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Green city

Karin A Bosh, Joseph R Coyle, Nicole W Muriithi, Chitra Ramaswamy, Weilin Zhou, Antoine D Brantley, Lauren J Stockman, Lindsey VanderBusch, Emily F Westheimer, Tian Tang, Timothy A Green, H Irene Hall
Accurate interpretations and comparisons of linkage results across jurisdictions require valid and reliable matching methods. We compared existing matching methods used by 6 US state and local health departments (Houston, Texas; Louisiana; Michigan; New York City, New York; North Dakota; and Wisconsin) to link human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis surveillance data with a 14-key automated, hierarchical deterministic matching method. Applicable years varied by disease and jurisdiction, ranging from 1979 to 2016...
August 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ewelina M Swierad, Terry T K Huang
Urban green space has been positively associated with psychological and physical health. However, the linkage between exposure to parks and health outcomes remains unclear. The current study examined the meanings that people assign to city parks, as a way to understand the pathways by which parks exert their effects on health. We conducted qualitative interviews with twenty culturally diverse residents in New York City. Thematic analysis was performed on the qualitative data. Results showed that all themes identified were related to parks fulfilling a basic human need for connection to (1) family, loved ones, and friends; (2) community and neighborhood; (3) self; and (4) nature...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shu Shen, Zhao-Qing Wei, Li-Juan Sun, Yang-Qing Su, Ru-Chuan Wang, Han-Ming Jiang
With the expansion of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) in smart cities, the shared bicycle has developed quickly as a new green public transportation mode, and is changing the travel habits of citizens heavily across the world, especially in China. The purpose of the current paper is to provide an inclusive review and survey on shared bicycle besides its benefits, history, brands and comparisons. In addition, it proposes the concept of the Internet of Shared Bicycle (IoSB) for the first time, as far as we know, to find a feasible solution for those technical problems of the shared bicycle...
August 7, 2018: Sensors
C N Thompson, C T Lee, S Immerwahr, S Resnick, G Culp, S K Greene
In 2016, imported Zika virus (ZIKV) infections and the presence of a potentially competent mosquito vector (Aedes albopictus) implied that ZIKV transmission in New York City (NYC) was possible. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed contingency plans for a urosurvey to rule out ongoing local transmission as quickly as possible if a locally acquired case of confirmed ZIKV infection was suspected. We identified tools to (1) rapidly estimate the population living in any given 150-m radius (i...
August 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Marine Levé, Emmanuelle Baudry, Carmen Bessa-Gomes
Urban expansion is correlated to negative biodiversity trends. The amount of impervious surfaces in urban areas is a determinant of pollinator species assemblages. While the increase in urbanization and impervious surfaces negatively impacts pollinators, cities also encompass urban green spaces, which have a significant capacity to support biodiversity. Among them, domestic gardens that represent a non-negligible fraction of green spaces have been shown to benefit pollinators. Domestic gardens may form habitat clusters in residential areas, although their value at a landscape scale is still unknown...
July 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jeffery Chakedis, Lawrence A Shirley, Alicia M Terando, Roman Skoracki, John E Phay
BACKGROUND: Injury to the thoracic duct (TD) is the most common complication after a left lateral neck dissection, and it carries a high degree of morbidity. Currently, no routine diagnostic imaging is used to assist with TD identification intraoperatively. This report describes the first clinical experience with lymphangiography using indocyanine green (ICG) during lateral neck dissections. METHODS: In six patients undergoing left lateral neck dissection (levels 2-4) for either thyroid cancer or melanoma, 2...
August 3, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Huyen T K Le, Ralph Buehler, Steve Hankey
BACKGROUND: Walking and bicycling are health-promoting and environmentally friendly alternatives to the automobile. Previous studies that explore correlates of active travel and the built environment are for a single metropolitan statistical area (MSA) and results often vary among MSAs. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to model the relationship between the built environment and active travel for 20 MSAs spanning the continental United States. METHODS: We sourced and processed pedestrian and bicycle traffic counts for 20 U...
