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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342241/transnational-access-to-large-prospective-cohorts-in-europe-current-trends-and-unmet-needs
#1
Birgit A Simell, Outi M Törnwall, Iiro Hämäläinen, H-Erich Wichmann, Gabriele Anton, Paul Brennan, Laurene Bouvard, Nadia Slimani, Aurelie Moskal, Marc Gunter, Kurt Zatloukal, Joel T Minion, Sirpa Soini, Michaela T Mayrhofer, Madeleine J Murtagh, Gert-Jan van Ommen, Mattias Johansson, Markus Perola
Biobank samples and data from studies of large prospective cohorts (LPC) represent an invaluable resource for health research. Efficient sharing and pooling of samples and data is a central pre-requisite for new advances in biomedical science. This requirement, however, is not compatible with the present scattered and traditional access governance structures, where legal and ethical frameworks often form an obstacle for effective sharing. Moreover, the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is demanding increasingly rigorous administration from all those organisations processing personal data...
October 17, 2018: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342092/structure-and-function-of-mycobacterium-specific-components-of-f-atp-synthase-subunits-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE%C2%B5
#2
Nebojša Bogdanović, Lavanya Sundararaman, Neelagandan Kamariah, Anu Tyagi, Shashi Bhushan, Priya Ragunathan, Joon Shin, Thomas Dick, Gerhard Grüber
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) F1 FO -ATP synthase (α3 :β3 :γ:δ:ε:a:b:b':c9 ) is an essential enzyme that supplies energy for both the aerobic growing and the hypoxic dormant stage of the mycobacterial life cycle. Employing the heterologous F-ATP synthase model system αchi 3 :β3 :γ we showed previously, that transfer of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Mtb subunit α (Mtα514-549 ) to a standard F-ATP synthase α subunit suppresses ATPase activity. Here we determined the 3D reconstruction from electron micrographs of the αchi 3 :β3 :γ complex reconstituted with the Mtb subunit ε (Mtε), which has been shown to crosstalk with the CTD of Mtα...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341849/stars-in-abdomen
#3
Ramesh Kumar, Divendu Bhushan, Mukesh Kumar
A 24-year-old male who presented to our emergency department with the history of having ingested mercury due to accidental breakage of the tip of mercury thermometer. He had 3 bouts of vomiting following ingestion; however, mercury beads were not seen in the vomitus. On admission, the patient was clinically stable, and his physical and systemic examinations were unremarkable. His routine investigations which included complete blood count, liver function test, kidney function tests, coagulation profiles, blood glucose, and electrocardiogram were normal...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341734/comparative-pulmonary-toxicity-of-a-dwcnt-and-mwcnt-7-in-rats
#4
Ahmed M El-Gazzar, Mohamed Abdelgied, David B Alexander, William T Alexander, Takamasa Numano, Masaaki Iigo, Aya Naiki, Satoru Takahashi, Hiroshi Takase, Akihiko Hirose, Jun Kannno, Osama Saeid Elokle, Ashraf Mohamed Nazem, Hiroyuki Tsuda
Very little is known about the in vivo toxicity of inhaled double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). In the present study, we compared the pulmonary toxicity of DWCNT to MWCNT-7, a well-known multi-walled carbon nanotube. Rats were divided into six groups: untreated, vehicle, low-dose DWCNT, high-dose DWCNT, low-dose MWCNT-7, and high-dose MWCNT-7. The test materials were administered by intra-tracheal intra-pulmonary spraying (TIPS) every other day for 15 days: the low-dose and high-dose groups were administered final total doses of 0...
