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A V Aleshkin, E R Zulkarneev, I A Kiseleva, K A Emelyanenko, A M Emelyanenko, L B Boinovich
A new approach to prevention of STEC infection is based on the synergic effect of combined bactericidal activity of bacteriophages and organic-inorganic hybrid coating of metals. The coatings are characterized by superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic properties and multimodal granularity with the texture incorporating metal oxide nanoparticles and bacteriophages. Superhydrophilic surfaces are characterized by significantly higher bactericidal activity than superhydrophobic ones. The cytotoxicity of superhydrophobic surfaces can be increased due to antibacterial activity of bacteriophages combined with the superhydrophobic characteristics of the materials...
August 18, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Zhe Hui Hoo, Elizabeth Coates, Chin Maguire, Hannah Cantrill, Nadia Shafi, Edward F Nash, Angela McGowan, Stephen J Bourke, William G Flight, Thomas V Daniels, Julia A Nightingale, Mark I Allenby, Rachael Curley, Martin J Wildman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Petr Tůma, Miroslava Bursová, Blanka Sommerová, Rachel Horsley, Radomír Čabala, Tomáš Hložek
Perampanel is a novel antiepileptic drug used in paediatric patients. Existing methods that determine serum perampanel are of limited practicability. We developed a novel capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using a new version of acetonitrile stacking for on-line sample pre-concentration, and fluorescence detection (FD). CE separations were performed in a fused-silica capillary where the electroosmotic flow was reduced by coating the inner surface using a INST coating solution. The optimised background electrolyte composition was 50 mM chloroacetic acid with addition of 0...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Mengqi Li, Dongqing Li
Janus droplet motion powered by gas bubbles is studied in this paper. The Janus droplets were fabricated by partially covering one side of an oil droplet with aluminum particles under gravity effect. By placing the Janus droplet in an alkaline solution, the reaction between the Al particles and OH- generates H2 gas, which emits from the particle-coated side of the droplet as bubbles. Hence, the droplet is propelled to move in the opposite direction. In this research, the effects of several factors, time, pH, particle coverage and surfactant, on the motion of the Janus droplet were studied...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Bjørn E Christensen, Sabina P Strand, Coraline Basset, Kåre A Kristiansen, Ann-Sissel T Ulset, Simon Ballance, Per Einar Granum
The sensitivity of microorganisms to low pH can be utilized in food protection by preparing coatings based on macromolecular acids. Due to limited diffusivity of macromolecules low pH occurs primarily at the surface, while the interior parts of the food remain unaffected. This principle is demonstrated using food approved alginic acid in various types of coatings (aqueous, emulsions, dispersions, dry coating) on a wide range of foods including meat, fish, chicken, shrimp and boiled rice. Significant delay or inhibition of the natural flora is generally demonstrated, particularly when exposed to 'temperature abuse'...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jia Lv, Bingwei He, Jingwen Yu, Yitong Wang, Changping Wang, Song Zhang, Hui Wang, Jingjing Hu, Qiang Zhang, Yiyun Cheng
The design of efficient and universal carriers to transport proteins into cells is highly desirable in the development of biotherapeutics. However, intracellular protein delivery remains a major challenge owing to the multiple barriers in protein delivery process, such as protein encapsulation, endocytosis, endosomal escape and intracellular protein release. Recently, it was reported that fluorination on polymers is beneficial for their self-assembly and intracellular trafficking. We hypothesize the fluoropolymers can be used to encapsulate proteins and developed as a new class of carriers to break down the barriers during intracellular protein delivery...
August 9, 2018: Biomaterials
Silvia Spriano, Seiji Yamaguchi, Francesco Baino, Sara Ferraris
Evolution of metal implants progressively shifted the focus from adequate mechanical strength to improved biocompatibility and absence of toxicity and, finally, to fast osseointegration. Recently, new frontiers and challenges of Ti implants have been addressed to improvement of bioactivity, fighting of bacterial infection and biofilm formation, as well as modulation of inflammation. This is closely related to the clinical demand of multifunctional implants able to simultaneously have a number of specific responses with respect to body fluids, cells (osteoblasts, fibroblasts, macrophages) and pathogenic agents (bacteria, viruses)...
