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Dependance mechanism

Ajeet Singh, Daipayan Chowdhury, Avinash Gupta, Ramesh Chand Meena, Amitabha Chakrabarti
Hsp30 is a plasma membrane localized heat shock protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae whose expression is induced by numerous environmental stressors. Elucidation of its mechanism of action has remained elusive primarily because hsp30Δ cells do not show a strong phenotype. To identify cellular functions associated with Hsp30 we thus compared the transcriptome of BY4741hsp30Δ with that of its wild type counterpart. Our studies indicate down-regulation of the Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) dependent gene-expression programme in hsp30Δ cells...
October 18, 2018: Yeast
Jinyoung Park, Hongmin Lee, Namshik Han, Sojung Kwak, Han-Teo Lee, Jae-Hwan Kim, Keonjin Kang, Byoung Ha Youn, Jae-Hyun Yang, Hyeon-Ju Jeong, Jong-Sun Kang, Seon-Young Kim, Jeung-Whan Han, Hong-Duk Youn, Eun-Jung Cho
Constitutive heterochromatin undergoes a dynamic clustering and spatial reorganization during myogenic differentiation. However the detailed mechanisms and its role in cell differentiation remain largely elusive. Here, we report the identification of a muscle-specific long non-coding RNA, ChRO1, involved in constitutive heterochromatin reorganization. ChRO1 is induced during terminal differentiation of myoblasts, and is specifically localized to the chromocenters in myotubes. ChRO1 is required for efficient cell differentiation, with global impacts on gene expression...
October 18, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Xing-Xing Dai, Jun-Chao Jiang, Qian-Qian Sha, Yu Jiang, Xiang-Hong Ou, Heng-Yu Fan
Meiotic maturation of mammalian oocytes depends on the temporally and spatially regulated cytoplasmic polyadenylation and translational activation of maternal mRNAs. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is controlled by cis-elements in the 3'-UTRs of mRNAs including the polyadenylation signal (PAS), which is bound by the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) and the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE), which recruits CPE binding proteins. Using the 3'-UTRs of mouse Cpeb1, Btg4 and Cnot6l mRNAs, we deciphered the combinatorial code that controls developmental stage-specific translation during meiotic maturation: (i) translation of a maternal transcript at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage requires one or more PASs that locate far away from CPEs; (ii) PASs distal and proximal to the 3'-end of the transcripts are equally effective in mediating translation at the GV stage, as long as they are not close to the CPEs; (iii) Both translational repression at the GV stage and activation after germinal vesicle breakdown require at least one CPE adjacent to the PAS; (iv) The numbers and positions of CPEs in relation to PASs within the 3'-UTR of a given transcript determines its repression efficiency in GV oocytes...
October 18, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Pierre-Grégoire Guinot, Julien Marc, Bruno de Broca, Thomas Archange, Stéphane Bar, Osama Abou-Arab, Hervé Dupont, Marc-Olivier Fischer, Emmanuel Lorne
This study was designed to assess the association between volume of fluid challenge (FC) and predictability of respiratory variation of stroke volume (ΔrespSV) in the operating theater.Patients undergoing intermediate/high-risk surgery and monitored by esophageal Doppler monitoring (EDM) were prospectively included. All patients were under general anesthesia and mechanically ventilated. Exclusion criteria were frequent ectopic beats or preoperative arrhythmia, right ventricular failure, and spontaneous breathing...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Da-In Park, Smi Choi-Kwon
BACKGROUND: Poststroke sleep disorders (PSSDs) are common manifestations that may lead to adverse outcomes that pose a negative impact on the daily lives of stroke survivors. However, PSSD is poorly understood in terms of etiology, assessment, treatment, and nursing management. The purpose of this executive summary is to provide an overview to broaden our understanding of PSSDs. METHOD: The electronic databases EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched to identify any available relevant studies...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Ciaran S Hill, David K Menon, Michael P Coleman
The antiapoptotic, neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 reduces neurological deficits when administered to murine in-vivo models of traumatic brain injury. P7C3-A20 is thought to exert its activity through small-molecule activation of the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase. This enzyme converts nicotinamide to nicotinamide mononucleotide, the precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthesis. Alterations to this bioenergetic pathway have been shown to induce Wallerian degeneration (WD) of the distal neurite following injury...
