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Green city

Marion Le Texier, Kerry Schiel, Geoffrey Caruso
Urban green space (UGS) has many environmental and social benefits. UGS provision and access are increasingly considered in urban policies and must rely on data and indicators that can capture variations in the distribution of UGS within cities. There is no consensus about how UGS, and their provision and access, must be defined from different land use data types. Here we identify four spatial dimensions of UGS and critically examine how different data sources affect these dimensions and our understanding of their variation within a city region (Brussels)...
2018: PloS One
Qian Li, Feng Wang, Yang Yu, Zhengce Huang, Mantao Li, Yuntao Guan
Sponge city construction is a new concept of urban stormwater management, which can effectively relieve urban flooding, reduce non-point source pollution, and promote the usage of rainwater resources, often including the application of Low Impact Development (LID) techniques. Although 30 cities in China have been chosen to implement sponge city construction, there is a lack of a quantitative evaluation method to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social benefits of LID practices. This paper develops a comprehensive evaluation system to quantify the benefits of different combinations of LID units using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sui Li, Dai Xi Xiu, Tie Mao Shi, Shi Wen Zhou, Shi Lei Fu, Chang Yu
Low impact development (LID) of industrial parks is an important component in the construction of China's sponge cities. We compared the methods of optimizing ecological spatial structure for rain and flood control in industrial parks, via analyzing the influence of landscape pattern on hydrological process. Firstly, according to the hydrological and geological conditions of the coastal area, the landscape pattern of the industrial park was optimized, with the water corridor system being structured and green patches being integrated...
October 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Wanxia Fang, Xiujuan Qu, Jing Shi, Heming Li, Xiaoyu Guo, Xin Wu, Yunpeng Liu, Zhi Li
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Conflicting results have been reported on the association of cruciferous vegetable intake and colorectal cancer risk. This study aimed to clarify the relationship of cruciferous vegetables and colorectal cancer among individuals in Northeast China, where large amounts of cruciferous vegetables are consumed habitually. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in the First Hospital of China Medical University, the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University and the First Hospital of Dalian Medical University from 2009 to 2011...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Weicong Fu, Qunyue Liu, Cecil Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Ziru Chen, Zhipeng Zhu, Jinda Qi, Mo Wang, Emily Dang, Jianwen Dong
Atmospheric visibility (AV), one of the most concerning environmental issues, has shown a continuous decline in China's urban areas, especially in Southeastern China. Existing studies have shown that AV is affected by air pollutants and climate change, which are always caused by human activities that are linked to socioeconomic factors, such as urban size, residents' activities, industrial activities, and urban greening. However, the contribution of socioeconomic factors to AV is still not well understood, especially from a long-term perspective, which sometimes leads to ineffective policies...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Morteza Bashash, Maelle Marchand, Howard Hu, Christine Till, E Angeles Martinez-Mier, Brisa N Sanchez, Niladri Basu, Karen E Peterson, Rivka Green, Lourdes Schnaas, Adriana Mercado-García, Mauricio Hernández-Avila, Martha María Téllez-Rojo
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and animal-based studies have raised concern over the potential impact of fluoride exposure on neurobehavioral development as manifested by lower IQ and deficits in attention. To date, no prospective epidemiologic studies have examined the effects of prenatal fluoride exposure on behavioral outcomes using fluoride biomarkers and sensitive measures of attention. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between prenatal fluoride exposure and symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
October 10, 2018: Environment International
Alexander P N van der Jagt, Mike Smith, Bianca Ambrose-Oji, Cecil C Konijnendijk, Vincenzo Giannico, Dagmar Haase, Raffaele Lafortezza, Mojca Nastran, Marina Pintar, Špela Železnikar, Rozalija Cvejić
Urban green infrastructure (UGI) and nature-based solutions are increasingly recognized as instruments to address urban sustainability challenges, yet rely on a good understanding of complex social-ecological system (SES) to function adequately. Adaptive co-management (ACM), engaging a broad variety of stakeholders in collaborative learning, is an effective strategy to improve the resilience of a SES. However, ACM studies have been criticized for neglecting the urban context, while also offering little clarity on process objectives and outcomes...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Xiaojiang Li, Debarchana Ghosh
Public health researchers are increasingly interested in assessing the impact of neighborhood environment on physical activities and chronic health issues among humans. Walkable streets and proximity to green space have long been believed to promote active lifestyles in cities, which contribute to positive health outcomes among residents. Traditionally, urban environmental metrics were calculated at the area level to describe the physical environment of neighborhoods. However, considering the fact that streets are the basic unit for human activities in cities, it is important to understand how the streetscape environment can influence human health conditions...
