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Thin film

Chaoqiao Liu, Dong Xie, Peng Liu, Shilei Xie, Shoushan Wang, Faliang Cheng, Min Zhang, Lishi Wang
The authors describe a simplified chemical precipitation method and silver mirror reaction to synthesize a nanocomposite consiting of silver nanoparticles on a thin and porous nickel oxide film. Placed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), it allows for the determination of levofloxacin (LEV) via square wave voltammetry (SWV). Under optimal detection conditions, the voltammetric signal (typically measured at around 0.96 V vs. SCE) increases linearly in the 0.25-100 μM LEV concentration range. And the detection limit was calculated as 27 nM (at S/N = 3)...
December 15, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Alex Nikolov, Pingkeng Wu, Darsh Wasan
When an air bubble or an oil droplet in a nanofluid (liquid containing dispersed nanoparticles) approaches a solid surface, a nanofluid film is formed between the bubble or drop and a solid substrate. The nanoparticles confined in the film surfaces tend to self-layer and the film thins in a stepwise manner. The wetting behavior and film stability criteria valid for the classical molecularly thin films cannot be applied to nanofilm. Here we present an overview of the structure and stability of multilayer nanofilms wetting solid surfaces...
December 7, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
A Cuevas, B B Campos, R Romero, M Algarra, Mª I Vázquez, J Benavente
Modification of a regenerated cellulose thin film by inclusion of different non-toxic nanodots (silicon-dots (SiDs), carbon-dots (CDs)) or nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs)) by aqueous nanodots solution immersion was performed. Nanodots presence into the cellulosic structure was evidenced by confocal microscopy images at different depth and changes in film mechanical, electrical and optical parameters. Our results reveal that the inclusion of the different nanodots in the cellulosic support increases, indifferent percentages, the mechanical resistance and electrical conductivity of modified films, but they hardly affect light transmittance...
February 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Rania M Hathout, Heba A Gad, Salma M Abdel-Hafez, Naira Nasser, Noha Khalil, Toka Ateyya, Alaa Amr, Nesreen Yasser, Sandy Nasr, Abdelkader A Metwally
Glaucoma treatment with ocular medications requires overcoming the corneal barrier to drug penetration. Liposomes have a great corneal penetration ability and affinity while suffering from poor stability and low entrapment of hydrophilic drugs accompanied by rapid drug release. This work aims to develop a new, effective and stable glaucoma medication with sustained drug release properties; Timolol maleate gelatinized core liposomes. A full factorial design was utilized to study the effects of three formulation variables on drug loading and vesicle particle size...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Marin Cernea, Bogdan Stefan Vasile, Vasile Adrian Surdu, Roxana Trusca, Cristina Bartha, Floriana Craciun, Carmen Galassi
We investigated in this paper a novel bilayer composite obtained by sol-gel and spin coating of the ferroelectric 0.92Na0.5 Bi0.5 TiO3 -0.08BaTiO3 (abbreviated as BNT-BT0.08 ) and ferromagnetic CoFe2 O4 phases, for miniature low-frequency magnetic sensors and piezoelectric sensors. This heterostructure, deposited on Si-Pt substrate (Si-Pt/CoFe2 O4 /BNT-BT0.08 ), was characterized using selected method such as: X-ray diffraction, dielectric spectroscopy, piezoelectric force microscopy, SQUID magnetometry, atomic force microscopy/magnetic force microscopy, and advanced methods of transmission electron microscopy...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yan Wang, Shiming Ding, Mingyi Ren, Cai Li, Shiwei Xu, Qin Sun, Ligang Xu
There is a requirement for simultaneous measurements of diverse analytes to reveal their biogeochemical couplings in the environment. In this study, we first realized simultaneous measurements of three types of analytes, including sulfide [S(-II)], metallic cations, and oxyanions by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) using a new mixed ZrO-CA binding gel. The ZrO-CA gel exhibited faster absorption rates for oxyanions than previously reported ZrO-Chelex gel, and faster absorption rates for cations when the gel was saturated with S(-II)...
December 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Masoumeh Nazari, Ali Masoudi, Parham Jafari, Peyman Irajizad, Varun Kashyap, Hadi Ghasemi
Advancement in high-performance photonics/electronics devices has amplified generated thermal energy making thermal management a bottleneck for the accelerated innovation in these disciplines. While various methods have been used to tackle the thermal management problem, evaporation with nanometer fluid thickness is one of the most promising approaches for future technological demands. Here, we studied thin-film evaporation in nanochannels under absolute negative pressure in both transient and steady-state conditions...
