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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546487/urban-tinkering
#1
Thomas Elmqvist, José Siri, Erik Andersson, Pippin Anderson, Xuemei Bai, Pranab Kishore Das, Tatu Gatere, Andrew Gonzalez, Julie Goodness, Steven N Handel, Ellika Hermansson Török, Jessica Kavonic, Jakub Kronenberg, Elisabet Lindgren, David Maddox, Raymond Maher, Cheikh Mbow, Timon McPhearson, Joe Mulligan, Guy Nordenson, Meggan Spires, Ulrika Stenkula, Kazuhiko Takeuchi, Coleen Vogel
Cities are currently experiencing serious, multifaceted impacts from global environmental change, especially climate change, and the degree to which they will need to cope with and adapt to such challenges will continue to increase. A complex systems approach inspired by evolutionary theory can inform strategies for policies and interventions to deal with growing urban vulnerabilities. Such an approach would guide the design of new (and redesign of existing) urban structures, while promoting innovative integration of grey, green and blue infrastructure in service of environmental and health objectives...
2018: Sustainability science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538653/not-all-green-space-is-created-equal-biodiversity-predicts-psychological-restorative-benefits-from-urban-green-space
#2
Emma Wood, Alice Harsant, Martin Dallimer, Anna Cronin de Chavez, Rosemary R C McEachan, Christopher Hassall
Contemporary epidemiological methods testing the associations between green space and psychological well-being treat all vegetation cover as equal. However, there is very good reason to expect that variations in ecological "quality" (number of species, integrity of ecological processes) may influence the link between access to green space and benefits to human health and well-being. We test the relationship between green space quality and restorative benefit in an inner city urban population in Bradford, United Kingdom...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526734/high-prevalence-of-rodent-borne-bartonella-spp-in-urbanizing-environments-in-sarawak-malaysian-borneo
#3
Kim R Blasdell, David Perera, Cadhla Firth
Rodents are the most prominent animal host of Bartonella spp., which are associated with an increasing number of human diseases worldwide. Many rodent species thrive in urban environments and live in close contact with people, which can lead to an increased human risk of infection from rodent-borne pathogens. In this study, we explored the prevalence and distribution of Bartonella spp. in rodents in urban, developing, and rural environments surrounding a growing city in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. We found that although Bartonella spp...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514315/residential-green-space-and-pathways-to-term-birth-weight-in-the-canadian-healthy-infant-longitudinal-development-child-study
#4
Leanne Cusack, Hind Sbihi, Andrew Larkin, Angela Chow, Jeffrey R Brook, Theo Moraes, Piush J Mandhane, Allan B Becker, Meghan B Azad, Padmaja Subbarao, Anita Kozyrskyj, Tim K Takaro, Malcolm R Sears, Stuart E Turvey, Perry Hystad
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies observe associations between the amount of green space around a mother's home and positive birth outcomes; however, the robustness of this association and potential pathways of action remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between mother's residential green space and term birth weight within the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study and examine specific hypothesized pathways. METHODS: We examined 2510 births located in Vancouver, Edmonton, Winnipeg, and Toronto Canada...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511165/micronutrient-intakes-and-status-assessed-by-probability-approach-among-the-urban-adult-population-of-hyderabad-city-in-south-india
#5
Tattari Shalini, Mudili Sivaprasad, Nagalla Balakrishna, Gangupanthulu Madhavi, Madhari S Radhika, Boiroju Naveen Kumar, Raghu Pullakhandam, Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy
PURPOSE: To assess the dietary inadequacies of micronutrients and the associated factors among the apparently healthy urban adults. METHODS: This community-based cross-sectional study involved 300 urban adults (distributed into age groups: 21-40, 41-60, and > 60 years) residing in Hyderabad city, South India. Hemoglobin in whole blood, ferritin, folate, and vitamin B12 (B12) in plasma was estimated. Dietary intakes were assessed by three 24-h dietary recalls and calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) using estimated average requirement...
December 3, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502229/restorative-effects-of-urban-green-environments-and-the-role-of-urban-nature-orientedness-and-noise-sensitivity-a-field-experiment
#6
Ann Ojala, Kalevi Korpela, Liisa Tyrväinen, Pekka Tiittanen, Timo Lanki
In this experiment we investigated how individual differences in orientation towards built vs. nature environment as well as noise sensitivity affect psychological and physiological restoration in a constructed urban park, urban woodland and city centre of Helsinki, Finland. The participants, 30-61-year-old healthy women (N = 83), visited each study site once. The experiment consisted of a 15-min viewing session, followed by a 30-min walking session in each environment. We measured restorative effects: perceived restorative outcomes, vitality, and blood pressure in these three environments...