October 19, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341607/assays-for-light-chain-amyloidosis-formation-and-cytotoxicity
#5
Luis M Blancas-Mejia, Pinaki Misra, Christopher J Dick, Marta Marin-Argany, Keely R Redhage, Shawna A Cooper, Marina Ramirez-Alvarado
Common biophysical techniques like absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, microscopy, and light scattering studies have been in use to investigate fibril assembly for a long time. However, there is sometimes a lack of consensus from the findings of an individual technique when compared in parallel with the other techniques. In this chapter, we aim to provide a concise compilation of techniques that can effectively be used to obtain a comprehensive representation of the structural, aggregation, and toxicity determinants in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341600/biophysical-and-spectroscopic-methods-for-monitoring-protein-misfolding-and-amyloid-aggregation
#6
Joana S Cristóvão, Bárbara J Henriques, Cláudio M Gomes
Proteins exhibit a remarkable structural plasticity and may undergo conformational changes resulting in protein misfolding both in a biological context and upon perturbing physiopathological conditions. Such nonfunctional protein conformers, including misfolded states and aggregates, are often associated to protein folding diseases. Understanding the biology of protein folding diseases thus requires tools that allow the structural characterization of nonnative conformations of proteins and their interconversions...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341339/skyrmion-lattice-topological-hall-effect-near-room-temperature
#7
Maxime Leroux, Matthew J Stolt, Song Jin, Douglas V Pete, Charles Reichhardt, Boris Maiorov
Magnetic skyrmions are stable nanosized spin structures that can be displaced at low electrical current densities. Because of these properties, they have been proposed as building blocks of future electronic devices with unprecedentedly high information density and low energy consumption. The electrical detection of an ordered skyrmion lattice via the Topological Hall Effect (THE) in a bulk crystal, has so far been demonstrated only at cryogenic temperatures in the MnSi family of compounds. Here, we report the observation of a skyrmion lattice Topological Hall Effect near room temperature (276 K) in a mesoscopic lamella carved from a bulk crystal of FeGe...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341317/ultra-bright-near-infrared-perovskite-light-emitting-diodes-with-reduced-efficiency-roll-off
#8
Antonella Giuri, Zhongcheng Yuan, Yanfeng Miao, Jianpu Wang, Feng Gao, Nicola Sestu, Michele Saba, Giovanni Bongiovanni, Silvia Colella, Carola Esposito Corcione, Giuseppe Gigli, Andrea Listorti, Aurora Rizzo
Herein, an insulating biopolymer is exploited to guide the controlled formation of micro/nano-structure and physical confinement of α-δ mixed phase crystalline grains of formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3 ) perovskite, functioning as charge carrier concentrators and ensuring improved radiative recombination and photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY). This composite material is used to build highly efficient near-infrared (NIR) FAPbI3 Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) that exhibit a high radiance of 206...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341181/congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-alters-olfaction-prior-to-hearing-deterioration-in-mice
#9
Françoise Lazarini, Lida Katsimpardi, Sarah Levivien, Sébastien Wagner, Pierre Gressens, Natacha Teissier, Pierre-Marie Lledo
In developed countries, cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected newborns are at high risk of developing sensorineural handicaps, such as hearing loss, requiring extensive follow-up. However early prognostic tools for auditory damage in children are not yet available. In the fetus, CMV infection leads to early olfactory bulb (OB) damage, suggesting that olfaction might represent a valuable prognosis for neurological outcome of this viral infection. Here, we demonstrate that in utero CMV inoculation causes fetal infection and growth retardation in mice of both sexes...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340674/assessment-of-column-aerosol-optical-properties-using-ground-based-sun-photometer-at-urban-harbin-northeast-china
#10
Qixiang Chen, Yuan Yuan, Xing Huang, Zhihong He, Heping Tan
Aerosol plays a key role in determining radiative balance, regional climate and human health. Severe air pollution over Northeast China in recent years urges more comprehensive studies to figure out the adverse effects caused by excessive aerosols. In this study, column aerosol measurements over urban Harbin, a metropolis located at the highest latitude in Northeast China, during May 2016 to March 2017 were conducted using a CIMEL sun-photometer to analyze local aerosol properties and its variation from different aspects...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340483/timeline-representation-of-clinical-data-usability-and-added-value-for-pharmacovigilance
#11
Thibault Ledieu, Guillaume Bouzillé, Frantz Thiessard, Karine Berquet, Pascal Van Hille, Eric Renault, Elisabeth Polard, Marc Cuggia
BACKGROUND: Pharmacovigilance consists in monitoring and preventing the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR). This activity requires the collection and analysis of data from the patient record or any other sources to find clues of a causality link between the drug and the ADR. This can be time-consuming because often patient data are heterogeneous and scattered in several files. To facilitate this task, we developed a timeline prototype to gather and classify patient data according to their chronology...
October 19, 2018: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340263/heteroaggregation-of-ceo-2-nanoparticles-in-presence-of-alginate-and-iron-iii-oxide
#12
Olena Oriekhova, Serge Stoll
When manufactured nanoparticles are released to natural waters, heteroaggregation between nanoparticles and water compounds is expected to occur and play a key role in nanoparticle fate, transport and transformation. In this work, the heteroaggregation between CeO2 nanoparticles and Fe2 O3 inorganic colloids, which represent the main inorganic fraction from Lake Geneva water, is studied. The heteroaggregation processes between CeO2 , Fe2 O3 and alginate in multiple water samples are investigated using zeta potential and z-average diameter measurements...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340208/ftir-and-tg-analyses-coupled-with-factor-analysis-in-a-compatibility-study-of-acetazolamide-with-excipients
#13
Barbara Rojek, Marek Wesolowski
A compatibility study of drug substance with excipients is a crucial step in the drug development process in order to generate potent final drug formulations for efficient and safe therapy for various diseases. Thus, the development of new methods for compatibility studies is a great challenge. For this reason, a new approach based on improvement of FTIR spectra and TG curves interpretation using factor analysis (FA) was developed as a screening technique for assessing the compatibility of acetazolamide with selected excipients...
