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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320744/in-vivo-microdialysis-method-to-collect-large-extracellular-proteins-from-brain-interstitial-fluid-with-high-molecular-weight-cut-off-probes
#1
Kaoru Yamada
In vivo microdialysis is a powerful technique to collect ISF from awake, freely-behaving animals based on a dialysis principle. While microdialysis is an established method that measures relatively small molecules including amino acids or neurotransmitters, it has been recently used to also assess dynamics of larger molecules in ISF using probes with high molecular weight cut off membranes. Upon using such probes, microdialysis has to be run in a push-pull mode to avoid pressure accumulated inside of the probes...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319737/modeling-alzheimer-s-disease-in-progeria-mice-an-age-related-concept
#2
Kavita Sharma, Martin Darvas, C Dirk Keene, Laura J Niedernhofer, Warren Ladiges
The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is expected to dramatically increase in older people worldwide. Efforts to find disease-modifying treatments have been largely unsuccessful because of the focus on disease-specific pathogenesis, and lack of animal models to study AD in the context of aging and age-related co-morbidities. The geroscience approach to studying AD would suggest that modulation of aging per se would be a useful strategy, but a mammalian model system that combines both aging and AD is not available...
2018: Pathobiology of Aging & Age related Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291843/loss-of-sfrp2-contributes-to-the-neurological-disorders-related-with-morphine-withdrawal-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#3
Jian-Cai Wang, Yu-Qian Li, Da-Yun Feng, Xin Zhou, Feng-Qi Yan, Yang Li, Li Gao, Li-Hong Li
Morphine administration is a medical problem characterized by compulsive opioid use that causes terrible negative consequences. The exact mechanisms of morphine-induced dependence and morphine withdrawal symptoms remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed that the upregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays important roles in morphine exposure and morphine withdrawal. Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (Sfrp2) can prevent the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by competing with the Frizzled receptor for Wnt ligands...
October 3, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290379/bilateral-globus-pallidus-internus-deep-brain-stimulation-in-a-case-of-progressive-dystonia-in-mohr-tranebjaerg-syndrome-with-bilateral-cochlear-implants
#4
Volker Arnd Coenen, Michel Rijntjes, Bastian Sajonz, Tobias Piroth, Thomas Prokop, Wolfgang Jost, Michael Trippel, Horst Urbach, Peter Christoph Reinacher
INTRODUCTION:  A 28-year-old man presented with a history of sensorineural deafness since early childhood treated with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs). He showed signs of debilitating dystonia that had been present since puberty. Dystonic symptoms, especially a protrusion of the tongue and bilateral hand tremor, had not responded to botulinum toxin therapy. We diagnosed Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome (MTS). METHODS AND MATERIAL:  Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the bilateral globus pallidus internus was performed predominantly with stereotaxic computed tomography angiography guidance under general anesthesia...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284460/neuroprotective-action-of-human-wharton-s-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-transplants-in-a-rodent-model-of-stroke
#5
Kuo-Jen Wu, Seong-Jin Yu, Chia-Wen Chiang, Yu-Wei Lee, B Linju Yen, Pei-Chi Tseng, Chun-Sen Hsu, Li-Wei Kuo, Yun Wang
Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) have distinct immunomodulatory and protective effects against kidney, liver, or heart injury. Limited studies have shown that WJ-MSCs attenuates oxygen-glucose deprivation-mediated inflammation in hippocampal slices. The neuroprotective effect of intracerebral WJ-MSC transplantation against stroke has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of human WJ-MSC (hWJ-MSC) transplants in an animal model of stroke...