November 27, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501119/healthy-design-and-urban-planning-strategies-actions-and-policy-to-achieve-salutogenic-cities
#7
Stefano Capolongo, Andrea Rebecchi, Marco Dettori, Letizia Appolloni, Antonio Azara, Maddalena Buffoli, Lorenzo Capasso, Alessandra Casuccio, Gea Oliveri Conti, Alessandro D'Amico, Margherita Ferrante, Umberto Moscato, Ilaria Oberti, Lorenzo Paglione, Vincenzo Restivo, Daniela D'Alessandro
Starting from a previous experience carried out by the working group "Building and Environmental Hygiene" of the Italian Society of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine (SItI), the aim of the present work is to define new strategic goals for achieving a "Healthy and Salutogenic City", which will be useful to designers, local governments and public bodies, policy makers, and all professionals working at local health agencies. Ten key points have been formulated: 1. climate change and management of adverse weather events; 2...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496003/effect-of-remediating-blighted-vacant-land-on-shootings-a-citywide-cluster-randomized-trial
#8
Ruth Moyer, John M MacDonald, Greg Ridgeway, Charles C Branas
OBJECTIVES: To determine if remediating blighted vacant urban land reduced firearm shooting incidents resulting in injury or death. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in which we assigned 541 randomly selected vacant lots in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to 110 geographically contiguous clusters and randomly assigned these clusters to a greening intervention, a less-intensive mowing and trash cleanup intervention, or a no-intervention control condition...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30487441/social-network-analysis-of-factors-influencing-green-building-development-in-china
#9
Ning Huang, Libiao Bai, Hailing Wang, Qiang Du, Long Shao, Jingtao Li
Green buildings have been viewed as one of the most effective solutions to the negative environmental impacts of construction activities. For the sustainable development of the economy and the environment, many governments in the world have launched a variety of policies to encourage the development of green buildings. However, green targets achieved during the operational stage of green buildings are far below the expectations from the design stage. In addition, the development of green buildings is unevenly distributed in different cities...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30465274/forecasting-the-spatiotemporal-variability-of-soil-co-2-emissions-in-sugarcane-areas-in-southeastern-brazil-using-artificial-neural-networks
#10
Luciana P S Freitas, Mara L M Lopes, Leonardo B Carvalho, Alan R Panosso, Newton La Scala Júnior, Ricardo L B Freitas, Carlos R Minussi, Anna D P Lotufo
Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is considered one of the main greenhouse effect gases and contributes significantly to global climate change. In Brazil, the agricultural areas offer an opportunity to mitigate this effect, especially with the sugarcane crop, since, depending on the management system, sugarcane stores large amounts of carbon, thereby removing it from the atmosphere. The CO2 production in soil and its transport to the atmosphere are the results of biochemical processes such as the decomposition of organic matter and roots and the respiration of soil organisms, a phenomenon called soil CO2 emissions (FCO2 )...
November 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30451466/geographical-information-system-analysis-on-road-accidents-involving-wandering-dogs-in-the-urban-area-of-naples
#11
Giuseppina Mennonna, Carla Murino, Fabiana Micieli, Alessandro Costagliola, Danila D'Angelo, Orlando Paciello, Gerardo Fatone, Francesco Lamagna, Luigi Navas, Marina Pompameo, Leonardo Meomartino
In this study, the spatial distribution of road accidents involving wandering dogs on urban roads of Naples was assessed using kernel density estimation (KDE). The study included 423 dogs victim of road collisions in the period 2012-2015 collected from the medical records of Interdepartmental Centre of Veterinary Radiology, of Pathological Anatomy Service, of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, "Federico II" University of Naples, and of Veterinary Hospital Attendance of the Local Public Health Unit Napoli1...
November 9, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444166/color-encoding-visualizations-as-a-tool-to-assist-a-nonliterate-population-in-completing-health-survey-responses
#12
Maichou Lor
Visual representations of data have increasingly included color-encodings to help engage participants in health research. However, there is limited information on the way in which participants interpret color or on the influence of embedded cultural interpretations of color on survey responses. This study examines the interpretation of color-encodings used to indicate survey response options and their impact on participants' responses. Using a descriptive, cross-sectional design, interviews were conducted with 30 older Hmong adults from one Midwestern city in the United States...
November 16, 2018: Informatics for Health & Social Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413014/the-effect-of-manufacturing-agglomeration-on-haze-pollution-in-china
#13
Jun Liu, Yuhui Zhao, Zhonghua Cheng, Huiming Zhang
Based on panel data on 285 Chinese cities from 2003 to 2012, we use a dynamic spatial panel model to empirically analyze the effect of manufacturing agglomeration on haze pollution. The results show that when economic development levels, population, technological levels, industrial structure, transportation, foreign direct investment, and greening levels are stable, manufacturing agglomeration significantly aggravates haze pollution. However, region-specific analysis reveals that the effects of manufacturing agglomeration on inter-regional haze pollution depends on the region: the effect of manufacturing agglomeration on haze pollution is the largest in the Western region, followed by the Central region, and is the least in the Eastern region...