August 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Patrick M Brunner, Ana B Pavel, Saakshi Khattri, Alexandra Leonard, Kunal Malik, Sharon Rose, Shelbi Jim On, Anjali S Vekaria, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Giselle K Singer, Danielle Baum, Patricia Gilleaudeau, Mary Sullivan-Whalen, Judilyn Fuentes-Duculan, Xuan Li, Xiuzhong Zheng, Yeriel Estrada, Sandra Garcet, Huei-Chi Wen, Juana Gonzalez, Israel Coats, Inna Cueto, Avidan U Neumann, Mark G Lebwohl, James G Krueger, Emma Guttman-Yassky
BACKGROUND: IL-22 is potentially a pathogenic cytokine in AD, but molecular effects of IL-22 antagonism have not been defined in humans. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate cellular and molecular effects of IL-22 blockade in tissues from moderate-to-severe AD patients. METHODS: We assessed lesional and non-lesional skin from 59 moderate-to-severe AD patients treated with anti-IL-22 (fezakinumab) vs. placebo (2:1), using transcriptomic and immunohistochemistry analyses...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Delfina P González, Helen V Lamb, Diana Partida, Zachary T Wilson, Marie-Claire Harrison, Julián A Prieto, James J Moresco, Jolene K Diedrich, John R Yates, Sara K Olson
Metazoan eggs have a specialized coat of extracellular matrix that aids in sperm-egg recognition. The coat is rapidly remodeled after fertilization to prevent polyspermy and establish a more permanent barrier to protect the developing embryo. In nematodes, this coat is called the vitelline layer, which is remodeled into the outermost layer of a rigid and impermeable eggshell. We have identified three key components of the vitelline layer structural scaffold - PERM-2, PERM-4 and CBD-1, the first such proteins to be described in the nematode C...
August 15, 2018: Developmental Biology
Nan Zhang, Dewei Zhao, Na Liu, Yunfeng Wu, Jiahui Yang, Yuefei Wang, Huanxin Xie, Ye Ji, Changlong Zhou, Jinpeng Zhuang, Yaming Wang, Jinglong Yan
Surgical repair of bone defects remains challenging, and the search for alternative procedures is ongoing. Devices made of Mg for bone repair have received much attention owing to their good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. We developed a new type of scaffold made of a Mg-Zn-Ca alloy with a shape that mimics cortical bone and can be filled with morselized bone. We evaluated its durability and efficacy in a rabbit ulna-defect model. Three types of scaffold-surface coating were evaluated: group A, no coating; group B, a 10-μm microarc oxidation coating; group C, a hydrothermal duplex composite coating; and group D, an empty-defect control...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Jingkun Li, Huijuan Li, Yanfang Zhao, Shanshan Wang, Xiangfeng Chen, Ru-Song Zhao
A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coated with a hollow microporous organic network (H-MON) was fabricated for the analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). The sorbent was prepared by reacting tetra(4-ethynylphenyl)methane and 1,4-diiodobenzene using bis-(triphenylphosphine) palladium(II) as the catalyst in the presence of silica sphere templates, which then were removed by hydrofluoric acid. The SCCPs were quantified by GC-MS working in the negative chemical ionization mode. The H-MON has a high specific surface (701 m2 ·g-1 ) and microporosity (pore size <2 nm)...
August 17, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Habib Bagheri, Gohar Soofi, Hasan Javanmardi, Majid Karimi
Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes are 3D nanoscaled materials with large potential in solid phase microextraction (SPME). Here, as a case study, an octaglycidyldimethylsilyl modified polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane network is described. It was deposited on a stainless steel wire via a sol-gel method and used as a fiber coating for SPME of aromatic compounds. The uniform pore structure, high surface area, and hydrophobicity of the network make it susceptible toward isolation of non-polar and semi-polar chemical compounds...
