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Katharina J Geh, Madlen Hubert, Gerhard Winter
Oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN)-loaded gelatine nanoparticles (GNPs) have proven their outstanding potential in the treatment of allergic diseases such as equine asthma and canine atopic dermatitis, which are appropriate models for the corresponding human diseases. To encourage the development of a marketable product, long term stability and sterility needs to be ensured. In this work, we aimed to advance freeze-drying options to stabilise ODN-loaded GNPs. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry time-of-flight was implemented as a versatile tool to assess ODN stability...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Mikkel Schultz-Johansen, Pernille K Bech, Rosanna C Hennessy, Mikkel A Glaring, Tristan Barbeyron, Mirjam Czjzek, Peter Stougaard
Marine microbes are a rich source of enzymes for the degradation of diverse polysaccharides. Paraglaciecola hydrolytica S66T is a marine bacterium capable of hydrolyzing polysaccharides found in the cell wall of red macroalgae. In this study, we applied an approach combining genomic mining with functional analysis to uncover the potential of this bacterium to produce enzymes for the hydrolysis of complex marine polysaccharides. A special feature of P. hydrolytica S66T is the presence of a large genomic region harboring an array of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) notably agarases and carrageenases...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Petra Muellner, Jonathan Watts, Paul Bingham, Mark Bullians, Brendan Gould, Anjali Pande, Tim Riding, Paul Stevens, Daan Vink, Katharina Dc Stärk
Surveillance for biosecurity hazards is being conducted by the New Zealand Competent Authority, the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) to support New Zealand's biosecurity system. Surveillance evaluation should be an integral part of the surveillance life cycle, as it provides a means to identify and correct problems and to sustain and enhance the existing strengths of a surveillance system. The surveillance evaluation Framework (SurF) presented here was developed to provide a generic framework within which the MPI biosecurity surveillance portfolio, and all of its components, can be consistently assessed...
May 16, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Mark A Hazelwood, Rebecca M Patterson
People's experiences of death, dying and bereavement are only partially determined by formal health and social care services. A broad-based alliance of organisations and individuals was established in Scotland in 2011 with the aim of influencing a wider range of social, cultural and other environmental factors which impact on people's experiences towards the end of life. Called Good Life, Good Death, Good Grief (GLGDGG) this alliance has grown and developed over the past 6 years, with a current diverse membership of over 1,100...
April 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Dennis O Ndolo, Michael Wach, Patrick Rüdelsheim, Wendy Craig
Anyone working in biosafety capacity enhancement faces the challenge of ensuring that the impact of a capacity enhancing activity continues and becomes sustainable beyond the depletion of funding. Many training efforts face the limitation of one-off events: they only reach those people present at the time. It becomes incumbent upon the trainees to pass on the training to colleagues as best they can, whilst the demand for the training never appears to diminish. However, beyond the initial effort to establish the basic content, repeating capacity enhancement events in different locations is usually not economically feasible...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Rino Rappuoli, Emmanuel Hanon
Vaccination remains the most cost-effective public health intervention after clean water, and the benefits impressively outweigh the costs. The efforts needed to fulfill the steadily growing demands for next-generation and novel vaccines designed for emerging pathogens and new indications are only realizable in a sustainable business model. Vaccine development can be fast-tracked through strengthening international collaborations, and the continuous innovation of technologies to accelerate their design, development, and manufacturing...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Binh T Mai, Soraia Fernandes, Preethi B Balakrishnan, Teresa Pellegrino
Combining hard matter, like inorganic nanocrystals, and soft materials, like polymers, can generate multipurpose materials with a broader range of applications with respect to the individual building blocks. Given their unique properties at the nanoscale, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have drawn a great deal of interest due to their potential use in the biomedical field, targeting several applications such as heat hubs in magnetic hyperthermia (MHT, a heat-damage based therapy), contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery...
