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Kittirat Saharat, Kriengsak Lirdprapamongkol, Daranee Chokchaichamnankit, Chantragan Srisomsap, Jisnuson Svasti, N Monique Paricharttanakul
BACKGROUND/AIM: Resistance to anoikis is a pre-requisite step in metastasis, a major cause of death in patients with cancer, including thyroid cancer. Impairing anoikis resistance is a possible strategy for therapy of metastatic cancer. We, therefore, we aimed to investigate the key players of anoikis resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Papillary-type (BCPAP), follicular-type (FTC133), and anaplastic-type (ARO) thyroid carcinoma cells, cultured in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-coated plates to mimic circulating cells, were used as model systems in this study...
November 2018: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
Nilanjan Mandal, Mitradip Bhattacharjee, Arun Chattopadhyay, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay
Activity of α-amylase enzyme in human serum indicates the onset of pancreatitis, mumps, cancer, stress, and depression. Herein we design and develop a biosensor for the point-of-care-testing (POCT) of α-amylase concentration in serum. The biosensor is composed of a glass substrate coated with an electrically conducting poly-aniline-emeraldine-salt (PANI-ES) film covered with starch-coated gold nanoparticles (SAuNPs). Addition of different dosage of α-amylase on the biosensor selectively depletes starch stabilized on the SAuNPs, which changes the electrical resistance of the sensor...
October 9, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Martha J Powell, Peter M Letcher, Joyce E Longcore, Will H Blackwell
While surveying chytrid diversity in lakes and streams, we found on cellulosic bait a chytrid that had both monocentric and polycentric thallus forms. We brought this chytrid into axenic culture from three sites in eastern North America, studied its thallus development and zoospore ultrastructure, and compared its 28S rDNA sequence with those of other members of the Chytridiomycota. Thallus morphology matched that described for the rare chytrid, Cladochytrium polystomum Zopf. Sporangia were spherical and produced numerous long discharge tubes...
November 2018: Fungal Biology
Kang Wang, Dingwang Huang, Le Yu, Huaimin Gu, Shigeru Ikeda, Feng Jiang
High-quality Cu2 ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis on a Mo-coated glass substrate were used for solar water splitting in this study. Modification of a CdS layer under CZTS improved the photocatalysis efficiency by forming a pn junction between CdS and CZTS, effectively separating the photoexcited carriers without recombination. However, the photocorrosive nature of CdS induces poor stability of the CdS/CZTS photocathode. Surface protection of a CdS-covered CZTS photocathode by a ZnS layer resulted in efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting with a maximum half-cell solar to hydrogen (HC-STH) efficiency of 2...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Bahman Farzi, Dylan Young, Jan Scrimgeour, Cetin Cetinkaya
The accurate determination of the mechanical properties of P-selectin and PSGL-1 is crucial for design and optimization of applications utilizing such bonds, e.g. biosensors and targeted drug delivery systems, as adhesion and mechanical interactions play a critical role in several key functions of biological cells. In current work, the spring constant and rupture force of a single P-selectin PSGL-1 ligand receptor bond and the Young's modulus of a layer made of these ligand receptors are reported. The work-of-adhesion of the P-selectin PSGL-1 interface is also characterized...
October 9, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Biswarup Nanda, A S Manjappa, Krishna Chuttani, N H Balasinor, Anil K Mishra, Rayasa S Ramachandra Murthy
Acylated chitosan (Myristoyl and Octanoyl) coated paclitaxel-loaded liposomal formulation was developed with an aim to overcome the cremophor EL related toxicities. They were evaluated for drug entrapment, in vitro drug release, and cytotoxicity and cell uptake behavior using A549 cells. The 99m Tc radio-labeled formulations were also evaluated in vivo in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) bearing mice for biodistribution and tumor uptake. The mean particle size of both coated and uncoated liposomal formulations was found to be in the range of 180-200 nm with high drug entrapment efficiency (>90% in case of uncoated liposomes and 80 ± 5% in case of coated liposomes)...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Daisuke Ito, Eizo Takashima, Tsutomu Yamasaki, Shinya Hatano, Tomoyuki Hasegawa, Kazutoyo Miura, Masayuki Morita, Amporn Thongkukiatkul, Mahamadou Diakite, Carole A Long, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Rachanee Udomsangpetch, Hideyuki Iriko, Tomoko Ishino, Takafumi Tsuboi
Proteins coating Plasmodium merozoite surface and secreted from its apical organelles are considered as promising vaccine candidates for blood-stage malaria. The rhoptry neck protein 12 of Plasmodium falciparum (PfRON12) was recently reported as a protein specifically expressed in schizonts and localized to the rhoptry neck of merozoites. Here, we assessed its potential as a vaccine candidate. We expressed a recombinant PfRON12 protein by a wheat germ cell-free system to obtain anti-PfRON12 antibody. Immunoblot analysis of schizont lysates detected a single band at approximately 40 kDa under reducing conditions, consistent with the predicted molecular weight...
