those from other states in the United States. We find the CH4 emission factors from 112 plugged and 147 unplugged wells in West Virginia are 0...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Giuseppe Amato, Giorgio Romano, Roberto Puleio, Antonino Agrusa, Thorsten Goetze, Eliana Gulotta, Luca Gordini, Enrico Erdas, Piergiorgio Calò
Despite undisputed improvements, prosthetics hernia repair continues to be affected by unacceptable rates of complications. Postoperative adverse events such as discomfort and chronic pain represent a subject of increasing concern among the surgical community. Poor quality biologic response, stiff scar plates, and mesh shrinkage, a typical effect of conventional static meshes and plugs, are all indicated as the main reasons for many of the complications related to inguinal hernia repair. Even the conventional concept of treatment based upon a supposed reinforcement of the groin consequent to the fibrotic incorporation of meshes, would appear to be inadequate in the light of the latest scientific evidence concerning the degenerative genesis of inguinal hernia...
October 14, 2018: Artificial Organs
Paul Onkundi Nyangaresi, Yi Qin, Guolong Chen, Baoping Zhang, Yinghua Lu, Liang Shen
Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) have shown a potential to replace traditional Ultraviolet (UV) pressure lamps for water disinfection. However, the research is not sufficient and hence, it is still difficult to make any logical conclusions. In this work, UV-LEDs with peak emissions at 267, 275, 310 nm and combined emissions at 267/275, 267/310 and 275/310 nm were applied to a batch water disinfection system. Under either single- or combined-wavelength situation, the inactivation efficiency, reactivation (due to photoreactivation and dark repair) after UV irradiation and electrical energy consumption were evaluated by way of the model bacterium Escherichia coli...
October 8, 2018: Water Research
Igor Shikhov, Donald S Thomas, Aditya Rawal, Yin Yao, Bulat Gizatullin, James M Hook, Siegfried Stapf, Christoph H Arns
Asphaltene adsorption on solid surfaces is a standing problem in petroleum industry. It has an adverse effect on reservoir production and development by changing rock wettability, plugging pore throats, and affects oil transport through pipelines. Asphaltene chemistry constitutes important part of the ageing process as part of petrophysical studies and core analysis. The mechanisms and contribution of various oil components to adsorption processes is not fully understood. To investigate the kinetics of the ageing process and address the relative contribution of different oil components, we prepared three sets of sandstone core plugs aged in different oil mixtures over various time intervals...
October 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Jackson J Scheib, Joanna M Pozzuto, Christine A Byrd-Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Deafferentation of the zebrafish olfactory bulb allows investigation of neuroplasticity in a particularly dynamic brain region of a popular model animal known for its regenerative abilities. Current methods to remove sensory input to the zebrafish olfactory bulb differ in the extent of deafferentation and potential for recovery. NEW METHOD: We present a novel method of olfactory bulb deafferentation using continuous wax plug insertions into the nasal cavity of zebrafish...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Andreas MÜller
Hoplosmia, a subgenus of the osmiine bee genus Osmia (Megachilidae), comprises 21 species restricted to the Palaearctic region. Analysis of female pollen loads and field observations indicate that probably all O. (Hoplosmia) species are specialized on Asteraceae except for one pollen generalist species, which exhibits a preference for the pollen of Cistaceae. Among the Asteraceae specialists, differences exist with respect to the three main Asteraceae subfamilies exploited for pollen, with some species exclusively visiting Carduoideae, others exploiting only Asteroideae and Cichorioideae and again others collecting pollen on Asteroideae, Carduoideae and Cichorioideae...
April 30, 2018: Zootaxa
Nicco Krezdorn, Christine G Lian, Michael Wells, Luccie Wo, Sotirios Tasigiorgos, Shuyen Xu, Thiago J Borges, Rayven M Frierson, Ewelina Stanek, Leonardo V Riella, Bohdan Pomahac, George F Murphy
Face vascularized composite allografts (FVCA) have helped severe patient disfigurement, with acute rejection now largely controlled through iatrogenic immunosuppression. However, little is known regarding the incidence and mechanism(s) of more long-term pathologic alterations in FVCAs that may affect function and graft durability. Protocol surveillance biopsies for up to an 8 year interval in seven patients who received FVCAs at our institution revealed histopathologic evidence of chronic rejection. Clinical manifestations included features of premature aging, mottled leukoderma accentuating suture lines, telangiectasia, and dryness of nasal mucosa...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
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