May 7, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Y Sun, N Cramer
A trisubstituted chiral Cp x ligand family is introduced. Based on the disubstituted atropchiral Cp x ligand scaffold, the introduction of a bulky third substituent at the central position of the Cp ring leads to substantially increased selectivities for rhodium(iii)-catalyzed kinetic resolutions and allowed for s -factors of up to 50. Their superiority is demonstrated by kinetic resolutions of phosphinic amides providing access to compounds with stereogenic phosphorus(v) atoms. The unreacted acyclic phosphinic amide and the cyclized product are both obtained in good yields and enantioselectivities...
March 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Bethan C O'Leary, Natalie C Ban, Miriam Fernandez, Alan M Friedlander, Pablo García-Borboroglu, Yimnang Golbuu, Paolo Guidetti, Jean M Harris, Julie P Hawkins, Tim Langlois, Douglas J McCauley, Ellen K Pikitch, Robert H Richmond, Callum M Roberts
Designated large-scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs, 100,000 or more square kilometers) constitute over two-thirds of the approximately 6.6% of the ocean and approximately 14.5% of the exclusive economic zones within marine protected areas. Although LSMPAs have received support among scientists and conservation bodies for wilderness protection, regional ecological connectivity, and improving resilience to climate change, there are also concerns. We identified 10 common criticisms of LSMPAs along three themes: (1) placement, governance, and management; (2) political expediency; and (3) social-ecological value and cost...
May 1, 2018: Bioscience
R David Row, Jennifer A Prescher
Chemical tools are transforming our understanding of biomolecules and living systems. Included in this group are bioorthogonal reagents-functional groups that are inert to most biological species, but can be selectively ligated with complementary probes, even in live cells and whole organisms. Applications of these tools have revealed fundamental new insights into biomolecule structure and function-information often beyond the reach of genetic approaches. In many cases, the knowledge gained from bioorthogonal probes has enabled new questions to be asked and innovative research to be pursued...
May 4, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Elena I Fedoros, Alexey A Orlov, Alexander Zherebker, Ekaterina A Gubareva, Mikhail A Maydin, Andrey I Konstantinov, Konstantin A Krasnov, Ruben N Karapetian, Ekaterina I Izotova, Sergey E Pigarev, Andrey V Panchenko, Margarita L Tyndyk, Dmitry I Osolodkin, Evgeny N Nikolaev, Irina V Perminova, Vladimir N Anisimov
Identification of molecular targets and mechanism of action is always a challenge, in particular - for natural compounds due to inherent chemical complexity. BP-Cx-1 is a water-soluble modification of hydrolyzed lignin used as the platform for a portfolio of innovative pharmacological products aimed for therapy and supportive care of oncological patients. The present study describes a new approach, which combines in vitro screening of potential molecular targets for BP-Cx-1 using Diversity Profile - P9 panel by Eurofins Cerep (France) with a search of possible active components in silico in ChEMBL - manually curated chemical database of bioactive molecules with drug-like properties...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Camila Kiyomi Conegundes de Jesus, Mario Sergio Salerno
Patents and patent portfolios are gaining attention in the last decades, from the called "pro-patent era" to the recent billionaire transactions involving patent portfolios. The field is growing in importance, both theoretically and practically and despite having substantial literature on new product development portfolio management, we have not found an article relating this theory to patent portfolios. Areas covered: The paper develops a systematic literature review on patent portfolio management to organize the evolution and tendencies of patent portfolio management, highlighting distinctive features of patent portfolio management...
May 2, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
T J Cahill, M Chen, K Hayashida, A Latib, T Modine, N Piazza, S Redwood, L Søndergaard, B D Prendergast
In the 16 years since the first pioneering procedure, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has come of age and become a routine strategy for aortic valve replacement, increasingly performed under conscious sedation via transfemoral access. Simplification of the procedure, accumulation of clinical experience, and improvements in valve design and delivery systems have led to a dramatic reduction in complication rates. These advances have allowed transition to lower risk populations, and outcome data from the PARTNER 2A and SURTAVI trials have established a clear evidence base for use in intermediate risk patients...
