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Wetting Anisotropy

Dafna Schwartz, Ayelet Levy, Amit Gefen
The sacral area is the most common site for pressure injuries (PIs) associated with prolonged supine bedrest. In previous studies, an anisotropic multilayer prophylactic dressing was found to reduce the incidence of PIs and redistribute pressure. The purpose of the current study was to further investigate relationships between design features and biomechanical efficacy of sacral prophylactic dressings. Using computer modeling, the anisotropic multilayer dressing and a hypothetical dressing with different mechanical properties were tested under dry and 3 levels of moist/wet conditions...
July 2018: Ostomy/wound Management
Guido Schifani, Thomas Frisch, Médéric Argentina
We focus in this work on the effect of the surface energy anisotropy on an elastically strained semiconductor film and in particular on its role on the coarsening dynamics of elastically strained islands. To study the dynamics of a strained film, we establish a one-dimensional nonlinear and nonlocal partial differential equation which takes into account the elastic, capillary, wetting, and anisotropic effects. We first construct an approximate stationary solution of our model using a variational method and an appropriate ansatz...
June 2018: Physical Review. E
Yi Zheng, Yanyun Chen, Guangzheng Fei, Julie Dorsey, Enhua Wu
Studies on virtual textile have long been an appealing topic in computer graphics and most of the efforts were paid to their distinctive appearances or physically-based simulation. However, stain as one of the most commonly seen phenomena has received little attention so far. This paper introduces techniques for simulating the stain effect on fabric. Based on the microstructure of yarns, we propose a triple-layer model (TLM) to handle the liquid-yarn interaction for the wetting and wicking computation, and we formalize the liquid spreading in woven cloth into two typical actions, the in-yarn diffusion and the cross-yarn diffusion...
May 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Aaron G Cahill, Beth L Parker, Bernhard Mayer, K Ulrich Mayer, John A Cherry
Fugitive gas comprised primarily of methane (CH4 ) with traces of ethane and propane (collectively termed C1-3 ) may negatively impact shallow groundwater when unintentionally released from oil and natural gas wells. Currently, knowledge of fugitive gas migration, subsurface source identification and oxidation potential in groundwater is limited. To advance understanding, a controlled release experiment was performed at the Borden Research Aquifer, Canada, whereby 51m3 of natural gas was injected into an unconfined sand aquifer over 72days with dissolved gases monitored over 323days...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michel Badetti, Abdoulaye Fall, François Chevoir, Jean-Noël Roux
Rheometric measurements on assemblies of wet polystyrene beads, in steady uniform quasistatic shear flow, for varying liquid content within the small saturation (pendular) range of isolated liquid bridges, are supplemented with a systematic study by discrete numerical simulations. The numerical results agree quantitatively with the experimental ones provided that the intergranular friction coefficient is set to the value [Formula: see text], identified from the behaviour of the dry material. Shear resistance and solid fraction [Formula: see text] are recorded as functions of the reduced pressure [Formula: see text], which, defined as [Formula: see text], compares stress [Formula: see text], applied in the velocity gradient direction, to the tensile strength [Formula: see text] of the capillary bridges between grains of diameter a, and characterizes cohesion effects...
May 28, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Kun-Dar Li, Tsung-Lung Chang, Jin-Ru Miao
The technique of the anisotropic wet chemical etching had turned into one of the widely used processes for manufacturing the functional materials in microelectromechanical systems. To better understand the issues of growth mechanisms for the characteristic surface morphologies during an anisotropic chemical etching, in this study the formation and evolution of surface structures were investigated by numerical simulation methods. A chemical etching model was established on the basis of chemical reaction and atomic diffusion...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Masatsugu Nagai, Kazuhiro Nakanishi, Hiraku Takahashi, Hiromitsu Kato, Toshiharu Makino, Satoshi Yamasaki, Tsubasa Matsumoto, Takao Inokuma, Norio Tokuda
Diamond possesses excellent physical and electronic properties, and thus various applications that use diamond are under development. Additionally, the control of diamond geometry by etching technique is essential for such applications. However, conventional wet processes used for etching other materials are ineffective for diamond. Moreover, plasma processes currently employed for diamond etching are not selective, and plasma-induced damage to diamond deteriorates the device-performances. Here, we report a non-plasma etching process for single crystal diamond using thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marco Faustini, Andrea Cattoni, Jennifer Peron, Cédric Boissière, Paul Ebrard, Annie Malchère, Philippe Steyer, David Grosso
Herein, we show that wetting properties such as giant wetting anisotropy and dynamic shaping can be observed when femtoliter (submicron scale) dew droplets are condensed on nanopatterned mildly hydrophilic surfaces. Large-scale, optically transparent, nanopatterned TiO2 surfaces were fabricated by direct nanoimprinting lithography of sol-gel-derived films. Square, infinitely elongated, or circular droplets were obtained with square, line, or concentric patterns, respectively, and were visualized in situ during formation and recession using optical microscopy and environmental scanning electronic microscopy...