July 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Nicholas E Webb, David M Wood, Shaun L Greene, Laura J Hunter, John R H Archer, Alison M Dines, Paul I Dargan
OBJECTIVES: In May 2016, the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA) came into effect in UK making it an offence to produce or supply new psychoactive substances (NPS). The aim of this study was to determine whether this was associated with a change in Emergency Department (ED) presentations with acute NPS toxicity. METHOD: ED presentations to our inner-city hospital in London, UK, with acute NPS toxicity in the 12 months before and after the PSA introduction [June 2015-May 2016 (2015/2016) and June 2016-May 2017 (2016/2017)] were obtained from our database...
August 1, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Thi-Dieu-Hien Vo, Xuan-Thanh Bui, Dinh-Duc Nguyen, Van-Truc Nguyen, Huu-Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Phuoc-Dan Nguyen, Cong-Nguyen Nguyen, Chitsan Lin
Wetland roof (WR) could bring many advantages for tropical cities such as thermal benefits, flood control, green coverage and domestic wastewater treatment. This study investigates wastewater treatment and biomass growth of eight local plants in shallow bed WRs. Results showed that removal rates of WRs were 21-28 kg COD ha-1  day-1 , 9-13 kg TN ha-1  day-1 and 0.5-0.9 kg TP ha-1  day-1 , respectively. The plants generated more biomass at lower hydraulic loading rate (HLR). Dry biomass growth was 0...
January 2018: Bioresource Technology
Yuehan Dou, Lin Zhen, Xiubo Yu, Martha Bakker, Gerrit-Jan Carsjens, Zhichao Xue
Landscape change caused by ecological restoration projects has both positive and negative influences on human livelihoods, yet surprisingly little research on the cultural consequences of ecological restoration in agricultural landscapes has taken place. Cultural consequences can be captured in the ecosystem services framework as cultural ecosystem services (CES). However, assessment and valuation of these services to support decision-making for this essential ecosystem is lacking. To help fill this gap, we assessed the opinions of Chinese rural communities about CES and the changes in their perception under the Grain for Green program (GFG), a nationwide program to relieve the pressure on ecosystems (soil erosion and land degradation) by converting cultivated land or barren land on steep slopes into grassland and forests...
July 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Monika H Egerer, Brenda B Lin, Caragh G Threlfall, Dave Kendal
Urban environments are being subject to increasing temperatures due to the combined effects of global climate change and urban heat. These increased temperatures, coupled with human planting preferences and green space management practices, influence how urban plants grow and survive. Urban community gardens are an increasingly popular land use, and a green space type that is influenced by unique climate-human behavior interactions. Despite ongoing rapid temperature changes in cities, it is unknown how gardeners are adapting to these changes, and to what extent changes influence planting decisions and patterns of urban plant diversity...
July 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dan L Crouse, Adele Balram, Perry Hystad, Lauren Pinault, Matilda van den Bosch, Hong Chen, Daniel Rainham, Errol M Thomson, Christopher H Close, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V Martin, Richard Ménard, Alain Robichaud, Paul J Villeneuve
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that residential exposures to natural environments, such as green spaces, are associated with many health benefits. Only a single study has examined the potential link between living near water and mortality. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine whether residential proximity to large, natural water features (e.g., lakes, rivers, coasts, "blue space") was associated with cause-specific mortality. METHODS: Our study is based on a population-based cohort of nonimmigrant adults living in the 30 largest Canadian cities [i...
July 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Alyssa B Stewart, Tuanjit Sritongchuay, Piyakarn Teartisup, Sakonwan Kaewsomboon, Sara Bumrungsri
Background: Pollinators are well known for the ecosystem services they provide, and while urban areas are generally perceived as low-quality habitat for most wildlife, these cities often support a surprising degree of pollinator diversity. The current rapid growth of urban areas and concern over global pollinator declines have spurred numerous studies examining pollinator communities in temperate cities, but knowledge about tropical urban pollinators remains scarce. Methods: This study investigated the effects of habitat and landscape factors on pollinator richness and abundance in a highly-populated, tropical city: Bangkok, Thailand...