December 14, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Tristan A Geervliet, Ionela Gavrila, Giuseppe Iasilli, Francesco Picchioni, Andrea Pucci
This study reports for the first time the use of bio-based alternatives for PMMA as host matrix for luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). Notably, two types of renewable polyesters were synthesized in varying molar ratios via a two-step melt-polycondensation reaction with dibutyl tin oxide as catalyst. The first is a homopolymer of diethyl 2,3:4,5-di-O-methylene galactarate (GxMe) and isosorbide (IGPn), and the second is a random copolymer of GxMe with 1,3-propanediol and dimethyl terephthalate (GTPn). The two polyesters were found to be optically transparent, totally amorphous with a Tg higher than 45 °C and temperature resistance comparable to PMMA...
December 14, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Hongxue Shen, Yi Liu, Huanhuan Zhang, Pinggang Ding, Lan Zhang, Liefeng Zhang, Jianming Ju
OBJECTIVES: To increase the solubility of baicalein (BAI) by preparing BAI-micelles (BAI-M) with Solutol HS15 (HS15) and Poloxamer 188 (F68), thereby improving its oral bioavailability. METHODS: Baicalein micelles were prepared with HS15 and F68 by thin-film dispersion method and optimized by central composite design (CCD) approach. Physicochemical, in vitro release, Caco-2 cell transport and pharmacokinetic studies of BAI-M were performed. KEY FINDINGS: The optimal formulation showed spherical shape by characterization of the transmission electron microscope with average small size (23...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Masaki Shimizu, Ryosuke Shigitani, Takumi Kinoshita, Hiroshi Sakaguchi
We prepared dimethyl and diaryl 2,5-dialkoxytere-phthalates from dimethyl 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalate in good-to-high yields via alkylation or a sequence of alkylation, hydrolysis, chlorination, and condensation. The absorption spectra of the dialkoxyterephthalates contain a small band at 332-355 nm, which could be assigned to intramolecular charge-transfer transition from the alkoxy to alkoxycarbonyl groups on the basis of theoretical calculations using density functional theory. The dialkoxyterephthalates exhibited blue fluorescence with moderate-to-excellent quantum yields not only in solution but also in the solid state, such as a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film and a powder...
December 12, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Svetlana V Zaitseva, Simona Bettini, Ludovico Valli, Arkadiy M Kolker, Nicholas Yu Borovkov
Thin films of metal phthalocyanines (MPc) are known to exhibit excellent physical properties but poorly controlled morphologies. Therefore, the present work seeks to understand the film growth mechanism of a model compound for potentially usable MPc, specifically, copper tetra(3-nitro-5-tert-butyl)phthalocyanine (CuPc*). The Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) technique was applied to prepare a series of CuPc* films under different processing conditions. The film growth was examined by Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) on the water surface and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) from the solid films...
December 12, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Kaifeng Zhang, Shin-Ichi Taniguchi, Takehiro Tachizaki
We developed a thin-film silicon waveguide with gradually changing thickness for generating a near-field optical spot. Theoretical studies show that the surface plasmons that are resonantly excited on the waveguide generate a hot spot with a wide spectral range. We experimentally confirmed generation of the near-field hot spot using continuous waves at 850 and 660 nm wavelengths. This waveguide, which can generate the enhanced electric field by normal incident of the excitation beam under situations of the practical use, is promising for broadband near-field optical technologies...
December 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Sandrine Le Houedec, Aubin Thibault de Chanvalon, Aurélia Mouret, Edouard Metzger, Patrick Launeau, Pierre Gaudin, Thierry Lebeau
Siderophores are natural metal chelating agents that strongly control the biogeochemical metal cycles such as Fe in the environment. This article describes a new methodology to detect and quantify at the micromolar concentration the spatial distribution at millimetre scale of siderophores within the root's system. The "universal" CAS assay originally designed for bacterial siderophores detection and later designed for fungus was adapted here for diffusive equilibrium in thin film gel techniques (DET)...