October 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340178/one-pot-synthesis-of-thermosensitive-glycopolymers-grafted-gold-nanoparticles-and-their-lectin-recognition
#14
Fa-Wei Shen, Kai-Chun Zhou, Hao Cai, Yi-Na Zhang, Yong-Li Zheng, Jing Quan
Thermosensitive glucose-functionalized glycopolymers grafted gold nanoparticles (Glyco@GNPs) with good colloidal stability and thermosensitive in aqueous solution were fabricated by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) mediated one-pot synthesis. The formation of core-shell morphology with about a 60 nm gold core in diameter and a glycopolymer shell of about 80 nm in thickness was indicated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The recognition ability of the Glyco@GNPs toward lectin concannavalin A (Con A) was verified by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
October 10, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340070/effect-of-collagen-packing-and-moisture-content-on-leather-stiffness
#15
S J R Kelly, R Weinkamer, L Bertinetti, R L Edmonds, K H Sizeland, H C Wells, P Fratzl, R G Haverkamp
Applications for skin derived collagen materials, such as leather and acellular dermal matrices, usually require both strength and flexibility. In general, both the tensile modulus (which has an impact on flexibility) and strength are known to increase with fiber alignment, in the tensile direction, for practically all collagen-based tissues. The structural basis for flexibility in leather was investigated and the moisture content was varied. Small angle X-ray scattering was used to determine collagen fibril orientation, elongation and lateral intermolecular spacing in leather conditioned by different controlled humidity environments...
October 5, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339797/detection-of-activated-neutrophils-by-reactive-oxygen-species-production-using-a-hematology-analyzer
#16
Mari Kono, Katsuyasu Saigo, Shiori Matsuhiroya, Takayuki Takahashi, Makoto Hashimoto, Ayako Obuchi, Shion Imoto, Takashi Nishiyama, Seiji Kawano
Neutrophils are recruited to infection sites and kill bacteria by phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. It has been reported that vacuoles are present in neutrophils that produce ROS and are present in large numbers in blood smears of patients with bacterial infections. The leukocyte differentiation function on the Sysmex automated hematology analyzer classifies leukocytes by flow cytometry. Particularly, side-scattered light is known to reflect the quantity of organelles. This study investigated the possibility of detecting vacuoles or invagination of cell membrane in neutrophils producing ROS using a hematology analyzer...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339751/optical-imaging-of-the-nanoscale-structure-and-dynamics-of-biological-membranes
#17
Chamari Wijesooriya, Charles Nyamekye, Emily A Smith
Biological membranes serve as the fundamental unit of life, allowing the compartmentalization of cellular contents into subunits with specific functions. The bilayer structure, consisting of lipids, proteins, small molecules and sugars, also serves many other complex functions in addition to maintaining the relative stability of the inner compartments. Signal transduction, regulation of solute exchange, active transport, and energy transduction through ion gradients all take place at biological membranes, primarily with the assistance of membrane proteins...
October 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339454/active-dna-olympic-hydrogels-driven-by-topoisomerase-activity
#18
Brad A Krajina, Audrey Zhu, Sarah C Heilshorn, Andrew J Spakowitz
Biological systems are equipped with a diverse repertoire of proteins that regulate DNA topology with precision that is beyond the reach of conventional polymer chemistry. Here, we harness the unique properties of topoisomerases to synthesize Olympic hydrogels formed by topologically interlinked DNA rings. Using dynamic light scattering microrheology to probe the viscoelasticity of DNA topological networks, we show that topoisomerase II enables the facile preparation of active, adenosine triphosphate-driven Olympic hydrogels that can be switched between liquid and solid states on demand...
October 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339451/sound-propagation-in-a-uniform-superfluid-two-dimensional-bose-gas
#19
J L Ville, R Saint-Jalm, É Le Cerf, M Aidelsburger, S Nascimbène, J Dalibard, J Beugnon
In superfluid systems several sound modes can be excited, such as, for example, first and second sound in liquid helium. Here, we excite running and standing waves in a uniform two-dimensional Bose gas and we characterize the propagation of sound in both the superfluid and normal regimes. In the superfluid phase, the measured speed of sound is in good agreement with the prediction of a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, and the weak damping is well explained by the scattering with thermal excitations. In the normal phase we observe a stronger damping, which we attribute to a departure from hydrodynamic behavior...
October 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339447/strongly-correlated-photon-transport-in-waveguide-quantum-electrodynamics-with-weakly-coupled-emitters
#20
Sahand Mahmoodian, Mantas Čepulkovskis, Sumanta Das, Peter Lodahl, Klemens Hammerer, Anders S Sørensen
We show that strongly correlated photon transport can be observed in waveguides containing optically dense ensembles of emitters. Remarkably, this occurs even for weak coupling efficiencies. Specifically, we compute the photon transport properties through a chirally coupled system of N two-level systems driven by a weak coherent field, where each emitter can also scatter photons out of the waveguide. The photon correlations arise due to an interplay of nonlinearity and coupling to a loss reservoir, which creates a strong effective interaction between transmitted photons...
October 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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