April 24, 2018: ACS Nano
Dokyeong Kwon, Sanghyuk Wooh, Hyunsik Yoon, Kookheon Char
Here, we propose a simple mechanoresponsive system on patterned soft surfaces to manipulate both anisotropy and orientation of liquid wetting. On the poly(dimethylsiloxane) embedding line patterned structures, additional topographies, such as wrinkles and cracks, can be provided by applying compressive and tensile stress, respectively. This tunable hierarchy of structures with the different scales and directions of lines, wrinkles, and cracks allow the mechanoresponsive control of anisotropic wetting in a single platform...
April 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ashkan Afshari, Lyly Nguyen, Nathaniel D Kelm, Justine S Kim, Nancy L Cardwell, Alonda C Pollins, Ravinder Bamba, R Bruce Shack, Mark D Does, Wesley P Thayer
PURPOSE: Given no definite consensus on the accepted autograft orientation during peripheral nerve injury repair, we compare outcomes between reverse and normally oriented autografts using an advanced magnetic resonance imaging technique, diffusion tensor imaging. METHODS: Thirty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-left sciatic nerve isolation without injury, reverse autograft-10-mm cut left sciatic nerve segment reoriented 180° and used to coapt the proximal and distal stumps, or normally oriented autograft-10-mm cut nerve segment kept in its normal orientation for coaptation...
April 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Jeong Dong Kim, Munho Kim, Lingyu Kong, Parsian K Mohseni, Srikanth Ranganathan, Jayavel Pachamuthu, Wai Kin Chim, Sing Yang Chiam, James J Coleman, Xiuling Li
Defying text definitions of wet etching, metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch), a solution-based, damage-free semiconductor etching method, is directional, where the metal catalyst film sinks with the semiconductor etching front, producing 3D semiconductor structures that are complementary to the metal catalyst film pattern. The same recipe that works perfectly to produce ordered array of nanostructures for single-crystalline Si (c-Si) fails completely when applied to polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with the same doping type and level...
March 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gaojian Lin, Qiuting Zhang, Cunjing Lv, Yichao Tang, Jie Yin
We studied the wetting behavior of multiscale self-similar hierarchical wrinkled surfaces. The hierarchical surface was fabricated on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates by manipulating the sequential strain release and combined plasma/ultraviolet ozone (UVO) treatment. The generated structured surface shows an independently controlled dual-scale roughness with level-1 small-wavelength wrinkles (wavelength of 700-1500 nm and amplitude of 50-500 nm) resting on level-2 large-wavelength wrinkles (wavelength of 15-35 μm and amplitude of 3...
January 18, 2018: Soft Matter
Robbe Van Beers, Mito Kokawa, Ben Aernouts, Rodrigo Watté, Stefaan De Smet, Wouter Saeys
The bulk optical properties (BOP) of two bovine muscles were studied in the 500nm to 1850nm wavelength range. Over a two-week period of wet aging, the BOP of the biceps femoris (BF) and longissimus lumborum (LL) were determined and related to moisture content, tenderness and cooking loss. The absorption by myoglobin and reduced scattering coefficient were higher in the BF compared to the LL. The scattering anisotropy factor was relatively high (>0.95 for LL), representing dominant forward scattering. Two-toning effects in the BF could be attributed to significant scattering differences, as no differences in absorption properties were observed...