August 17, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Prabhat K Agnihotri, Viney Ghai, Harpreet Singh
Near perfect absorbers find application in many areas including solar cells, energy harvesting and antireflection coatings for space applications. Here we report the use of optical gradation concept to fabricate a near perfect absorber on etched Si wafer. As a proof of concept, 99.4% absorption is achieved in the broad range of 300 nm to 2000 nm. Moreover, absorption capacity of optically graded surface remains higher than 99% up to beam incident angle of 50°. While carbon nanotubes (index ~1.1) are used as top layer, subsequent layers with increasing optical index across the thickness are chosen so as to satisfy zero reflection condition on multilayered assembly...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kyoko Tomita, Fuminori Sakurai, Shunsuke Iizuka, Masahisa Hemmi, Keisaku Wakabayashi, Mitsuhiro Machitani, Masashi Tachibana, Kazufumi Katayama, Haruhiko Kamada, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Pre-existing anti-adenovirus (Ad) neutralizing antibodies (AdNAbs) are a major barrier in clinical gene therapy using Ad vectors and oncolytic Ads; however, it has not been fully elucidated which Ad capsid protein-specific antibodies are involved in AdNAb-mediated inhibition of Ad infection in vivo. In this study, mice possessing antibodies specific for each Ad capsid protein were prepared by intramuscular electroporation of each Ad capsid protein-expressing plasmid. Ad vector-mediated hepatic transduction was efficiently inhibited by more than 100-fold in mice immunized with a fiber protein-expressing plasmid or a penton base-expressing plasmid...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mingjun Wang, Huayong Zhang, Xizheng Ke, Guosheng Liu, Xiaoping Ouyang
An exact semi-analytical method of calculating the scattered fields from a chiral-coated conducting object under arbitrary shaped beam illumination is developed. The scattered fields and the fields within the chiral coating are expanded in terms of appropriate spherical vector wave functions. The unknown expansion coefficients are determined by solving an infinite system of linear equations derived using the method of moments technique and the boundary conditions. For incidence of a Gaussian beam, circularly polarized wave, zero-order Bessel beam and Hertzian electric dipole radiation on a chiral-coated conducting spheroid and a chiral-coated conducting circular cylinder of finite length, the normalized differential scattering cross sections are evaluated and discussed briefly...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
N Giovannone, J Liang, A Antonopoulos, J Geddes Sweeney, S L King, S M Pochebit, N Bhattacharyya, G S Lee, A Dell, H R Widlund, S M Haslam, C J Dimitroff
Leukocytes are coated with a layer of heterogeneous carbohydrates (glycans) that modulate immune function, in part by governing specific interactions with glycan-binding proteins (lectins). Although nearly all membrane proteins bear glycans, the identity and function of most of these sugars on leukocytes remain unexplored. Here, we characterize the N-glycan repertoire (N-glycome) of human tonsillar B cells. We observe that naive and memory B cells express an N-glycan repertoire conferring strong binding to the immunoregulatory lectin galectin-9 (Gal-9)...
August 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Jean de Dieu Habimana, Jian Ji, Fuwei Pi, Eric Karangwa, Jiadi Sun, Wei Guo, Fangchao Cui, Jingdong Shao, Claudine Ntakirutimana, Xiulan Sun
Herein, a novel class-specific artificial receptor-based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated quantum dots (QDs@MIP) was synthesized, characterized, and used for the detection and quantification of the bacterial quorum signaling molecules N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), a class of autoinducers from Gram-negative bacteria. The QDs@MIP was prepared by surface imprinting technique under controlled conditions using CdSe/ZnS QDs as the signal transducing material. The synthesis of the QDs@MIP was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and fluorescence spectroscopy...
November 15, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Samir Tivari, Haiyan Lu, Tanya Dasgupta, Mariana S De Lorenzo, Robert Wieder
BACKGROUND: Dormant estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer micrometastases in the bone marrow survive adjuvant chemotherapy and recur stochastically for more than 20 years. We hypothesized that inflammatory cytokines produced by stromal injury can re-awaken dormant breast cancer cells. METHODS: We used an established in vitro dormancy model of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells incubated at clonogenic density on fibronectin-coated plates to determine the effects of inflammatory cytokines on reactivation of dormant ER+ breast cancer cells...
August 17, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Romain David, Norihisa Miki
Room temperature liquid metals such as GaInSn or EGaIn present the most attractive properties for soft and highly stretchable electronics. Recently, several methods have been investigated to functionalize the surface of the liquid met-al via coatings and encapsulation. However, most can hardly be extended to other samples than droplets. In this study, we focus on the tunability of the process of galvanic replacement of Ga-alloys with gold to form thin-film encapsula-tion. We characterized in-depth the obtainable composition and structure of a noble metal shell formed on the liquid metal via SEM, EDX and topographic laser microscopy, and highlighted the change in mechanism of galvanic re-placement in the different pH ranges...
August 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yanyan Wu, Jinyu Li, Hai Zhu, Yuhao Ren, Guanlin Lou, Zhiyang Chen, Xuchun Gui, Zikang Tang
Compared with conventional lasers, the random laser is realized through strong multiple scatterings in disordered gain system. In this paper, random lasing (RL) in one-dimensional metal surface plasmon (SP) waveguide with gold-plated self-formed silicon pyramids was investigated comprehensively. Consequently, the emission intensity of RL was enhanced dramatically and the RL threshold was reduced significantly through Au-coated Si spiky tips. Meanwhile, one-dimensional metal SP channel waveguides confined the emitting light in a certain direction with a small divergence angle...
June 25, 2018: Optics Express
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