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tolerance mechanism

Jingyu Wang, Minghao Sui, Bojie Yuan, Hongwei Li, Hongtao Lu
Chlorination is one of the most widely used disinfection techniques, and the problem of "chlorine-resistant bacteria" (CRB) has attracted more attention recently. In this study, the deactivation of typical CRB in water, Mycobacterium fortuitum (M. fortuitum) and Mycobacterium mucogenicum (M. mucogenicum), by free chlorine was investigated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) as the reference. The chlorination effectiveness of chlorine on M. fortuitum and M. mucogenicum and the effect of chlorine concentration, pH, and humic acid were studied...
August 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Florence de la Barrière, Guillaume Druart, Nicolas Guérineau, Frédéric Champagnat, Aurélien Plyer, Gilles Lasfargues, Serge Magli
We present an ultracompact infrared cryogenic camera integrated inside a standard Sofradir's detector dewar cooler assembly (DDCA) whose field of view is equal to 120°. The multichannel optical architecture produces four nonredundant images on a single SCORPIO detector with a pixel pitch of 15 μm. This ultraminiaturized optical system brings a very low additional optical and mechanical mass to be cooled in the DDCA: the cool-down time is comparable to an equivalent DDCA without an imagery function. Limiting the number of channels is necessary to keep the highest number of resolved points in the final image...
June 10, 2018: Applied Optics
David E Moody
In the 1980-90s numerous studies were performed on H2 -receptor antagonist inhibition of ethanol first pass metabolism. Blood alcohol concentrations warranting possible driving under the influence citations in the United States have subsequently dropped from ≥ 100 mg/dL to 50 mg/dL (Utah in 2019) (30 mg/dL or zero tolerance in some parts of the world). A reexamination of these studies seemed important. Areas covered: Papers were compiled that addressed the effect of cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, and nizatidine on ethanol metabolism first from a PubMed search and then from citations within these papers...
August 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Laura J den Hartigh, Leela Goodspeed, Shari A Wang, Heidi L Kenerson, Mohamed Omer, Kevin D O'Brien, Warren Ladiges, Raymond Yeung, Savitha Subramanian
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Whether chronic oral rapamycin promotes beneficial effects on glucose/lipid metabolism and energy balance when administered to mice with an obesogenic diet rich in saturated fat and sucrose has not been explored. What is the main finding and its importance? Chronic oral rapamycin reduces body weight and fat gain, improves insulin sensitivity, and reduces hepatic steatosis when administered to mice with a high fat high sucrose diet...
August 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Worasit Saiworn, Arthid Thim-Uam, Peerapat Visitchanakun, Korakot Atjanasuppat, Jiratha Chantaraaumporn, Jutarat Mokdara, Sirintra Chungchatupornchai, Prapaporn Pisitkun, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Suchit Poolthong, Roland Baron, Sutada Lotinun
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by loss of T- and B-cell tolerance to autoantigens, are at increased risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Mice deficient in Fc gamma receptor IIb (FcγRIIB) exhibit spontaneous SLE and its restoration rescues the disease. To determine whether deleting FcγRIIB affects cortical bone mass and mechanical properties, we analyzed cortical bone phenotype of FcγRIIB knockouts at different ages. FACS analysis revealed that 6-month-old FcγRIIB-/- mice had increased B220low CD138+ cells, markers of plasma cells, indicating active SLE disease...
August 16, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Yuxiao Zhu, Yangyue Ni, Ran Liu, Min Hou, Bingya Yang, Jingwei Song, Hongzhi Sun, Zhipeng Xu, Minjun Ji
Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ plays critical roles in human metabolic disorders and has recently been implicated as a regulator of cellular proliferation and inflammatory responses. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which express high levels of PPAR- γ protein, have the ability to maintain immune tolerance to self-antigens and regulate immune response to Schistosoma infection. However, mechanisms involved in the resolution of these responses are elusive...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Marcin Kozłowski, Chiara Bedon, Dániel Honfi
Glass is largely used in architectural and engineering applications (i.e., buildings and vehicles) as a structural material, especially in the form of laminated glass (LG) sections. To achieve adequate and controlled safety levels in these applications, the well-known temperature-dependent behavior of viscoelastic interlayers for LG sections should be properly accounted for during the design process. Furthermore, the materials' thermomechanical degradation with increases of temperature could severely affect the load-bearing performance of glass assemblies...
