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Kate Hayes, Anne E Holland, Vincent A Pellegrino, Sunita Mathur, Carol L Hodgson
PURPOSE: Muscle weakness is common in patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), but early identification is challenging. This study aimed to 1) quantify the change in quadriceps size and quality (echogenicity) from baseline to day 10 using ultrasound in patients requiring ECMO, 2) determine the relationship between ultrasound measures, muscle strength and highest mobility level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study involving ultrasound measurement of quadriceps at baseline, days 10 and 20...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Hee Jung Yang, Gawon Kim, KangUk Lee, Jakyoung Lee, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi, Soon Young Lee
BACKGROUND: In April 2014, a ferry carrying 476 passengers sunk on the coast of Korea, resulting in 304 deaths. Of these, 250 were local high school students, and the disaster significantly affected their community. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety among Ansan city residents to understand their recovery process after the accident. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys (survey 1, after 4-6 months and survey 2, after 16-18 months of disaster) were used to compare prevalence among residents of Ansan city and adjacent cities...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Enrico Borrelli, Yue Shi, Akihito Uji, Siva Balasubramanian, Marco Nassisi, David Sarraf, SriniVas R Sadda
OBJECTIVE: To quantitate regional differences in the choriocapillaris (CC) of patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (iAMD), using swept source-optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) imaging. SETTING: Cross sectional study. METHODS: Subjects were imaged with the SS-OCTA system (PLEX Elite 9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA). The CC en face images were first compensated for the signal attenuation caused by drusen by using the structural information from the same slab...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Cristina Coimbra Cunha, Adriana Berezovsky, João Marcello Furtado, Nívea Nunes Ferraz, Arthur Gustavo Fernandes, Sergio Muñoz, Sung Song Watanabe, Paula Yuri Sacai, Marcela Cypel, Márcia Higashi Mitsuhiro, Paulo Henrique Morales, Galton Carvalho Vasconcelos, Marcos Jacob Cohen, Mauro Campos, Jacob Moysés Cohen, Rubens Belfort, Solange Rios Salomão
PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence and causes of near vision impairment in a population of older adults from the Brazilian Amazon Region. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: Cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting subjects 45 years of age and older from urban and rural areas of Parintins city, Brazil. Participants underwent ophthalmic examination, including uncorrected (UCNVA), presenting (PNVA) and best-corrected near visual acuity (BCNVA) from each eye, biomicroscopy, fundoscopy and subjective refraction including testing with additional lenses for near vision optical correction...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Marcelle Brandão Terra, Rubens A Da Silva, Maria E B Bueno, Henrique Ballalai Ferraz, Suhaila M Smaili
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of different balance task outcomes, based on center of pressure (COP) measures in individuals with Parkinson's disease. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, 19 older individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (seven females, 71 ± 7.8 years) performed a set of seven balance tasks on two occasions (a week apart) on an electronic force platform. Each set consisted of: 1) Bipedal; 2) Romberg with open eyes (OE); 3) Romberg with closed eyes (CE); 4) Tandem with OE; 5) Tandem with CE; 6) Tandem with OE using a dual task (DT) condition (simple mathematic operations concomitant with testing); and 7) One-leg stance, with the leg of preference over the force platform, with OE...
August 17, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Lynne Fullerton, Scott Oglesbee, Steven J Weiss, Amy A Ernst, Vanessa Mesic
BACKGROUND: Bullying as a stressor in the workplace has been evaluated in numerous settings. It has never been evaluated in the emergency medical service (EMS) environment where bullying can occur from many different sources. The Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) is a 22-question validated tool for evaluating bullying. Our hypothesis was that we could identify a shortened version of the NAQ-R that identifies bullying as accurately as the full screening tool. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of EMS providers in our local EMS transport agency...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Gislene L Gonçalves, Renan Maestri, Gilson R P Moreira, Marly A M Jacobi, Thales R O Freitas, Hopi E Hoekstra
Spines, or modified hairs, have evolved multiple times in mammals, particularly in rodents. In this study, we investigated the evolution of spines in six rodent families. We first measured and compared the morphology and physical properties of hairs between paired spiny and non-spiny sister lineages. We found two distinct hair morphologies had evolved repeatedly in spiny rodents: hairs with a grooved cross-section and a second near cylindrical form. Compared to the ancestral elliptical-shaped hairs, spiny hairs had higher tension and stiffness, and overall, hairs with similar morphology had similar functional properties...