October 16, 2018: Neuroreport
Vignesh Narayanan, Sarangapani Jagannathan, Kannan Ramkumar
In this paper, adaptive neural networks (NNs) are employed in the event-triggered feedback control framework to enable a robot manipulator to track a predefined trajectory. In the proposed output feedback control scheme, the joint velocities of the robot manipulator are reconstructed using a nonlinear NN observer by using the joint position measurements. Two different configurations are proposed for the implementation of the controller depending on whether the observer is co-located with the sensor or the controller in the feedback control loop...
October 12, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Risheng Liu, Long Ma, Yiyang Wang, Lei Zhang
Enhancing visual qualities of images plays very important roles in various vision and learning applications. In the past few years, both knowledge-driven maximum a posterior (MAP) with prior modelings and fully data-dependent convolutional neural network (CNN) techniques have been investigated to address specific enhancement tasks. In this paper, by exploiting the advantages of these two types of mechanisms within a complementary propagation perspective, we propose a unified framework, named deep prior ensemble (DPE), for solving various image enhancement tasks...
October 15, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Ghulam Rasool, Allison B Wang, William Z Rymer, Sabrina S M Lee
We investigated alterations in material properties such as elasticity and viscoelasticity of stroke-affected muscles using ultrasound induced shear waves and mechanical models. We used acoustic radiation force to generate shear waves along fascicles of biceps muscles and measured their propagation velocity. The shear wave data were collected in muscles of 13 hemiplegic stroke survivors under passive conditions at 90°, 120°, and 150° elbow flexion angles. In a viscoelastic medium, as opposed to a purely elastic medium, the shear wave propagation velocity depends on the frequency content of the induced wave...
October 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Alessandra Pierangeli, Carolina Scagnolari, Guido Antonelli
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of infant hospitalization and causes a high burden of disease in the elderly, too. This enveloped negative-stranded RNA virus has been recently reclassified in the Pneumoviridae family. Infections of the respiratory cells happens when the two major surface glycoproteins, G and F, take contact with the cell receptor CX3CR1 and mediate entry by fusion, respectively. Viral mRNA transcription, genomic RNA synthesis and nucleocapsid formation occur in large cytoplasmic inclusion bodies to avoid recognition by the host innate immune response...
October 18, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Burcin Erkal, Aysel Kalayci Yigin, Sukru Palanduz, Selcuk Dasdemir, Mehmet Seven
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a common sex chromosome-related abnormality seen among men. KS negatively affects spermatogenesis and testosterone production. It increases the risk of thrombosis but its molecular mechanism has not been well described yet. Elevated PAI-1 is a risk factor for thrombosis. The rs1799889 polymorphism located in the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene was detected in patients with deep venous thrombosis. In this study, the PAI-1 gene variant and its plasma levels in KS patients were examined...
November 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Magnus Bernhardsson, Per Aspenberg
Background and purpose - Teriparatide accelerates fracture healing in animals and probably in man. Abaloparatide is a new drug with similar although not identical effects on the teriparatide receptor. Given at 4 times the teriparatide dose in a human osteoporosis trial, abaloparatide increased bone density more than teriparatide, and both reduced fracture risk. We investigated in mice whether abaloparatide stimulates fracture healing, and if it does so with the suggested dose effect relation (4:1). Patients and methods - In a validated mouse model for metaphyseal healing (burr hole with screw pull-out), 96 mice were randomly allocated to 11 groups: control (saline), teriparatide or abaloparatide, where teriparatide and abaloparatide were given at 5 different doses each...
October 18, 2018: Acta Orthopaedica
Yanfang Wang, Jie Liu, Xiaoli Chen, Huimin Sun, Sheng Peng, Yashu Kuang, Jingjiang Pi, Tao Zhuang, Lin Zhang, Zuoren Yu, Brain Tomlinson, Paul Chan, Yihan Chen, Yuzhen Zhang, Ying Li
BACKGROUND: Circulating endothelial-derived microparticles (EMPs) are reported to be increased in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, it remains unclear whether EMPs from dysfunctional endothelium participate in the initiation and progression of ACS and what the underlying mechanisms might be. METHODS: Plasma EMPs were measured in 22 patients with ACS and 20 control patients without coronary artery diseases. EMPs from dysfunctional human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stressed by serum-starvation or hypoxia were compared to the EMPs from healthy HUVECs...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Anna Sadnicka, Joseph M Galea, Jui-Cheng Chen, Thomas T Warner, Kailash P Bhatia, John C Rothwell, Mark J Edwards
BACKGROUND: Recent research has highlighted the role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of myoclonus-dystonia syndrome as a result of mutations in the ɛ-sarcoglycan gene (DYT11). Specifically, a cerebellar-dependent saccadic adaptation task is dramatically impaired in this patient group. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate whether saccadic deficits coexist with impairments of limb adaptation to provide a potential mechanism linking cerebellar dysfunction to the movement disorder within symptomatic body regions...