April 27, 2018: European Heart Journal
Nikolay Suvorov, Vera Karaseva, Ekaterina Stukalina, Elkhan Sanay, Vera Petrakovskaya, Vladimir Bulatov
There is no doubt that real-world evidence studies have the potential to improve and accelerate the development and delivery of safe and cost-effective innovative medicines to patients as well as influence the way we approach health and health care. Real-world evidence studies are a great challenge in terms of development and conduct, so there should be a good collaboration between the study team and clinical sites at all times, resulting eventually in timely and efficient enrollment. Engaging the sites and key external experts as early as possible during feasibility and routine visits, as well as highlighting the science rationale behind AstraZeneca's portfolio at investigator meetings and during medical science liaison (MSL) interactions, can create a positive impact on physician perception of a particular study and prioritization of patient recruitment in such studies...
January 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Bennett Levitan, Kenneth Getz, Eric L Eisenstein, Michelle Goldberg, Matthew Harker, Sharon Hesterlee, Bray Patrick-Lake, Jamie N Roberts, Joseph DiMasi
BACKGROUND: While patient groups, regulators, and sponsors are increasingly considering engaging with patients in the design and conduct of clinical development programs, sponsors are often reluctant to go beyond pilot programs because of uncertainty in the return on investment. We developed an approach to estimate the financial value of patient engagement. METHODS: Expected net present value (ENPV) is a common technique that integrates the key business drivers of cost, time, revenue, and risk into a summary metric for project strategy and portfolio decisions...
March 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Halley E Froehlich, Claire A Runge, Rebecca R Gentry, Steven D Gaines, Benjamin S Halpern
Reducing food production pressures on the environment while feeding an ever-growing human population is one of the grand challenges facing humanity. The magnitude of environmental impacts from food production, largely around land use, has motivated evaluation of the environmental and health benefits of shifting diets, typically away from meat toward other sources, including seafood. However, total global catch of wild seafood has remained relatively unchanged for the last two decades, suggesting increased demand for seafood will mostly have to rely on aquaculture (i...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
John Marquart, Emerson Y Chen, Vinay Prasad
Importance: To date, the benefit of genome-driven cancer therapy has not been quantified. Objective: We sought to estimate the annual percentage of patients in the United States with advanced or metastatic cancer who could be eligible for and benefit from US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved genome-driven therapy from 2006 to 2018. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cross-sectional study using publically available data of (1) demographic characteristics of patients with advanced or metastatic cancer; (2) FDA data on cancer drugs approved from January 2006 through January 2018; (3) measures of response and duration of response from drug labels; and (4) published reports estimating the frequency of various genomic aberrations used to estimate what percentage of patients would have been eligible for and would have benefited from genome-driven therapy during the studied period...
April 17, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Georgina Ritchie, Lisa Ashworth, Annette Bades
The qualified district nurse (DN) role demands high levels of leadership. Attracting the right candidates to apply for the Specialist Practice Qualification District Nursing (SPQDN) education programme is essential to ensure fitness to practice on qualification. Anecdotal evidence suggested that the traditional panel interview discouraged candidates from applying and a need to improve the quality of the overall interview process was identified by the authors. The University of Central Lancashire in partnership with Lancashire Care NHS Foundation Trust adopted the National Values Based Recruitment (VBR) Framework to select candidates to gain entry onto the SPQDN course...
May 2, 2018: British Journal of Community Nursing
Edgard Gnansounou, Jegannathan Kenthorai Raman
Among the renewables, non-food and wastelands based biofuels are essential for the transport sector to achieve country's climate mitigation targets. With the growing interest in biorefineries, setting policy requirements for other coproducts along with biofuels is necessary to improve the products portfolio of biorefinery, increase the bioproducts perception by the consumers and push the technology forward. Towards this context, Claiming-Based allocation models were used in comparative life cycle assessment of multiple products from wheat straw biorefinery and vetiver biorefinery...
April 24, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Elliott J Carande, Eva P Galiza, Alecia Nickless, Andrew J Pollard, Simon B Drysdale
BACKGROUND: Viral bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalisation in infants less than a year old. The United Kingdom (UK) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a guideline for the management of viral bronchiolitis in June 2015. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to prospectively survey the management of viral bronchiolitis in hospital Trusts in the UK to provide a baseline of practice prior to the publication of the 2015 NICE bronchiolitis guideline against which future practice can be assessed...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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