2018: PloS One
Polathep Vichitkunakorn, Karnsunaphat Balthip, Alan Geater, Sawitri Assanangkornchai
There are many survey instruments to determine drinking patterns and alcohol consumption levels in the general population. This study aims to compare the context-specific quantity-frequency (CSQF) and beverage-specific quantity-frequency (BSQF) methods to estimate alcohol consumption indices at individual and sample levels. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among a population aged 15 years and older in Songkhla Province, Thailand. The BSQF and CSQF questionnaires with a 3-month retrospective time frame and in random order were applied to each participant...
2018: PloS One
Kate Grindlay, Phyllis Dako-Gyeke, Thoai D Ngo, Gillian Eva, Leonard Gobah, Sarah T Reiger, Sruthi Chandrasekaran, Kelly Blanchard
The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with modern contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy among young women and men in Accra, Ghana. From September-December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with 250 women and 100 men aged 18-24. We explored determinants of modern contraceptive use among males and females and unintended pregnancy among females. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, Fisher's exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression were used. Participants had an average of three lifetime sexual partners, and 91% had one current partner...
2018: PloS One
Bruna Bellincanta Nicoletto, Roberta Aguiar Sarmento, Elis Forcellini Pedrollo, Thaiana Cirino Krolikowski, Luis Henrique Canani
INTRODUCTION: Progranulin (PGRN) is secreted by adipose tissue and has been linked to obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is evidence that a high fat diet increases PGRN expression in rodent adipose tissue. In humans, the relationship between diet composition and concentration of PGRN is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between dietary intake and serum PGRN levels. METHODS: This is an exploratory cross-sectional study including 85 subjects...
2018: PloS One
Tadesse Dagget Tesfaye, Worku Animaw Temesgen, Ayele Semachew Kasa
BACKGROUND: Full vaccination coverage has been identified as the foundation for the prevention of morbidity and mortality from the childhood illnesses. However, a significant number of children do not get recommended vaccinations. The problem is much worse in low-income countries with varied figures and evidence gap. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess vaccination coverage and its predicting factors in one of the low-income country Ethiopia, particularly in northwest Ethiopia...
August 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Madelyne Z Greene, Tonda L Hughes, Marilyn S Sommers, Alexandra Hanlon, Salimah H Meghani
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority women (SMW) face barriers to healthcare that may result in lower utilization of cervical cancer screening. Previous experiences with the healthcare system-specifically reproductive health-related encounters-have the potential to affect future use of screening services. This study aimed to examine the association between pregnancy history and cervical cancer screening in a diverse sample of SMW. Anderson's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use guided the selection of variables included in the study...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
J E Escher, J T Burke, R O Hughes, N D Scielzo, R J Casperson, S Ota, H I Park, A Saastamoinen, T J Ross
Obtaining reliable data for nuclear reactions on unstable isotopes remains an extremely important task and a formidable challenge. Neutron capture cross sections-crucial ingredients for models of astrophysical processes, national security applications, and simulations of nuclear energy generation-are particularly elusive, as both projectile and target in the reaction are unstable. We demonstrate a new method for determining cross sections for neutron capture on unstable isotopes, using ^{87}Y(n,γ) as a prototype...
August 3, 2018: Physical Review Letters
P Adlarson, W Augustyniak, W Bardan, M Bashkanov, F S Bergmann, M Berłowski, A Bondar, M Büscher, H Calén, I Ciepał, H Clement, E Czerwiński, K Demmich, R Engels, A Erven, W Erven, W Eyrich, P Fedorets, K Föhl, K Fransson, F Goldenbaum, A Goswami, K Grigoryev, L Heijkenskjöld, V Hejny, N Hüsken, L Jarczyk, T Johansson, B Kamys, G Kemmerling, A Khoukaz, O Khreptak, D A Kirillov, S Kistryn, H Kleines, B Kłos, W Krzemień, P Kulessa, A Kupść, K Lalwani, D Lersch, B Lorentz, A Magiera, R Maier, P Marciniewski, B Mariański, H-P Morsch, P Moskal, H Ohm, W Parol, E Perez Del Rio, N M Piskunov, D Prasuhn, D Pszczel, K Pysz, J Ritman, A Roy, Z Rudy, O Rundel, S Sawant, S Schadmand, I Schätti-Ozerianska, T Sefzick, V Serdyuk, B Shwartz, T Skorodko, M Skurzok, J Smyrski, V Sopov, R Stassen, J Stepaniak, E Stephan, G Sterzenbach, H Stockhorst, H Ströher, A Szczurek, A Trzciński, M Wolke, A Wrońska, P Wüstner, A Yamamoto, J Zabierowski, M J Zieliński, J Złomańczuk, P Żuprański, M Żurek
Exclusive measurements of the quasifree pp→ppπ^{+}π^{-} reaction have been carried out at WASA@COSY by means of pd collisions at T_{p}=1.2  GeV. Total and differential cross sections have been extracted covering the energy region T_{p}=1.08-1.36  GeV, which is the region of N^{*}(1440) and Δ(1232)Δ(1232) resonance excitations. Calculations describing these excitations by t-channel meson exchange are at variance with the measured differential cross sections and underpredict substantially the experimental total cross section...