November 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411560/-landscape-pattern-analysis-and-optimum-design-of-park-green-space-in-nanchang-city-china-based-on-gis
#14
Xu Ying Wei, Jun Huo Cai, Ying Cong Ye, Yang Zhou, Chun Qing Liu
Based on the current map data of park green space in the main urban area of Nanchang, the spatial database of park green space was set up with GIS technique, with the corresponding landscape indices being calculated by FRAGSTATS, the software of landscape pattern. Based on analyzing current landscape pattern of green space in Nanchang, the optimization strategy and scheme were proposed and the optimized landscape pattern was evaluated. The results indicated that the spatial distribution of patches in current park green space was uneven and area discrepancy was large, which is especially true in densely populated areas with less patch number of park green space and obviously low available area for disaster shelter...
September 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405058/organic-waste-buyback-as-a-viable-method-to-enhance-sustainable-municipal-solid-waste-management-in-developing-countries
#15
Hiroshan Hettiarachchi, Jay N Meegoda, Sohyeon Ryu
Many developing countries have inadequate Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management systems due to lack of not only the awareness, technologies, finances, but also a proper governance that is able to enforce and monitor the regulations. Not all the solutions practiced by and in developed countries fit to the developing country contexts. The local conditions and limitations must always be taken into account when proposing waste management options for developing countries. The excessively high organic waste fraction in MSW and relatively inexpensive labor markets available in developing countries are two of the strengths that have not yet been utilized fully...
November 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380717/air-pollution-noise-blue-space-and-green-space-and-premature-mortality-in-barcelona-a-mega-cohort
#16
Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Mireia Gascon, David Martinez, Anna Ponjoan, Jordi Blanch, Maria Del Mar Garcia-Gil, Rafel Ramos, Maria Foraster, Natalie Mueller, Ana Espinosa, Marta Cirach, Haneen Khreis, Payam Dadvand, Xavier Basagaña
Introduction : Cities often experience high air pollution and noise levels and lack of natural outdoor environments, which may be detrimental to health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of air pollution, noise, and blue and green space on premature all-cause mortality in Barcelona using a mega cohort approach. Methods : Both men and women of 18 years and above registered on 1 January 2010 by the Sistema d'Informació pel Desenvolupament de la Investigació en Atenció Primària (SIDIAP) and living in the city of Barcelona were included in the cohort and followed up until 31 December 2014 or until death ( n = 2,939,067 person years)...
October 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30376106/a-new-framework-for-urban-ecology-an-integration-of-proximate-and-ultimate-responses-to-anthropogenic-change
#17
Jenny Q Ouyang, Caroline Isaksson, Chloé Schmidt, Pierce Hutton, Frances Bonier, Davide Dominoni
As urban areas continue to grow, understanding how species respond and adapt to urban habitats is becoming increasingly important. Knowledge of the mechanisms behind observed phenotypic changes of urban-dwelling animals will enable us to better evaluate the impact of urbanization on current and future generations of wildlife and predict how animals respond to novel environments. Recently, urban ecology has emerged not only as a means of understanding organismal adaptation but also as a framework for exploring mechanisms mediating evolutionary phenomena...
November 1, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373058/nitrogen-inputs-are-more-important-than-denitrifier-abundances-in-controlling-denitrification-derived-n-2-o-emission-from-both-urban-and-agricultural-soils
#18
Hui-Juan Xu, Xiao-Ru Yang, Shun Li, Xi-Mei Xue, Shuai Chang, Hu Li, Brajesh K Singh, Jian-Qiang Su, Yong-Guan Zhu
Cities are increasingly being recognized as important contributors in global warming, for example by increasing atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2 O). However, urban ecosystems remain poorly understood due to their functional complexity. Further, few studies have documented the microbial processes governing the N2 O emissions from urban soils. Here, a field study was performed to assess in situ N2 O emissions in an urban and agricultural soil located in Xiamen, China. The mechanisms underlying the difference in N2 O emission patterns in both soils were further explored in an incubation experiment...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30360542/not-in-my-backyard-legislation-requirements-and-economic-analysis-for-developing-underground-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-china
#19
Meishu Wang, Hui Gong
Underground wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have achieved fast development in China in recent years. Due to the remarkable differences between underground and conventional aboveground construction mode, legislation including technical specifications and regulations for underground WWTPs, which was revealed in vacancy, should be issued in time to promote its development. It is also expected to avoid not-in-my-backyard sentiment by decreasing negative effects of WWTPs via construction in sealed underground space...
October 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359798/implementation-of-a-specific-urban-water-management-sponge-city
#20
REVIEW
Thu Thuy Nguyen, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Xiaochang C Wang, Nanqi Ren, Guibai Li, Jie Ding, Heng Liang
Climate change, rapid urbanization and inappropriate urban planning policies in many countries have resulted in urban water-related problems, such as flooding disasters, water pollution and water shortages. To tackle these issues, the specific urban water management strategy known as Sponge City has been implemented in China since 2013. This is a complex method and one involving many challenges. This paper critically assesses the approaches associated with conventional urban water management. The Sponge City concept and its adoption are then scrutinized to comprehensively assess the limitations and opportunities...
October 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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