October 17, 2018: Parasitology International
Diana Silva, Hermínio C de Sousa, Maria Helena Gil, Luís F Santos, Guilhermina Martins Moutinho, Ana Paula Serro, Benilde Saramago
In this study we investigated the possibility of using polyelectrolytes with antibacterial properties to form layer-by-layer (LbL) coatings on contact lens materials with the objective of controlling the release of ophthalmic drugs, while minimizing bacterial growth. A silicone-based hydrogel recently proposed by our group was chosen as a drug releasing soft contact lens (SCL) material and three drugs were tested: moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MXF), chlorhexidine diacetate monohydrate (CHX), and diclofenac sodium salt (DIC)...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Gina Allyn, Roy D Bloebaum, Richard T Epperson, Mattias B Nielsen, Kevin A Dodd, Dustin L Williams
The skin/implant interface of osseointegrated (OI) implants is susceptible to infection, causing excess pain, increased morbidity, and possibly implant removal. Novel distal femoral OI implants with binary nitride coatings have been developed with little physiological modeling to collect microbiological evidence of resistance to bacterial attachment. This in vitro study evaluated a Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated with TiNbN and treated with low plasticity burnishing (LPB) to assess attachment and biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) under physiologically-modeling conditions compared to standard Ti-6Al-4V alloy materials with a polished ("Color Buff") or non-polished finish ("Satin Finish")...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Olga Volotskova, Xuiqi Fang, Michael Keidar, Hersh Chandarana, Indra J Das
PURPOSE: To correlate the dose response and changes in microscopic structures of the radiochromic films exposed to the clinical magnetic field in the range 1.5-3T with standard and flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beams. METHODS: The radiochromic film was cut into 5x5cm2 sheets/samples from one batch. These samples were exposed to a 1.5 Tesla (T) and/or 3T B-field from an MRI scanner using an abdominal sequence for 7 min before and after irradiation with 6 MV and/or 6 MV FFF beams...
October 20, 2018: Medical Physics
Vahid Hosseini, Christian Dani, Mohammad Hossein Geranmayeh, Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh, Saeed Nazari Soltan Ahmad, Masoud Darabi
The Wnt signaling pathway consists of various downstream target proteins that have substantial roles in mammalian cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. Its aberrant activity can lead to uncontrolled proliferation and tumorigenesis. The posttranslational connection of fatty acyl chains to Wnt proteins provides the unique capacity for regulation of Wnt activity. In spite of the past belief that Wnt molecules are subject to dual acylation, it has been shown that these proteins have only one acylation site and undergo monounsaturated fatty acylation...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ramesh Kumar, Divendu Bhushan, Mukesh Kumar
A 24-year-old male who presented to our emergency department with the history of having ingested mercury due to accidental breakage of the tip of mercury thermometer. He had 3 bouts of vomiting following ingestion; however, mercury beads were not seen in the vomitus. On admission, the patient was clinically stable, and his physical and systemic examinations were unremarkable. His routine investigations which included complete blood count, liver function test, kidney function tests, coagulation profiles, blood glucose, and electrocardiogram were normal...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sara Arana-Peña, Yuliya Lokha, Roberto Fernández-Lafuente
Lipase A from Candida antarctica (CALA, commercialized as Novocor ADL) was immobilized on octyl agarose, which is a very useful support for lipase immobilization, and coated with polyethylenimine (PEI) to improve the stability. The performance was compared to that of the form B of the enzyme (CALB) immobilized on the same support, as both enzymes are among the most popular ones used in biocatalysis. CALA immobilization produced a significant increase in enzyme activity versus p-nitrophenyl butyrate (by a factor of 7) and the coating with PEI did not have a significant effect on enzyme activity...
