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Mustafa Çetiner, Hasan Emre Aydın
Background/aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of valproic acid (VPA) and a new-generation antiepileptic drug called brivaracetam (BRV) on the brain damage occurring after status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Materials and methods: In our study, an experimental animal model of SE, generated by stereotaxically injecting 0.4–2 μg of kainic acid into the rat hippocampus, was used. The laboratory animals were divided into 4 groups: the first group was a sham group that was subjected to anesthesia and SE was not induced; the second group was a SE group, in which SE was induced using kainic acid but subjects were not treated; the third group was the VPA group, in which SE was induced using kainic acid and subjects were treated with VPA; and the fourth group was the BRV group, in which SE was induced using kainic acid and subjects were treated with BRV...
December 12, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Amine Bahi, Jean-Luc Dreyer
RATIONALE: Dopamine levels are controlled in part by transport across the cell membrane by the dopamine transporter (DAT), and recent evidence showed that a polymorphism in the gene encoding DAT is associated with alcoholism. However, research in animal models using DAT knockout mice has yielded conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of DAT knockdown in the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) on voluntary ethanol consumption and preference in male and female C57BL/6J mice...
December 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Kilian Fröhlich, Ralf A Linker, Tobias Engelhorn, Arnd Dörfler, De-Hyung Lee, Konstantin Huhn, Stefan Schwab, Max J Hilz, Frank Seifert, Klemens Winder
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bowel incontinence in multiple sclerosis might be associated with specific lesion sites. This study intended to determine associations between bowel incontinence and cerebral multiple sclerosis lesions using a voxel-wise lesion symptom mapping analysis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of multiple sclerosis patients with self-reported bowel incontinence and matched controls. Lesions were manually outlined on T2-weighted MRI scans and transformed into stereotaxic space...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Serge A Mitelman, Monte S Buchsbaum, Bradley T Christian, Brian M Merrill, Bradley R Buchsbaum, Jogeshwar Mukherjee, Douglas S Lehrer
Dopaminergic dysfunction and changes in white matter integrity are among the most replicated findings in schizophrenia. A modulating role of dopamine in myelin formation has been proposed in animal models and healthy human brain, but has not yet been systematically explored in schizophrenia. We used diffusion tensor imaging and 18 F-fallypride positron emission tomography in 19 healthy and 25 schizophrenia subjects to assess the relationship between gray matter dopamine D2 /D3 receptor density and white matter fractional anisotropy in each diagnostic group...
December 6, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Hyeyoon Eo, Eugene Huh, Yeomoon Sim, Myung Sook Oh
The sustenance of redox homeostasis in brain is the crucial factor to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response is well known for the main cellular endogenous defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study investigated for the first time the effects and possible mechanisms of action of Ukgansan on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models of PD. We investigated the protective effect of Ukgansan against 6-OHDA with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide...
November 30, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Benjamin P Tooke, Hui Yu, Jessica M Adams, Graham L Jones, Talisha Sutton-Kennedy, Lakshmi Mundada, Nathan R Qi, Malcolm J Low, Kavaljit H Chhabra
OBJECTIVE: Life-threatening hypoglycemia is a major limiting factor in the management of diabetes. While it is known that counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia are impaired in diabetes, molecular mechanisms underlying the reduced responses remain unclear. Given the established roles of the hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC)/melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) circuit in regulating sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and the SNS in stimulating counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia, we hypothesized that hypothalamic POMC as well as MC4R, a receptor for POMC derived melanocyte stimulating hormones, is required for normal hypoglycemia counterregulation...
November 20, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Hyunggug Kim, Seongyeon Kim, Nam Suk Sim, Cristina Pasquinelli, Axel Thielscher, Jeong Ho Lee, Hyunjoo J Lee
BACKGROUND: Current transcranial ultrasound stimulation for small animal in vivo experiment is limited to acute stimulation under anesthesia in stereotaxic fixation due to bulky and heavy curved transducers. METHODS: We developed a miniaturized ultrasound ring array transducer which is capable of invoking motor responses through neuromodulation of freely-moving awake mice. RESULTS: The developed transducer is a 32-element, 183-kHz ring array with a weight of 0...