2018: PeerJ
Steffen Andreas Schüle, Sarah Nanninga, Stefanie Dreger, Gabriele Bolte
Perceived annoyance due to traffic noise and lack of urban green space is mostly determined using data from self-administered questionnaires. However, there is still no clear evidence to what extent such perceived measures are related to objectively assessed environmental data and whether socioeconomic dimensions modify such relationships. In a cross-sectional study in Dortmund, Germany, georeferenced home addresses from parents with preschool aged children were used to analyse relations between exposures to objectively measured green space and traffic noise and subjective annoyance due to noise and lack of green space with the additional consideration of socioeconomic characteristics as effect modifiers...
July 24, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Richard C Sadler, Christopher Hippensteel, Victoria Nelson, Ella Greene-Moton, C Debra Furr-Holden
Addressing health disparities requires both community engagement and an understanding of the social determinants of health. Although elements of the built environment can influence behavior change in public health interventions, such determinants have not been explicitly teased out via participatory mapping. An opportunity exists to integrate community voice in the development of such metrics. To fill this gap and inform the deployment of public health interventions in the Flint (USA) Center for Health Equity Solutions (FCHES), we created a means of assessing spatially-varying community needs and assets in a geographic information system (GIS), what we refer to as a healthfulness index...
July 19, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Helen Brown, Katrina Proust, Barry Newell, Jeffery Spickett, Tony Capon, Lisa Bartholomew
A move towards more compact and climate-resilient cities is being encouraged around the world. As part of these plans, there is a need to manage the potential conflict between increasing urban densities and the extent of tree canopy in cities. Reductions in tree canopy are a major contributor to the urban heat island (UHI) effect, which will act to reduce rather than increase climate resilience in many cities. A systems thinking approach called Collaborative Conceptual Modelling was used to study the interaction between urban infill, tree canopy, and human health in Perth, Australia...
July 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Matthew H E M Browning, Alessandro Rigolon
Examination of the greenspace-human health relationship operates in at least four dimensions: what is considered greenspace? which moderators and mediators are included? what outcomes are measured? and which units of analysis (e.g., individuals, cities) are studied? We examined three of these four dimensions in a cross-sectional study of 496 of the 500 most populated US cities (total population size = 97,574,613, average population per city = 197,920). Spatial average models tested the effect of two greenspace measures (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index greenness and tree cover) on two outcomes (obesity and mental health), while adjusting for income, race and ethnicity, sprawl, age, sex, physical inactivity, median age of housing, and total population...
July 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Benjamin Y Ofori, Reuben A Garshong, Francis Gbogbo, Erasmus H Owusu, Daniel K Attuquayefio
Urbanization is a key driver of global biodiversity loss. Although sub-Saharan African countries are experiencing unprecedented urbanization and urban expansion, very little is known about how this impacts tropical biodiversity. Here, we assessed the effects of urban expansion and urban green space on local small mammal species diversity in Accra, Ghana. We surveyed small mammals in the University of Ghana botanical garden, an urban green area (UGA) and adjoining built-up environment (BE) and compared the results with baseline data (BLD) collected when large areas of the current city still remained mostly undeveloped...
July 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Angel M Dzhambov, Iana Markevych, Boris Tilov, Zlatoslav Arabadzhiev, Drozdstoj Stoyanov, Penka Gatseva, Donka D Dimitrova
Growing amounts of evidence support an association between self-reported greenspace near the home and lower noise annoyance; however, objectively defined greenspace has rarely been considered. In the present study, we tested the association between objective measures of greenspace and noise annoyance, with a focus on underpinning pathways through noise level and perceived greenspace. We sampled 720 students aged 18 to 35 years from the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Objective greenspace was defined by several Geographic Information System (GIS)-derived metrics: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), tree cover density, percentage of green space in circular buffers of 100, 300 and 500 m, and the Euclidean distance to the nearest structured green space...
July 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kelvin Wai Kit Fok, Winnie Wai Yi Law
This study explores the potential to enhance a city's international position and social development through mainstreaming urban greenery in its city branding exercise. The variety of services by urban greenery are theorised to be compatible with the economic and social purposes of city branding. Despite enjoying exceptional green cityscape with the presence of country parks and other green resources, the comparative strength is under-valued under Hong Kong's current brand. This Hong Kong-based study looks into the crucial linkages between city branding and urban greening by factoring in the perception of local residents, overseas investors/workers and tourists...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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