October 20, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Weiyu Ye, Laura J Tucker, Laura C Coates
The introduction of biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bMDARDs) have revolutionised the treatment of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). This combined with a 'treat-to-target' approach, means that achieving remission is increasingly possible. In patients with well-controlled PsA, there is little consensus on whether bDMARDs should be continued, tapered or discontinued altogether. Tapering or discontinuation of bDMARDs could offer significant financial savings and minimise patient burden and unwanted drug-related side effects...
October 20, 2018: Drugs
Rebecca L Hansen, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Young Jin Lee
Nanoparticles are efficient matrices in laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry (MS), especially for the profiling or imaging of small molecules. Recently, solvent-free physical vapor desorption (PVD), or sputter coating, was adopted as a homogenous method to rapidly apply metal nanoparticles (NPs) in situ to samples prior to LDI MS or MS imaging analysis. However, there has been no systematic study comparing different metal targets for the analysis of a variety of small molecule metabolites. Here, we present a screening and optimization of various sputter-coated metals, including Ag, Au, Cu, Pt, Ni, and Ti, for LDI analysis of small molecules in both positive and negative ion modes...
October 19, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Zhuolin Qiu, Mingzhu Wang, Miaoqin She, Qianmei Chen, Qingqing Li, Jianbin Zhu, Xiaorong Yang, Xiangsheng Cai
The zona pellucida-3 (ZP3) protein plays a pivotal role in oocyte and gamete development. We aimed to produce a recombinant ZP3 peptide using the Escherichia coli secretory system and apply it to a protein chip for detecting anti-ZP3 antibodies. The ZP3 gene was cloned into the pHOA downstream of the phoA promoter and transformed into E. coli YK537. Recombinant ZP3 was secretory expressed by decreasing the inorganic phosphate concentration. Then, rZP3 was purified and coated onto a protein chip, which was used to detect AZP3A in serum samples from 63 infertile patients...
October 19, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Mohammad Amin Izadi, Rahman Nouroozi
The adjustable propagation length enhancement of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode under the effects of the initial relative phase (ψ0 ) between interacting waves in difference frequency generation (DFG) based optical parametric amplification (OPA) are numerically considered. The waveguide is a silver coated PPLN planar waveguide. Obtained results indicate ultra long propagation length for the SPP mode could be achieved via manipulation of ψ0 in exact quasi phase matching (QPM) case up to 30 mm for initial pump intensity about 66 MW/cm for degenerate DFG (dDFG)...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yara A Alzahid, Peyman Mostaghimi, Alireza Gerami, Ankita Singh, Karen Privat, Tammy Amirian, Ryan T Armstrong
Fluid flow in porous rocks is commonly capillary driven and thus, dependent on the surface characteristics of rock grains and in particular the connectivity of corners and crevices in which fluids reside. Traditional microfluidic fabrication techniques do not provide a connected pathway of crevices that are essential to mimic multiphase flow in rocks. Here, geo-material microfluidic devices with connected pathways of corners and crevices were created by functionalising Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with rock minerals...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Floriana Burgio, Natalie Rimmer, Uwe Pieles, Johanna Buschmann, Marina Beaufils-Hugot
For the fabrication of appropriate bone tissue engineered constructs, several prerequisites should be fulfilled. It should offer long-term stability, allow proper cell attachment and proliferation, furthermore be osteoinductive and easy to be vascularized. Having these requirements as background, we fabricated a novel porous 3D-printed hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold and treated it with oxygen plasma (OPT). MG-63 pre-osteoblast-seeded bone constructs allowed good cell attachment and proliferation, even better when cultivated in a perfusion flow bioreactor...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Anastasios Lymperopoulos
Three major functional roles for the two ubiquitous G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) adapter proteins, βarrestin1 and -2 (also known as Arrestin2 and -3, respectively), have been described: (a) functional desensitization, i.e., G-protein uncoupling from the receptor, (b) GPCR internalization via clathrin-coated pits, and (c) formation of signalosomes. Either while bound to the GPCR or after dissociating from it, and either while trafficking inside the cell or from the plasma membrane, both βarrestins are known to mediate a large part of the G protein-independent signaling elicited by GPCRs...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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