October 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alessio Russo, Giuseppe T Cirella
The modern compact city is identified as a high-density and mixed-use pattern. Its features are believed to contribute to a form of functional urban design that supports sustainability and, restresses, the importance of ecosystem services. Urban green space (UGS) plays a vital role in the design and impact on how compact cities have developed and triggered a scientific discord on the amount of greenery individuals require and to what extent contemporary approaches address the question. Research points to at least 9 m² of green space per individual with an ideal UGS value of 50 m² per capita...
October 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ravena Souza Almeida Azevedo, Bianca Souto Teixeira, Maria Celeste da Silva Sauthier, Marta Valéria Almeida Santana, Walter Nei Lopes Dos Santos, Débora de Andrade Santana
This study deals with the development of a separation and quantification method by high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC- DAD), for the determination of phenolic acids and methylxanthines in tea (Camellia Sinensis) samples. Six phenolic acids (Gallic, trans-cinnamic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids) and two methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine) were studied, according to the principles of green chemistry, with the goal of comparing teas with different processing level...
February 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Arielle Waldstein Parsons, Tavis Forrester, Megan C Baker-Whatton, William J McShea, Christopher T Rota, Stephanie G Schuttler, Joshua J Millspaugh, Roland Kays
Developed areas are thought to have low species diversity, low animal abundance, few native predators, and thus low resilience and ecological function. Working with citizen scientist volunteers to survey mammals at 1427 sites across two development gradients (wild-rural-exurban-suburban-urban) and four plot types (large forests, small forest fragments, open areas and residential yards) in the eastern US, we show that developed areas actually had significantly higher or statistically similar mammalian occupancy, relative abundance, richness and diversity compared to wild areas...
October 2, 2018: ELife
Travis Gallo, Mason Fidino
Careful design of the green spaces in cities will benefit both wild animals and humans.
October 2, 2018: ELife
Gulay Cetinkaya Ciftcioglu, Aslihan Aydin
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the major urban ecosystem services (UESs) delivered by a number of green open spaces (GOSs) and their contributions to the human wellbeing (HWB) in four selected sites located in the city of Nicosia of North Cyprus. The objectives of the study were to map the dominant GOSs in the selected sites, to identify the plant species cultivated in the GOSs, and to evaluate the major UESs delivered by the GOSs and their contributions to the components of HWB. The conceptual framework of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was adopted to evaluate the linkages between the different types/components of GOSs, UESs, and HWB...
September 27, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Silviya Korpilo, Joel Jalkanen, Tarmo Virtanen, Susanna Lehvävirta
Cities and urban green areas therein can be considered as complex social-ecological systems that provide various ecosystem services with different synergies and trade-offs among them. In this article, we show that multiple stakeholder perspectives and data sources should be used to capture key values for sustainable planning and management of urban green spaces. Using an urban forest in Helsinki, Finland as a case study, we incorporated data collected using public participation GIS, expert elicitation and forest inventories in order to investigate the guidance that the different types of data, and their integration, can provide for landscape planning...
