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Eeg Brain Connectivity

Ashish Gupta, Braj Bhushan, Laxmidhar Behera
Short-term effects of music stimulus on enhancement of cognitive functions in human brain are documented, however the underlying neural mechanisms in these cognitive effects are not well investigated. In this study, we have attempted to decipher the mechanisms involved in alterations of neural networks that lead to enhanced cognitive effects post-exposure to music. We have investigated the changes in Electroencephalography (EEG) power and functional connectivity of alpha band in resting state of the brain after exposure to Indian classical music...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ellana Welsby, Michael Ridding, Susan Hillier, Brenton Hordacre
BACKGROUND: Stroke can have devastating consequences for an individual's quality of life. Interventions capable of enhancing response to therapy would be highly valuable to the field of neurological rehabilitation. One approach is to use noninvasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation, to induce a neuroplastic response. When delivered in combination with rehabilitation exercises, there is some evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation is beneficial...
October 18, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Michela Balconi, Maria Elide Vanutelli
BACKGROUND: Social behavior and interactions pervasively shape and influence our lives and relationships. Competition, in particular, has become a core topic in social neuroscience since it stresses the relevance and salience of social comparison processes between the inter-agents that are involved in a common task. The majority of studies, however, investigated such kind of social interaction via one-person individual paradigms, thus not taking into account relevant information concerning interdependent participants' behavioral and neural responses...
October 18, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Kamil Jonak, Paweł Krukow, Katarzyna E Jonak, Cezary Grochowski, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
The aim of this study was to compare neural network topology of 30 patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES) and 30 multiepisode schizophrenia (mean number of psychotic relapses =4 years, duration of illness >5 years) patients, who were assessed with graph theory methods. This comparison was designed to identify network differences, which might be assigned to the burden of a mental disease. To estimate functional connectivity, we applied the phase lag index algorithm and the minimum spanning tree (MST) for the characterization of network topology...
October 16, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Laura Päeske, Maie Bachmann, Toomas Põld, Sara Pereira Mendes de Oliveira, Jaanus Lass, Jaan Raik, Hiie Hinrikus
The aim of the study is to clarify the impact of the strong cyclic signal component on the results of surrogate data method in the case of resting electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. In addition, the impact of segment length is analyzed. Different non-linear measures (fractality, complexity, etc.) of neural signals have been demonstrated to be useful to infer the non-linearity of brain functioning from EEG. The surrogate data method is often applied to test whether or not the non-linear structure can be captured from the data...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Annika Susann Wienke, Canan Basar-Eroglu, Christina Schmiedt-Fehr, Birgit Mathes
Adolescents are easily distracted by novel items than adults. Maturation of the frontal cortex and its integration into widely distributed brain networks may result in diminishing distractibility with the transition into young adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate maturational changes of brain activity during novelty processing. We hypothesized that during adolescence, timing and task-relevant modulation of frontal cortex network activity elicited by novelty processing improves, concurrently with increasing cognitive control abilities...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Shaun Porter, Noah D Silverberg, Naznin Virji-Babul
OBJECTIVES: To examine the neurophysiological correlates and brain network organization underlying physical and cognitive exertion in active young adults. DESIGN: Repeated measures. METHODS: Thirteen healthy adults completed three exertion tasks in a counterbalanced order: a graded working memory task (anti-saccade and serial addition task (ASAT)), a graded exercise task (cycling on a stationary bicycle) (EX) and a combined graded working memory and exercise task (ASAT+EX)...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
B Q Rosen, G Krishnan, P Sanda, M Komarov, T Sejnowski, N Rulkov, I Ulbert, L Eross, J Madsen, O Devinsky, W Doyle, D Fabo, S Cash, M Bazhenov, E Halgren
BACKGROUND: Although they form a unitary phenomenon, the relationship between extracranial M/EEG and transmembrane ion flows is understood only as a general principle rather than as a well-articulated and quantified causal chain. METHOD: We present an integrated multiscale model, consisting of a neural simulation of thalamus and cortex during stage N2 sleep and a biophysical model projecting cortical current densities to M/EEG fields. Sleep spindles were generated through the interactions of local and distant network connections and intrinsic currents within thalamocortical circuits...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Fabrizio Vecchio, Francesca Miraglia, Davide Quaranta, Giordano Lacidogna, Camillo Marra, Paolo Maria Rossini
Electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are linked to any kind of learning and cognitive performance including motor tasks. The brain is a complex network consisting of spatially distributed networks dedicated to different functions including cognitive domains where dynamic interactions of several brain areas play a pivotal role. Brain connectome could be a useful approach not only to mechanisms underlying brain cognitive functions, but also to those supporting different mental states. This goal was approached via a learning task providing the possibility to predict performance and learning along physiological and pathological brain aging...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Bo Tan, Qingxiao Liu, Chaoyang Wan, Zhenlan Jin, Yanchun Yang, Ling Li
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common inheritable psychiatric disorder characteristic of repetitive thinking, imagination (obsession), and stereotyped behaviors (compulsive). To explore whether there is an alteration of brain functional connectivity (BFC) in patients with OCD during rest, electroencephalogram (EEG) data of healthy controls (HCs) and patients with OCD were collected during rest in both eyes-closed and eyes-open states. Synchronization likelihood and graph theory were applied to construct and analyze brain functional networks of patients with OCD and HCs...