August 3, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Beate Benestad, Pétur B Júlíusson, Wolfgang Siegfried, Samira Lekhal, Milada Cvancarova Småstuen, Jens Kristoffer Hertel, Fiorenza Agosti, Nicoletta Marazzi, Jøran Hjelmesaeth, Alessandro Sartorio
AIM: We aimed to compare modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors among treatment seeking adolescents with obesity in Italy, Germany and Norway. METHODS: This retrospective, registry-based, cross-sectional cohort study included 2,327 (59% girls) 12-18 year-old adolescents with obesity from three tertiary care outpatient clinics in Europe, between 1999 and 2015. The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors were compared between clinics, and multivariate logistic regression models including gender, age, waist circumference and body mass index, were used to assess the associations between population and cardiometabolic risk...
August 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Isaac R Shokair, Mark S Johnson, Randal L Schmitt, Shane M Sickafoose
We discuss a maritime surveillance and detection concept based on Raman scattering of water molecules. Using a range-gated scanning lidar that detects Raman scattered photons from water, the absence or change of signal indicates the presence of a non-water object. With sufficient spatial resolution, a two-dimensional outline of the object can be generated by the scanning lidar. Because Raman scattering is an inelastic process with a relatively large wavelength shift for water, this concept avoids the often problematic elastic scattering for objects at or very close to the water surface or from the bottom surface for shallow waters...
June 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Deepak K Sharma, Shailendra K Chaubey, Adarsh B Vasista, Jesil Jose Karumancheril, Ravi P N Tripathi, Alexandre Bouhelier, G V Pavan Kumar
Directional harmonic generation is an important property characterizing the ability of nonlinear optical antennas to diffuse the signal in a well-defined region of space. Herein, we show how sub-wavelength facets of an organic molecular mesowire crystal can be utilized to systematically vary the directionality of second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the forward-scattering geometry. We demonstrate this capability on crystalline diamonoanthraquinone (DAAQ) mesowires with sub-wavelength facets. We observed that the radial angles of the SHG emission can be tuned over a range of 130 deg...
July 20, 2018: Applied Optics
M A Bisyarin, O I Kotov, A H Hartog, L B Liokumovich, N A Ushakov
The recently developed diffraction technique of analytical investigation of the Rayleigh backscattering produced by an incident fundamental mode in a multimode optical fiber with an arbitrary refractive index profile is generalized to admit an arbitrary incident mode, either radial or azimuthal. The relative powers of all backscattered modes are determined with explicit formulas via the properly normalized transverse distributions of the incident and backscattered mode fields within the fiber cross section...
August 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Pengfei Wu, Shan He, Hongliang Liu
We report on the fabrication of annular cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG laser crystal by using femtosecond laser inscription. The circular cross sections of the optical waveguides were in dual-cladding and tri-cladding shapes with different diameters. Under the optical pump at 808 nm, the generated continuous-wave lasers at 1064 nm have been realized in the annular cladding waveguides. For dual-cladding and tri-cladding waveguides, the slope efficiencies of the waveguide lasers were calculated to be 21.3% and 20%, and the maximum output powers measured were 82 mW and 84 mW, respectively...
July 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Yang Yu, Jianglei Di, Weijuan Qu, Anand Asundi
Thermal lensing is one of the most important factors that can affect the performance of high-power solid-state lasers, such as limiting the power scaling capability and deteriorating output beam quality. In this paper, a novel and accurate measurement of digital holography is proposed to determine the thermal lensing of diode-pumped solid-state lasers with high resolution. The digitally recorded hologram can reveal the phase change when light travels through the laser gain medium. From the phase map, we can obtain the index variations induced by temperature differences inside the laser crystal when it is pumped by laser diodes, as well as determine the focal length of the integrated thermal lensing focus length...
July 1, 2018: Applied Optics
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