November 17, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Stephana Carelli, Toniella Giallongo, Zuzana Gombalova, Federica Rey, Maria Carlotta F Gorio, Massimiliano Mazza, Anna Maria Di Giulio
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, presenting with midbrain dopaminergic neurons degeneration. A number of studies suggest that microglial activation may have a role in PD. It has emerged that inflammation-derived oxidative stress and cytokine-dependent toxicity may contribute to nigrostriatal pathway degeneration and exacerbate the progression of the disease in patients with idiopathic PD. Cell therapies have long been considered a feasible regenerative approach to compensate for the loss of specific cell populations such as the one that occurs in PD...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ming-Jing Duan, Mei-Ling Yan, Qin Wang, Meng Mao, Dan Su, Lin-Lin Sun, Ke-Xin Li, Yang Qu, Qiang Sun, Xin-Yu Zhang, Si-Yu Huang, Ji-Chao Ma, Tao Ban, Jing Ai
BACKGROUND: The link between cardiac diseases and cognitive deterioration has been accepted from the concept of "cardiogenic dementia", which was proposed in the late 1970s. However, the molecular mechanism is unclarified. METHODS: The two animal models used in this study were cardiac-specific overexpression of microRNA-1-2 transgenic (Tg) mice and a myocardial infarction mouse model generated by left coronary artery ligation (LCA). First, we observed the microRNA-1 (miR-1) level and synaptic vesicles (SV) distribution in the hippocampus using in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and evaluated the expression of vesicle exocytosis related proteins by western blotting...
November 29, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Yugen Shi, Jie Yin, Hesheng Hu, Mei Xue, Xiaolu Li, Ju Liu, Yan Li, Wenjuan Cheng, Ye Wang, Xinran Li, Yu Wang, Fuhong Liu, Qiang Liu, Jiayu Tan, Suhua Yan
BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the center of the regulation of autonomic nervous system functions and cardiovascular activity. Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway in PVN contributes to mediate sympathetic nerve activity and is activated in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Overactivation of the sympathetic output was considered as an important mechanism of the arrhythmias. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether targeted regulation of sympathetic activity in PVN could reduce the peripheral sympathoexcitatory and attenuate the ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in myocardial infarction (MI) rats via PI3K-AKT pathway...
January 2019: Journal of Cardiology
Jin Ma, Lei Bao, Xiaohua Xia, Qiupeng Feng, Yan Zhou, Yingxin Wang, Zhen Cao
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of miRNA-128b on apoptosis and the Bcl-2 and Caspase 3 expression in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. METHODS: The MCAO model was established by thread embolism method. miRNA-128b agomir and antagomir were injected into ventricle of MCAO rats by stereotaxic intracerebral injection respectively. Then Rats were divided into Sham group, Model group, miR-128b agomir group and miR-128b antagomir group. Zea Longa was used to score the modeling rats...
November 24, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Marie Soukupová, Chiara Falcicchia, Francesca Lovisari, Selene Ingusci, Mario Barbieri, Silvia Zucchini, Michele Simonato
Microdialysis is a well-established neuroscience technique that correlates the changes of neurologically active substances diffusing into the brain interstitial space with the behavior and/or with the specific outcome of a pathology (e.g., seizures for epilepsy). When studying epilepsy, the microdialysis technique is often combined with short-term or even long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring to assess spontaneous seizure frequency, severity, progression and clustering. The combined microdialysis-EEG is based on the use of several methods and instruments...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Abdelkhalek Housni, Saïd Boujraf, Badreddine Alami, Mohammed Benzagmout, Mustapha Maaroufi
Objectives: The primary lymphoma of the central nervous system is a cancer rare. The diagnosis of this tumoral entity must be considered as an emergency considering the therapeutical involved. Therefore, we report this entity while reporting diagnostic challenges. Patients and Methods: Unfortunately, the conventional clinical and imaging signs can be confusing and might contribute to delay the diagnosis process of potentially curable pathological entity. The diagnosis confirmation in immunocompetent patients is based on a stereotaxic biopsy...