August 16, 2018: Materials
Anjil Kumar Srivastava, Beatriz Orosa, Prashant Singh, Ian Cummins, Charlotte Walsh, Cunjin Zhang, Murray Grant, Michael R Roberts, Ganesh Srinivasan Anand, Elaine Fitches, Ari Sadanandom
Plants respond rapidly to sudden environmental cues, often responding prior to changes in the hormone levels that coordinate these responses. How this is achieved is not fully understood. The integrative role of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) relies upon the plant's ability to control the levels of JASMONATE ZIM (JAZ) domain-containing repressor proteins. Here, we demonstrate that regardless of intrinsic JA levels, Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO)-conjugated JAZ proteins inhibit the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) from mediating non-SUMOylated JAZ degradation...
August 16, 2018: Plant Cell
Yuting Tang, Xia Li, Wei Lu, Xiaodong Wei, Qijun Zhang, Chuangen Lv, Ningxi Song
The objective of this study was to reveal the physiological and molecular mechanisms of low-nitrogen (N) tolerance in transgenic plant lines containing C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (C4 -PEPC) gene. The transgenic rice lines only over-expressing the maize C4 -PEPC) (PC) and their untransformed wild type, Kitaake (WT), were used in this study. At different N levels, the dry weight, total N content, carbon and N levels, photorespiration-related enzymatic activities, gene expression levels and photorespiration-related product accumulations were measured, as were the transgenic lines' agronomic traits...
August 10, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sarah J Riutta, Olav Larsen, Anthony E Getschman, Mette M Rosenkilde, Sam T Hwang, Brian F Volkman
Chemokine-chemokine receptor (CKR) interactions are traditionally described by a two-step/two-site mechanism that details the major contact points between chemokine ligands and CKRs leading to ligand recognition and receptor activation. Chemokine recognition site 1 (CRS1) encompasses interactions between the CKR N-terminus and the globular chemokine core. Chemokine recognition site 2 (CRS2) includes interactions between the unstructured chemokine N-terminus and the binding pocket of the receptor. The two-step/two-site paradigm has been an adequate framework to study the intricacies of chemokine:CKR interactions, but emerging studies highlight the limitations of this model...
August 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
John E Casida
Detoxification (detox) plays a major role in pesticide action and resistance. The mechanisms involved are sometimes part of the discovery and development process in seeking new biochemical targets and metabolic pathways. Genetically- and chemical safener- modified crops are a marked exception and often involve herbicide detox by design to achieve the required crop tolerance. This perspective evaluates the role of detox by design or chance and target site-based selectivity in insecticide, herbicide, and fungicide action and human health and environmental effects...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
A V Zyablitsin, A A Dmitriev, G S Krasnov, N L Bolsheva, T A Rozhmina, O V Muravenko, M S Fedorova, A V Snezhkina, A V Kudryavtseva, N V Melnikova
Understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant response to unfavorable conditions is necessary for the effective selection of tolerant genotypes. Earlier, using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of flax plants after exposure to aluminum ions (Al^(3+)) and high soil acidity, we detected stress-induced alteration in the expression of several genes, including CAX3, which encodes Ca^(2+)/H^(+)-exchanger involved in calcium ion transport. Here we describe CAX3 mRNA levels in flax cultivars either tolerant (Hermes and TMP1919) or sensitive (Lira and Orshanskiy) to Al^(3+)...
July 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Ravi Retnakaran, Chang Ye, Caroline K Kramer, Anthony J Hanley, Philip W Connelly, Mathew Sermer, Bernard Zinman
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) is higher in summer months, possibly reflecting an association between ambient temperature and blood glucose levels. However, the specific exposure and mechanism by which temperature may affect glucose metabolism in pregnancy remains unclear. We systematically evaluated the relationships of environmental temperature and changes therein over varying durations of exposure time with beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in women undergoing antepartum screening for GDM...