February 2018: Meat Science
Sebastian Pernal, Victoria M Wu, Vuk Uskoković
Despite the early promises of magnetic hyperthermia (MH) as a method for treating cancer, it has been stagnating in the past decade. Some of the reasons for the low effectiveness of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs) in MH treatments include (a) low uptake in cancer cells; (b) generation of reactive oxygen species that cause harm to the healthy cells; (c) undeveloped targeting potential; and (d) lack of temperature sensitivity between cancer cells and healthy cells. Here we show that healthy cells, including human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and primary mouse kidney and lung fibroblasts, display an unfavorably increased uptake of SPIONs compared to human brain cancer cells (E297 and U87) and mouse osteosarcomas cells (K7M2)...
November 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Stefano Luigi Oscurato, Fabio Borbone, Pasqualino Maddalena, Antonio Ambrosio
The directional light-induced mass migration phenomenon arising in the photoresponsive azobenzene-containing materials has become an increasingly used approach for the fabrication of controlled tridimensional superficial textures. In the present work we demonstrate the tailoring of the superficial wettability of an azopolymer by means of the light-driven reconfiguration of an array of imprinted micropillars. Few simple illumination parameters are controlled to induce nontrivial wetting effects. Wetting anisotropy with controlled directionality, unidirectional spreading, and even polarization-intensity driven two-dimensional paths for wetting anisotropy are obtained starting from a single pristine pillar geometry...
September 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dong Woo Kang, Woong Ko, Bomsock Lee, Bum Jun Park
We investigated the geometric and chemical factors of nonspherical Janus particles (i.e., Janus ellipsoids) with regard to the pinning and unpinning behaviors of the Janus boundary at the oil-water interface using attachment energy numerical calculations. The geometric factors were characterized by aspect ratio (AR) and location of the Janus boundary (α) separating the polar and apolar regions of the particle. The chemical factor indicated the supplementary wettability (β) of the two sides of the particle with identical deviations of apolarity and polarity from neutral wetting...
August 6, 2016: Materials
Bita Malekian, Kunli Xiong, Gustav Emilsson, Jenny Andersson, Cecilia Fager, Eva Olsson, Elin M Larsson-Langhammer, Andreas B Dahlin
Plasmonic nanostructures are widely used for various sensing applications by monitoring changes in refractive index through optical spectroscopy or as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. However, in most practical situations conventional surface plasmon resonance is preferred for biomolecular interaction analysis because of its high resolution in surface coverage and the simple single-material planar interface. Still, plasmonic nanostructures may find unique sensing applications, for instance when the nanoscale geometry itself is of interest...
June 20, 2017: Sensors
Gopal Krishna Dixit, Madhav Ranganathan
Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Tian Zhang, Dimitrios Vavylonis, Daniel M Durachko, Daniel J Cosgrove
The growing plant cell wall is commonly considered to be a fibre-reinforced structure whose strength, extensibility and anisotropy depend on the orientation of crystalline cellulose microfibrils, their bonding to the polysaccharide matrix and matrix viscoelasticity1-4 . Structural reinforcement of the wall by stiff cellulose microfibrils is central to contemporary models of plant growth, mechanics and meristem dynamics4-12 . Although passive microfibril reorientation during wall extension has been inferred from theory and from bulk measurements13-15 , nanometre-scale movements of individual microfibrils have not been directly observed...
April 28, 2017: Nature Plants
M Irfan, C J Wang, U Khan, W J Li, X M Zhang, W J Kong, P Liu, C H Wan, Y W Liu, X F Han
Several nanotechnology applications are based on the promising scheme of highly anisotropic magnetic nanomaterials. Using this idea, we investigated the structure, magnetic properties, and interfacial exchange anisotropy effects of the Ni/Cr2 O3 and Fe/Cr2 O3 core-shell nanowires (NWs) geometry. A template-based strategy was developed to synthesize Ni (Fe)-Cr2 O3 core-shell NWs, which combines a wet-chemical route and electrodeposition within the nanopores of the membranes. Structural determination in correlation with magnetic testing shows that the crystalline Cr2 O3 -nanoshells (NSs) cause an enhanced exchange bias, providing an extra source of anisotropy that leads to their magnetic stability...
May 4, 2017: Nanoscale
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