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Jana Špaková Raschmanová, Miroslava Martinková, Jozef Gonda, Martina Bago Pilátová, Daniel Kupka, Dávid Jáger
A straightforward synthesis of l-lyxo- and l-xylo-phytosphingosine along with their isomeric analogues has been accomplished. The salient features of this approach are the utilization of [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements to install a C-N bond and application of a late stage Wittig or OCM reaction to incorporate the hydrophobic chain unit. The final compounds were evaluated regarding their ability to alter both leukaemia and solid tumor cancer cells viability.
August 6, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Daniele Caracciolo, Maria Teresa Di Martino, Nicola Amodio, Eugenio Morelli, Martina Montesano, Cirino Botta, Francesca Scionti, Daniela Talarico, Emanuela Altomare, Maria Eugenia Gallo Cantafio, Valeria Zuccalà, Lorenza Maltese, Katia Todoerti, Marco Rossi, Mariamena Arbitrio, Antonino Neri, Pierosandro Tagliaferri, Pierfrancesco Tassone
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by high genomic instability. Here we provide evidence that hyper-activation of DNA ligase III (LIG3) is crucial for genomic instability and survival of MM cells. LIG3 mRNA expression in MM patients correlates with shorter survival and even increases with more advanced stage of disease. Knockdown of LIG3 impairs MM cells viability in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that neoplastic plasmacells are dependent on LIG3-driven repair. To investigate the mechanisms involved in LIG3 expression, we investigated the post-transcriptional regulation...
August 17, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Sarah A Pötgens, Hélène Brossel, Martina Sboarina, Emilie Catry, Patrice D Cani, Audrey M Neyrinck, Nathalie M Delzenne, Laure B Bindels
Cancer cachexia is a complex multi-organ syndrome characterized by body weight loss, weakness, muscle atrophy and fat depletion. With a prevalence of 1 million people in Europe and only limited therapeutic options, there is a high medical need for new approaches to treat cachexia. Our latest results highlighted microbial dysbiosis, characterized by a bloom in Enterobacteriaceae and altered gut barrier function in preclinical models of cancer cachexia. They also demonstrated the potential of targeting the gut microbial dysbiosis in this pathology...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Damien C O'Neill, Niall F Davis, Timothy É Murray, Michael J Lee, Dilly Little, Martina M Morrin
OBJECTIVES: Prospective renal donors are a select population of healthy individuals who have been thoroughly screened for significant comorbidities before they undergo multidetector computed tomography. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of incidental findings on preoperative multidetector computed tomography in a healthy cohort of potential living donors for kidney transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed of prospective living kidney transplant donors at a national kidney transplant center...
August 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Giuseppe Lippi, Gian Luca Salvagno, Cantor Tarperi, Matteo Gelati, Martina Montagnana, Elisa Danese, Luca Festa, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Emmanuel J Favaloro, Federico Schena
Since the impact of possible prothrombotic factors on blood coagulation resulting from exercise remains elusive, this study investigated the acute effects of middle-distance endurance running on blood coagulation parameters in middle-aged athletes. The study population consisted of 33 male endurance runners who were engaged in a 21.1 km run under competitive conditions. Blood samples were collected before the run, immediately after the run, and 3 hours after run completion. Samples were assessed for activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen, D-dimer, factor VIII (FVIII), von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag), endogenous thrombin potential (area under the curve of thrombin generation [TGA-AUC]), and peak thrombin generation (TGA-PK)...
August 17, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Ali Nawaz, Witoon Purahong, Robert Lehmann, Martina Herrmann, Kai Uwe Totsche, Kirsten Küsel, Tesfaye Wubet, François Buscot
Although fungi play important roles in biogeochemical cycling in aquatic ecosystems and have received a great deal of attention, much remains unknown about the living fractions of fungal communities in aquifers of the terrestrial subsurface in terms of diversity, community dynamics, functional roles, the impact of environmental factors and presence of fungal pathogens. Here we address this gap in knowledge by using RNA-based high throughput pair-end illumina sequencing analysis of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene markers, to target the living fractions of groundwater fungal communities from fractured alternating carbonate-/siliciclastic-rock aquifers of the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory...