August 15, 2018: Diabetologia
Umran Seven Erdemir, Hulya Arslan, Gurcan Guleryuz, Mehmet Yaman, Seref Gucer
A multielemental determination methodology in conjunction with an organic acid analysis that were supplemented with other stress parameters and an ultrastructural analysis used herein to study Verbascum olympicum Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae) under Mn stress. Uptake and accumulation characteristics of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn were evaluated in 8-week-old seedlings grown in Hoagland's nutrient solution and exposed to 5 (CK), 50, and 200 μM MnSO4 for 7 days. Hydrogen peroxide levels were determined to evaluate oxidative stress, and changes in compatible substance levels (total phenolic contents, glutathione and glutathione disulfide levels) were determined to assess antioxidant defense mechanisms...
August 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Deepthi Valiyaveettil, Monica Malik, Deepa M Joseph, Syed Fayaz Ahmed, Syed Akram Kothwal, M Vijayasaradhi
Background: Retrospective evidence suggests that valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, is associated with improved outcomes in glioblastoma. The exact mechanism of interaction of VPA with radiation and temozolomide (TMZ) is still unclear. Laboratory studies show that VPA can enhance tumor cell kill while at the same time protect the normal neural tissue. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the benefit of VPA on outcomes in glioblastoma. Materials and Methods: In this single-arm prospective study, patients of glioblastoma were started on seizure prophylaxis with VPA (15-20 mg/kg/day) following maximal safe resection...
July 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Bing Han, Qingli Wang
Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD) is caused by left ventricular (LV) systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction and left heart valve disease. LV diseases lead to left ventricular filling pressure increases, pulmonary venous obstruction and pulmonary venous pressure increases, and thus to secondary PH. Exercise tolerance is lower and fatality rates are higher in patients with PH-LHD than those in subjects with normal pulmonary arterial pressure. In spite of the progress in the study of the mechanisms of PH-LHD in recent years, no specific treatment is currently available...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kerry A Rogers, Ying Huang, Amy S Ruppert, Farrukh T Awan, Nyla A Heerema, Corinne Hoffman, Gerard Lozanski, Kami J Maddocks, Mollie E Moran, Mark A Reid, Margaret Lucas, Jennifer A Woyach, W Thomas Whitlow, Jeffrey A Jones, John C Byrd
Targeted therapies including the engineered afucosylated anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab, Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib, and Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax have demonstrated significant clinical activity in CLL and based on complementary mechanisms are ideal for combination. However, combining venetoclax with other active agents raises safety concerns as it may increase the risk of tumor lysis syndrome. To minimize this risk, we designed and implemented a fixed-duration regimen using sequentially administered obinutuzumab followed by ibrutinib (cycle 2) and venetoclax (cycle 3) for a total of fourteen 28-day cycles...
August 15, 2018: Blood
Ireneusz Litwin, Tomasz Bakowski, Barnabas Szakal, Ewa Pilarczyk, Ewa Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Dana Branzei, Robert Wysocki
DNA damage tolerance (DDT) mechanisms facilitate replication resumption and completion when DNA replication is blocked by bulky DNA lesions. In budding yeast, template switching (TS) via the Rad18/Rad5 pathway is a favored DDT pathway that involves usage of the sister chromatid as a template to bypass DNA lesions in an error-free recombination-like process. Here, we establish that the Snf2 family translocase Irc5 is a novel factor that promotes TS and averts single-stranded DNA persistence during replication...
August 14, 2018: EMBO Journal
Xiaoming Zhao, Yang Liu, Xin Liu, Jing Jiang
Tomato is a crop that requires a sufficient supply of potassium (K) for optimal productivity and quality. K⁺-deficiency stress decreases tomato yield and quality. To further delve into the mechanism of the response to K⁺-deficiency and to screen out low-K⁺ tolerant genes in tomatoes, BGISEQ-500-based RNA sequencing was performed using two tomato genotypes (low-K⁺ tolerant JZ34 and low-K⁺ sensitive JZ18 ). We identified 1936 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in JZ18 and JZ34 at 12 and 24 h after K⁺-deficiency treatment...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tariq Shah, Jinsong Xu, Xiling Zou, Yong Cheng, Mubasher Nasir, Xuekun Zhang
Abiotic stresses greatly influenced wheat productivity executed by environmental factors such as drought, salt, water submergence and heavy metals. The effective management at the molecular level is mandatory for a thorough understanding of plant response to abiotic stress. Understanding the molecular mechanism of stress tolerance is complex and requires information at the omic level. In the areas of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics enormous progress has been made in the omics field. The rising field of ionomics is also being utilized for examining abiotic stress resilience in wheat...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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