2018: PloS One
Sharon K Greene, Sungwoo Lim, Annie Fine
INTRODUCTION: The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene sought to detect and minimize the risk of local, mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. We modeled areas at greatest risk for recent ZIKV importation, in the context of spatially biased ZIKV case ascertainment and no data on the local spatial distribution of persons arriving from ZIKV-affected countries. METHODS: For each of 14 weeks during June-September 2016, we used logistic regression to model the census tract-level presence of any ZIKV cases in the prior month, using eight covariates from static sociodemographic census data and the latest surveillance data, restricting to census tracts with any ZIKV testing in the prior month...
July 25, 2018: PLoS Currents
Sophie Lanzkron, Jane Little, Joshua Field, Joseph Ryan Shows, Hang Wang, Rebecca Seufert, Jasmine Brooks, Ravi Varadhan, Carlton Haywood, Mustapha Saheed, Chiung Yu Huang, Brandi Griffin, Steven Frymark, Allie Piehet, Derek Robertson, Marc Proudford, Adrienne Kincaid, Charles Green, Lorri Burgess, Marcus Wallace, Jodi Segal
The ESCAPED (Examining Sickle Cell Acute Pain in the Emergency vs Day Hospital) trial is an ongoing prospective study comparing outcomes of people with sickle cell disease (SCD) seeking care for acute pain management in either an emergency department or specialty infusion clinic. The objective of this paper is to describe the baseline characteristics and health care utilization of patients in the trial. This is a multicenter study across 4 US cities that enrolled all adults with SCD living within 60 miles (96...
September 25, 2018: Blood Advances
Colleen E Reid, Laura D Kubzansky, Jiayue Li, Jessie L Shmool, Jane E Clougherty
Growing evidence suggests that exposure to greenness benefits health, but studies assess greenness differently. We hypothesize greenness-health associations vary by exposure assessment method. To test this, we considered four vegetation datasets (three Normalized Difference Vegetation Index datasets with different spatial resolutions and a finely-resolved land cover dataset), and six aggregation units (five radial buffer sizes and self-described neighborhoods) of each dataset. We compared associations of self-rated health and these metrics of greenness among a sample of New York City residents...
September 21, 2018: Health & Place
Július Árvay, Marek Šnirc, Martin Hauptvogl, Jana Bilčíková, Alica Bobková, Lenka Demková, Marek Hudáček, Miroslava Hrstková, Tomáš Lošák, Martin Král, Anton Kováčik, Jana Štefániková
The aim of the present study was to determine concentrations of 15 macro- and micro-elements in 10 commercially available plantation Arabica coffee brands. The elemental concentration was studied in 50 samples of green and roasted coffee beans of various roasting degrees and their infusions. There were four different roasting degrees: City + (C+), Full city (FC), Full city ++ (FC++), and Dark (D). The attention was given to the impact of the roasting process on the elemental composition. Statistically significant differences were found between the green coffee beans and the different roasting degrees in both macro- and micro-elements...
September 17, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
D Antoniadis, N Katsoulas, C Kittas
The present study explores the effects on microclimate parameters and on heat stress conditions of the bioclimatic redevelopment of an urban schoolyard based mainly on inserting shading canopies and replacing hard surfaces with green cover. This included the use of the recent version of the microclimate model ENVI-met (V4), first validated using experimental data and then later applied to different case studies in schoolgrounds of Volos, a coastal city in central Greece under Mediterranean type climate. The simulation of the existing yard condition showed that the values of the biometorological index PET (physiologically equivalent temperature, in °C), were within the range of the thermal sensation class of extreme heat stress (> 41 °C) from early morning, while at midday 80...
November 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
J Taylor Scott, Ryan P Kilmer, Chuang Wang, James R Cook, Mason G Haber
Features of the natural environment such as tree canopy and green space have been found to promote health and well-being; however, minimal research has investigated potential benefits of nature near schools for early childhood development. This study examined differences in teacher ratings of preschoolers' socio-emotional and behavioral functioning in relation to the presence of natural elements (e.g., trees, parks) near children's homes and schools. Students' development of emotional and behavioral regulatory skills was the greatest when there were high levels of tree canopy either at home or school...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
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