October 17, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Juan J Ferreira, Alice Butler, Richard Stewart, Ana Laura Gonzalez-Cota, Pascale Lybaert, Chinwendu Amazu, Erin L Reinl, Monali Wakle-Prabagaran, Lawrence Salkoff, Sarah K England, Celia M Santi
KEY POINTS: At the end of pregnancy, the uterus transitions from a quiescent state to a highly contractile state. This transition requires that the uterine (myometrial) smooth muscle cells increase their excitability, but how this occurs is not fully understood. We identified SLO2.1, a potassium channel heretofore unknown to be in uterine smooth muscle as a potential significant contributor to the electrical excitability of myometrial smooth muscle cells. We found that activity of the SLO2...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Farshad A Mansouri, Mark J Buckley
Psychophysical studies in humans indicate that the performance in various tasks is affected by contextual factors such as conflict level and error commission. It is generally believed that contextual factors influence the executive control processes and consequently modulate ongoing behaviour. Imaging studies suggest that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex play crucial roles in mediating these context-dependent adjustments in executive control of behaviour. However, the underlying neuronal processes are to a great extent unknown...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
Tyler R McCaw, Mei Li, Dmytro Starenki, Sara J Cooper, Mingyong Liu, Selene Meza-Perez, Rebecca C Arend, Donald J Buchsbaum, Andres Forero, Troy D Randall
The expression of MHC class II molecules (MHCII) on tumor cells correlates with survival and responsiveness to immunotherapy. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations are poorly defined. Using a murine breast tumor line, we showed that MHCII-expressing tumors grew more slowly than controls and recruited more functional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In addition, MHCII-expressing tumors contained more TCR clonotypes expanded to a larger degree than control tumors. Functional CD8+ T cells in tumors depended on CD4+ T cells...
October 17, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
James Cantley, Aimee Davenport, Laurène Vetterli, Nandor J Nemes, P Tess Whitworth, Ebru Boslem, Le May Thai, Natalie Mellett, Peter J Meikle, Kyle L Hoehn, David E James, Trevor J Biden
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic beta cells secrete insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis, and beta cell failure is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Glucose triggers insulin secretion in beta cells via oxidative mitochondrial pathways. However, it also feeds mitochondrial anaplerotic pathways, driving citrate export and cytosolic malonyl-CoA production by the acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) enzyme. This pathway has been proposed as an alternative glucose-sensing mechanism, supported mainly by in vitro data...
October 17, 2018: Diabetologia
Kanchana Manakeng, Phongsak Prasertphol, Kunwadee Phongpao, Suporn Chuncharunee, Dalina Tanyong, Suchin Worawichawong, Saovaros Svasti, Pornthip Chaichompoo
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious complication in β-thalassemia. The mechanism of PAH development is believed to be through chronic platelet activation and red cell (RBC) membrane abnormality contributing to a hypercoagulable state and thrombosis, which consequently leads to the development of PAH. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed from the plasma membrane of platelets and RBCs are found to be associated with thrombotic risk. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of phosphatidylserine (PS)-bearing cells and EVs in accelerating the progression of the hypercoagulable state in transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) patients...
October 18, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Jiacui Zhang, Keping Jiao, Jing Liu, Yu Xia
The nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway has an important role in the drug resistance of adenocarcinoma, and may act via different mechanisms, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, it has remained elusive whether metformin affects Nrf2 and regulates Nrf2/ARE in adenocarcinoma. In the present study, reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, cell transfection, western blot analysis, a Cell Counting kit-8 assay and apoptosis detection were used to investigate the above in the A549 cell line and cisplatin-resistant A549 cells (A549/DDP)...
November 2018: Oncology Letters
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