July 28, 2018: Water Research
Monica Maria Mion, Giada Bragato, Martina Zaninotto, Jhessica Alessandroni, Sergio Bernardini, Mario Plebani
AIM OF THE STUDY: Blood gas analysis (BGA) is essential for the diagnosis and management of acid-base imbalances. We evaluated and compared the analytical characteristics of the new GEM® Premier™ 5000 (GP5000) (Instrumentation Laboratory, Bedford, MA, United States) BGA point-of-care (POC) device with those of the GEM® Premier™ 4000 (GP4000) (Instrumentation Laboratory, Bedford, MA, United States) and RapidPoint® 405 (RP405) (Siemens Healthcare, Milan, Italy) POC analyzers. The effect of sample mixing on patient results was also studied...
August 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Yiyi Hu, Yu Feng, Jiayuan Qin, Lenka Radolfova-Krizova, Martina Maixnerova, Xiaoxia Zhang, Alexandr Nemec, Zhiyong Zong
We recovered eight strains of the genus Acinetobacter from hospital sewage at West China Hospital in Chengdu, China. Based on the comparative analysis of the rpoB sequence, these strains formed a strongly supported and internally coherent cluster (intra-cluster identity of ≥98.0 %), which was clearly separated from all known Acinetobacter species (≤91.1 %). The eight strains also formed a tight and distinct cluster based on the genus-wide comparison of whole-cell mass fingerprints generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Janine Regneri, Barbara Klotz, Brigitta Wilde, Verena A Kottler, Michael Hausmann, Susanne Kneitz, Martina Regensburger, Katja Maurus, Ralph Götz, Yuan Lu, Ronald Walter, Amaury Herpin, Manfred Schartl
In humans the CDKN2A locus encodes two transcripts, INK4A and ARF. Inactivation of either one by mutations or epigenetic changes is a frequent signature of malignant melanoma and one of the most relevant entry points for melanomagenesis. To analyze whether cdkn2ab, the fish ortholog of CDKN2A, has a similar function as its human counterpart, we studied its action in fish models for human melanoma. Overexpression of cdkn2ab in a Xiphophorus melanoma cell line led to decreased proliferation and induction of a senescence-like phenotype, indicating a melanoma-suppressive function analogous to mammals...
August 16, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Lanfranco D'Elia, Martina Manfredi, Ludovica Perna, Roberto Iacone, Ornella Russo, Pasquale Strazzullo, Ferruccio Galletti
Leptin (LPT) is associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure (BP), insulin resistance and excess in body weight. Some studies find an unfavorable cross-sectional association between LPT and renal disease, in particular in patients with already known kidney dysfunction. There are few data on the relationship between LPT and changes in renal function over time in subjects without evidence of kidney dysfunction. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the predictive role of LPT on the decline in renal function occurring in an 8-year follow-up observation of a sample of adult apparently healthy men (The Olivetti Heart Study)...
August 16, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Dorian Forte, Daria Sollazzo, Martina Barone, Marisole Allegri, Angela di Martella Orsi, Marco Romano, Barbara Sinigaglia, Giuseppe Auteri, Nicola Vianelli, Michele Cavo, Francesca Palandri, Lucia Catani
Inflammation may play a role in cancer. However, the contribution of cytokine-mediated crosstalk between normal hemopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and their (inflammatory) microenvironment is largely elusive. Here we compared survival, phenotype, and function of neonatal (umbilical cord blood (CB)) and adult (normal G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood (mPB)) CD34+ cells after in vitro exposure to combined crucial inflammatory factors such as interleukin- (IL-) 1 β , IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α , or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1)...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Suzanne Perea Burns, Martina Mueller, Gayenell Magwood, Brandi M White, Daniel Lackland, Charles Ellis
BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic minorities consistently demonstrate disparate post-stroke outcomes. However, there is a paucity of literature related to whether this disparity exists specifically in post-stroke cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To determine if racial and ethnic disparities exist in post-stroke subjective cognitive decline (SCD) among non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks), American Indians or Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites (Whites) in the United States using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)...
August 9, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
Ivan Kruljac, Ivan Vičić, Kristina Blaslov, Zorica Kolak, Martina Benkovic, Davor Kust, Blaženka Ladika Davidović, Gordan Tometic, Ivan Penavić, Nina Dabelić, Ljubica Vazdar, Tajana Pavic, Milan Vrkljan
Serum chromogranin A (CgA) is routinely used as a biomarker in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). Several conditions and comorbidities may be associated with falsely elevated CgA, often leading to extensive diagnostic evaluation, which may be costly and harmful. The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of acute octreotide suppression test (AOST) in differentiating falsely elevated serum CgA. <br><br>Methods: Our prospective study enrolled 45 patients from two different patient cohorts: 1) 29 patients with suspicion or presence of NEN (extensive work-up and subsequent biopsy confirmed 16 NENs); 2) 16 consecutive patients admitted via emergency department without NEN (nonNENs)...