December 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jiao Zhao, Tsutomu Minegishi, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Guijun Ma, Miao Zhong, Mamiko Nakabayashi, Takashi Hisatomi, Masao Katayama, Naoya Shibata, Taro Yamada, Kazunari Domen
A thin film of (CuInS2)x(ZnS)1-x has been developed as a photocathode for solar water splitting for the first time. A superior photoelectrochemical performance has been achieved, mainly attributed to the formation of a solid solution by CuInS2 and ZnS, which proved to be an effective strategy to improve the onset potential and efficiency of CuInS2 photocathodes.
December 14, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Haomin Song, Wei Wu, Jian-Wei Liang, Partha Maity, Yuying Shu, Nam Sun Wang, Omar F Mohammed, Boon S Ooi, Qiaoqiang Gan, Dongxia Liu
Photocatalytic CO2 reduction with water to hydrocarbons represents a viable and sustainable process toward greenhouse gas reduction and fuel/chemical production. Development of more efficient catalysts is the key to mitigate the limits in photocatalytic processes. Here, a novel ultrathin-film photocatalytic light absorber (UFPLA) with TiO2 films to design efficient photocatalytic CO2 conversion processes is created. The UFPLA structure conquers the intrinsic trade-off between optical absorption and charge carrier extraction efficiency, that is, a solar absorber should be thick enough to absorb majority of the light allowable by its bandgap but thin enough to allow charge carrier extraction for reactions...
November 2018: Global Challenges
Céline Lichtensteiger
InteractiveXRDFit is a custom-made MATLAB program that calculates the X-ray diffracted intensity for oxide thin films and heterostructures based on a library of inorganic materials.
December 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Crystallography
Guoliang Li, Ruiheng Hu, Jau Tang, Huai Zheng, Sheng Liu
Electric corona discharge in a multi-phase system results in complex electro-hydrodynamic phenomena. We observed unconventional shock wave propagation on an oil thin film sprayed over a polymer-coated conductor. A hair-thin single shock wave arose when the high voltage bias of an overhung steel needle was abruptly removed. However, such solitary waves possess neither interference nor reflection properties commonly known for ordinary waves, and also differ from the solitons in a canal or an optical fiber. We also observed time-retarded movement for dispersed oil droplets at various distances from the epicenter which have no physical contact, as if a wave propagating on a continuous medium...
December 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sabina Merlo, Eleonora Crisà, Domenico Giusti, Marco Ferrera, Marco Soldo
In this work, we present the results of the opto⁻electro⁻mechanical characterization of tunable micro-lenses, Tlens® , performed with a single-spot optical measuring system. Tested devices are composed of a transparent soft polymer layer that is deposited on a supporting glass substrate and is covered by a glass membrane with a thin-film piezoelectric actuator on top. Near-infrared optical low-coherence reflectometry is exploited for both static and low-frequency dynamic analyses in the time domain. Optical thickness of the layers and of the overall structure, actuation efficiency, and hysteretic behavior of the piezo-actuator as a function of driving voltage are obtained by processing the back-reflected signal in different ways...
December 12, 2018: Sensors
Meriem Akin, Autumn Pratt, Jennifer Blackburn, Andreas Dietzel
In this work, we developed and fabricated a paper-based anisotropic magneto-resistive sensor using a sputtered permalloy (Ni 81 Fe 19 ) thin film. To interpret the characteristics of the sensor, we proposed a computational model to capture the influence of the stochastic fiber network of the paper surface and to explain the physics behind the empirically observed difference in paper-based anisotropic magneto-resistance (AMR). Using the model, we verified two main empirical observations: (1) The stochastic fiber network of the paper substrate induces a shift of 45 ∘ in the AMR response of the paper-based Ni 81 Fe 19 thin film compared to a Ni 81 Fe 19 film on a smooth surface as long as the fibrous topography has not become buried...
December 11, 2018: Sensors
Gwomei Wu, Anup K Sahoo, Dave W Chen, J W Chang
A comparative study on the effects of e-beam deposited gate dielectrics for amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide ( a -IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) has been carried out using SiO₂, Si₃N₄, and Ta₂O₅ dielectric materials. The channel width dependent device electrical performances were investigated using three different sizes of 500 μm, 1000 μm, and 1500 μm. The reliability characteristics were revealed by the threshold voltage variation and drain current variation under positive bias stress. The e-beam deposited high-k dielectric Ta₂O₅ exhibited the highest stability at the stress voltage of 3 V for 1000 s due to its high capacitance density at 34...
December 9, 2018: Materials
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