October 3, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Wilbert McClay
In Phase I, we collected data on five subjects yielding over 90% positive performance in Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) mid-and post-movement activity. In addition, a driver was developed that substituted the actions of the Brain Computer Interface (BCI) as mouse button presses for real-time use in visual simulations. The process was interfaced to a flight visualization demonstration utilizing left or right brainwave thought movement, the user experiences, the aircraft turning in the chosen direction, or on iOS Mobile Warfighter Videogame application...
September 28, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Marijn van Vliet, Mia Liljeström, Susanna Aro, Riitta Salmelin, Jan Kujala
Communication between brain regions is thought to be facilitated by the synchronization of oscillatory activity. Hence, large-scale functional networks within the brain may be estimated by measuring synchronicity between regions. Neurophysiological recordings, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), provide a direct measure of oscillatory neural activity with millisecond temporal resolution. In this paper, we describe a full data analysis pipeline for functional connectivity analysis based on dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) of MEG data...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Kimaya Sarmukadam, Christopher F Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika, Mary M E McMillan, Linda L Agnew
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting about 1 in 100 children and is currently incurable. ASD represents a challenge to traditional methods of assessment and diagnosis, and it has been suggested that direct measures of brain activity and connectivity between brain regions during demanding tasks represents a potential pathway to building more accurate models of underlying brain function and ASD. One of the key behavioural diagnostic indicators of ASD consists of sensory features (SF), often characterised by over- or under-reactivity to environmental stimuli...
October 1, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Richard E Rosch, Sukhvir Wright, Gerald Cooray, Margarita Papadopoulou, Sushma Goyal, Ming Lim, Angela Vincent, A Louise Upton, Torsten Baldeweg, Karl J Friston
NMDA-receptor antibodies (NMDAR-Abs) cause an autoimmune encephalitis with a diverse range of EEG abnormalities. NMDAR-Abs are believed to disrupt receptor function, but how blocking this excitatory synaptic receptor can lead to paroxysmal EEG abnormalities-or even seizures-is poorly understood. Here we show that NMDAR-Abs change intrinsic cortical connections and neuronal population dynamics to alter the spectral composition of spontaneous EEG activity and predispose brain dynamics to paroxysmal abnormalities...
October 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stavros I Dimitriadis
Understanding the complexity of human brain dynamics and brain connectivity across the repertoire of functional neuroimaging and various conditions, is of paramount importance. Novel measures should be designed tailored to the input focusing on multichannel activity and dynamic functional brain connectivity (DFBC). Here, we defined a novel complexity index (CI) from the field of symbolic dynamics that quantifies patterns of different words up to a length from a symbolic sequence. The CI characterizes the complexity of the brain activity...
November 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Mohsen Bahrami, Paul J Laurienti, Sean L Simpson
Complex brain networks formed via structural and functional interactions among brain regions are believed to underlie information processing and cognitive function. A growing number of studies indicate that altered brain network topology is associated with physiological, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities. Graph theory is showing promise as a method for evaluating and explaining brain networks. However, multivariate frameworks that provide statistical inferences about how such networks relate to covariates of interest, such as disease phenotypes, in different study populations are yet to be developed...
September 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Raffaele Nardone, Luca Sebastianelli, Viviana Versace, Leopold Saltuari, Piergiorgio Lochner, Vanessa Frey, Stefan Golaszewski, Francesco Brigo, Eugen Trinka, Yvonne Höller
The clinical distinction of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be difficult. In this narrative review we summarize and discuss the most relevant electroencephalography (EEG) studies which have been applied to demented patients with the aim of distinguishing the various types of cognitive impairment. EEG studies revealed that patients at an early stage of FTD or AD displayed different patterns in the cortical localization of oscillatory activity across different frequency bands and in functional connectivity...
2018: Disease Markers
Zongya Zhao, Yaqing Cheng, Zhenxin Li, Yi Yu
At present, little is known about brain functional connectivity and its small-world topologic properties in first-episode schizophrenia (SZ) patients during cool executive function task. In this paper, the Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B) task was used to evaluate the cool executive function of first-episode SZ patients and electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded from 14 first-episode SZ patients and 14 healthy controls during this cool executive function task. Brain functional connectivity between all pairs of EEG channels was constructed based on mutual information (MI) analysis...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Ranjan Debnath, Virginia C Salo, George A Buzzell, Kathryn H Yoo, Nathan A Fox
Mu desynchronization is the attenuation of EEG power in the alpha frequency range recorded over central scalp locations thought to reflect motor cortex activation. Mu desynchronization during observation of an action is believed to reflect mirroring system activation in humans. However, this notion has recently been questioned because, among other reasons, the potential contamination of mu rhythm and occipital alpha activity induced by attention processes following presentation of visual stimuli in observation conditions...
September 21, 2018: NeuroImage
Emanuela Formaggio, Alessandra Del Felice, Cristina Turco, Paola Cudia, Alfonc Baba, Francesca Bevilacqua, Stefano Masiero, Francesco Piccione
PURPOSE: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults. Although brain involvement is well recognized, the relationship between cortical motor control and voluntary movement has not been sufficiently explored. This study aims at assessing magnetoencephalographic (MEG) rhythms at oscillatory and connectivity levels to map central motor control. METHODS: Magnetoencephalographic data were acquired from healthy subjects and five myotonic dystrophy type 1 subjects during resting state and foot movement...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
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