August 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Martina Ceckova, Josef Reznicek, Birgit Deutsch, Martin F Fromm, Frantisek Staud
Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). It is usually administered with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), many of which are substrates of OCT uptake solute carriers (SLC22A) and MATE (SLC47A), P-gp (MDR1, ABCB1), BCRP (ABCG2), or MRP2 (ABCC2) efflux transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of efavirenz towards these transporters and investigate its effects on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of a known Oct/Mate substrate, lamivudine, in rats...
2018: PloS One
Serena Lucrezi, Martina Milanese, Marco Palma, Carlo Cerrano
Citizen Science (CS) strengthens the relationship between society and science through education and engagement, with win-win benefits. Marine Citizen Science (MCS) is increasingly popular, thanks to society's growing interest in marine environments and marine issues. Scuba diving significantly increases the potential of MCS, thanks to the skills and behavioural properties of people who participate in the sport. To be able to exploit this potential, however, MCS needs to face challenges related to CS, to scuba diving activities and to the broader scuba diving industry...
2018: PloS One
Madeline C Weiss, Martina Preiner, Joana C Xavier, Verena Zimorski, William F Martin
All known life forms trace back to a last universal common ancestor (LUCA) that witnessed the onset of Darwinian evolution. One can ask questions about LUCA in various ways, the most common way being to look for traits that are common to all cells, like ribosomes or the genetic code. With the availability of genomes, we can, however, also ask what genes are ancient by virtue of their phylogeny rather than by virtue of being universal. That approach, undertaken recently, leads to a different view of LUCA than we have had in the past, one that fits well with the harsh geochemical setting of early Earth and resembles the biology of prokaryotes that today inhabit the Earth's crust...
August 2018: PLoS Genetics
Christophe Legendre, Richard Viebahn, Ingela Fehrman-Ekholm, Núria Masnou, Marina Berenguer, Luciano Potena, Lars Wennberg, John O'Grady, Eric Epailly, Fritz Diekmann, Isabelle Binet, Vedat Schwenger, Dirk Kuypers, Martina Guthoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Transplantation
Zoe Oesterreicher, Edith Lackner, Walter Jäger, Martina Höferl, Markus Zeitlinger
Background: Treatment of skin and superficial soft tissue infections with topically applied antibiotics is a controversial topic, because only few clinical studies exist and target site concentrations after topical treatment are widely unknown. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the target site concentration of topically applied gentamicin as a potential cause of therapeutic failure and to explore if microporation by laser might be used to improve penetration of gentamicin through the skin barrier...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ione O C Woollacott, Martina Bocchetta, Carole H Sudre, Basil H Ridha, Catherine Strand, Robert Courtney, Sebastien Ourselin, M Jorge Cardoso, Jason D Warren, Martin N Rossor, Tamas Revesz, Nick C Fox, Janice L Holton, Tammaryn Lashley, Jonathan D Rohrer
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are often seen on MRI brain scans in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) due to progranulin (GRN) mutations, but their pathological correlates are unknown. We examined the histological changes underlying WMH in a patient with GRN mutation associated behavioral variant FTD. In vivo and cadaveric MRI showed progressive, asymmetric frontotemporal and parietal atrophy, and asymmetrical WMH predominantly affecting frontal mid-zones. We first performed segmentation and localization analyses of WMH present on cadaveric MRI FLAIR images, then selected five different brain regions directly matched to differing severities of WMH for histological analysis...
August 16, 2018: Neurocase
Tamara Braunschmid, Irene Kührer, Martina Mittlböck, Maria Westerhoff, Sonja Kappel-Latif, Lindsay Brammen, Kausilia K Krishnadath, Wayne A Phillips, Michael Gnant, Daniela Kandioler
Technological progress within the last 15-20 years has significantly increased our knowledge about the molecular basis of cancer development, tumor progression, and treatment response. As a consequence, a vast number of biomarkers have been proposed, but only a small fraction of them have found their way into clinical use. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific demands a clinically relevant biomarker should meet and how biomarkers can be tested stepwise. We name this procedure the "triple-R principle": robustness, reproducibility, and relevance...
August 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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