October 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Chennakesavan Karthick, Saravanan Nithiyanandan, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Gilles J Guillemin, Swaminathan K Jayachandran, Muthuswamy Anusuyadevi
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized with an abnormal deposition of insoluble amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide plaques, tangles formation and synaptic dysfunction. These result in impaired functioning of neuronal circuits and alter the behavioral response owing to activation of neurotransmitter receptors. Recently, it has been implicated that Aβ influences N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in AD; however, the molecular mechanism underlying remains unclear. Thus, emerged specific aim to study the time-course effect of oligomeric Aβ(1-42)  (oAβ1-42 ) on the mRNA expression of genes encoding NMDA and acetylcholine receptors in the rat model of AD...
November 19, 2018: Neurological Research
Rebeca Lapresa, Jesús Agulla, Irene Sánchez-Morán, Rubén Zamarreño, Estefanía Prieto, Juan P Bolaños, Angeles Almeida
Neurodegeneration in selective brain areas underlies the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although oligomeric amyloid-β (Aβ) plays a central role in the AD pathogenesis, the mechanism of neuronal loss in response to Aβ remains elusive. The p53 tumor suppressor protein, a key regulator of cell apoptosis, has been described to accumulate in affected brain areas from AD patients. However, whether p53 plays any role in AD pathogenesis remains unknown. To address this issue, here we investigated the involvement of p53 on Aß-induced neuronal apoptosis...
November 16, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Sethu K Boopathy Jegathambal, Kelvin Mok, David A Rudko, Amir Shmuel
Studies that seek to predict the brain microstructure based on MRI require precise alignment of processed brain histology slices to the corresponding 3D MRI data. However, achieving such alignment is a challenging problem, due to tissue distortions and the different contrasts seen in MRI and the processed tissue. Here we present a pipeline for aligning a histology volume to the MRI data of the tissue and to a stereotaxic brain atlas. To this end, we segment the volume of the brain from ex-vivo MRI data, align the MRI data obtained in the native space to an MRI stereotaxic template and create a 3D printed model (a mold or cradle) that precisely fits the brain...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Daniil Grinchii, Ruslan Paliokha, Vadim Tseilikman, Eliyahu Dremencov
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect an inhibitor of cytochrome-P450, proadifen hydrochloride (SKF525), on the excitability of serotonin neurons. Adult male Wistar rats were administered SKF525 forty-eight, twenty-four, and one hour before electrophysiological assessments. Control animals were injected saline. Rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate and glass electrodes were stereotaxically inserted into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Serotonin neurons were identified and their firing activity was recorded...
November 15, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Faezeh Tashakori-Sabzevar, Ryan D Ward
The basal forebrain, composed of distributed nuclei, including substantia innominata (SI), nucleus basalis and nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca plays a crucial neuromodulatory role in the brain. In particular, its projections to the prefrontal cortex have been shown to be important in a wide variety of brain processes and functions, including attention, learning and memory, arousal, and decision-making. In the present study, we asked whether the basal forebrain is involved in recruitment of cognitive effort in response to reward-related cues...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Geoffrey Prévot, Federico N Soria, Marie-Laure Thiolat, Jonathan Daniel, Jean Baptiste Verlhac, Mireille Blanchard-Desce, Erwan Bezard, Philippe Barthélémy, Sylvie Crauste-Manciet, Benjamin Dehay
Most neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by deposits of misfolded proteins and neuronal degeneration in specific brain regions. Growing evidence indicates that lysosomal impairment plays a primary pathogenic role in these diseases, in particular, the occurrence of increased lysosomal pH. Thus, therapeutic development aiming at restoring lysosomal function represents a novel, precise, and promising strategy for the treatment of these pathologies. Herein we demonstrate that acidic oil-in-water nanoemulsions loaded with poly(dl-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA) are able to rescue impaired lysosomal pH in genetic cellular models of Parkinson's disease...
November 27, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
C Russell, R W P Kissane, D P Steenson, S Chakrabarty
BACKGROUND: The demand for neuromodulatory and recording tools has resulted in a surge of publications describing techniques for fabricating devices and accessories in-house suitable for neurological recordings. However, many of these fabrication protocols use equipment which are not common to biological laboratories, thus limiting researchers to the use of commercial alternatives. New method:We have developed a simple yet robust implantable stimulating surface electrode which can be fabricated in all wet-bench laboratories...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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