October 4, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284227/quinolinic-acid-induced-huntington-disease-like-symptoms-mitigated-by-potent-free-radical-scavenger-edaravone-a-pilot-study-on-neurobehavioral-biochemical-and-histological-approach-in-male-wistar-rats
#6
Thangarajan Sumathi, Aishwariya Vedagiri, Surekha Ramachandran, Bhagyalakshmi Purushothaman
In this study, we demonstrated for the first time the neuroprotective role of edaravone (Eda) (5 and 10 mg/kg b.w.), a potent free radical scavenger against the unilateral stereotaxic induction of quinolinic acid (QA) (300 nm/4 μl saline)-induced Huntington disease (HD)-like symptoms in behavioral, biochemical, and histological features in male Wistar rats striatum. QA induction, which mimics the early stage of HD, commonly causes oxidative stress to the cell and decreases the antioxidant defense mechanism by altering the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyls, and nitrate concentration (NO) and the activities of glutathione family enzymes (GPx, GST, GR) and acetyl choline esterase concentration (AChE) which was found to be ameliorated by Eda treatment in both the tested doses 5 and 10 mg/kg b...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30278068/visualization-of-the-auditory-pathway-in-rats-with-18f-fdg-pet-activation-studies-based-on-different-auditory-stimuli-and-reference-conditions-including-cochlea-ablation
#7
Martin Mamach, Mariella Kessler, Jens P Bankstahl, Florian Wilke, Lilli Geworski, Frank M Bengel, Simone Kurt, Georg Berding
Activation studies with positron emission tomography (PET) in auditory implant users explained some of the mechanisms underlying the variability of achieved speech comprehension. Since future developments of auditory implants will include studies in rodents, we aimed to inversely translate functional PET imaging to rats. In normal hearing rats, activity in auditory and non-auditory regions was studied using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET with 3 different acoustic conditions: sound attenuated laboratory background, continuous white noise and rippled noise...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273663/pluchea-lanceolata-protects-hippocampal-neurons-from-endothelin-1-induced-ischemic-injury-to-ameliorate-cognitive-deficits
#8
Ravi Mundugaru, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Aurel Popa-Wagner, Padmaja Udaykumar, Ramalingam Kirubagaran, Guruprasad Kp, D J Vidyadhara
Ischemic brain injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability, where lack of disease modifying treatment strategies make us rely on symptomatic relief. Treatment principles from traditional systems of medicine may fill this gap and its validation in modern medicine perspective is important to bring them to mainstream. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective efficacy of Ayurvedic medicinal herb Pluchea lanceolata in treating ischemic hippocampal injury. Focal hippocampal ischemia was modeled in Wistar rats through stereotaxic intrahippocampal injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1)...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228049/prefrontal-cortex-rtms-reverses-behavioral-impairments-and-differentially-activates-c-fos-in-a-mouse-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Marc Legrand, Romain Troubat, Bruno Brizard, Anne-Marie Le Guisquet, Catherine Belzung, Wissam El-Hage
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe mental illness correlated with alterations in fear extinction neurocircuits that involve prefrontal, amygdala and hippocampal structures. Current treatments indirectly restore prefrontal control of fear responses, but still cannot achieve full remission in all patients. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Repetitive TMS (rTMS) can directly and chronically act on subparts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a potential alternative treatment...
September 8, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30222164/stereotactic-adoptive-transfer-of-cytotoxic-immune-cells-in-murine-models-of-orthotopic-human-glioblastoma-multiforme-xenografts
#10
Ulrich Jarry, Noémie Joalland, Cynthia Chauvin, Béatrice Clemenceau, Claire Pecqueur, Emmanuel Scotet
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent and aggressive primary brain cancer in adults, is generally associated with a poor prognosis, and scarce efficient therapies have been proposed over the last decade. Among the promising candidates for designing novel therapeutic strategies, cellular immunotherapies have been targeted to eliminate highly invasive and chemo-radioresistant tumor cells, likely involved in a rapid and fatal relapse of this cancer. Thus, administration(s) of allogeneic GBM-reactive immune cell effectors, such as human Vϒ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes, in the vicinity of the tumor would represents a unique opportunity to deliver efficient and highly concentrated therapeutic agents directly into the site of brain malignancies...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195982/-reference-bases-of-radiotherapy-under-stereotaxic-conditions-for-bronchopulmonary-hepatic-prostatic-upper-aero-digestive-cerebral-and-bone-tumors-or-metastases
#11
REVIEW
I Barillot, D Antoni, J Bellec, J Biau, P Giraud, C Jenny, T Lacornerie, A Lisbona, V Marchesi, F Mornex, S Supiot, S Thureau, G Noel
Since decades, stereotactic radiotherapy has spread out worldwide. Published results are very numerous. To clarify obviousness among all the publications, this recommendation review was written. Voluntarily, authors limited analysis of international best evidence literature on malignant tumors of lung, liver, prostate, head and neck, and metastasis of bone and brain. These data could be used to advance standardization and quality improvement of treatments performed in the nationwide radiotherapy departments and can provide useful guidance for centers worldwide...
October 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188796/relationship-between-cerebral-blood-flow-estimated-by-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-and-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-in-elderly-with-dementia
#12
Taiki Miyazawa, Shigeki Shibata, Kumiko Nagai, Ai Hirasawa, Yoshio Kobayashi, Hitomi Koshiba, Koichi Kozaki
Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is a non-invasive technique allowing continuous recording of cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity. However, it is unclear whether the CBF estimated by TCD would be reliable for the comparison between individuals. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between middle cerebral artery blood flow (MCA BF) measured by TCD and regional and total CBF measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT-CBF) with a quantification software program, 3-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest template...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187192/cytoarchitecture-probability-maps-and-functions-of-the-human-supplementary-and-pre-supplementary-motor-areas
#13
Jianghai Ruan, Sebastian Bludau, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Svenja Caspers, Hartmut Mohlberg, Simon B Eickhoff, Rüdiger J Seitz, Katrin Amunts
The dorsal  mesial frontal cortex contains the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), which play an important role in action and cognition. Evidence from cytoarchitectonic, stimulation, and functional studies suggests structural and functional divergence between the two subregions. However, a microstructural map of these areas obtained in a representative sample of brains in a stereotaxic reference space is still lacking. In the present study we show that the dorsal mesial frontal motor cortex comprises two microstructurally different brain regions: area SMA and area pre-SMA...
September 5, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181030/-organization-and-risk-management-in-stereotaxic-body-radiotherapy-at-the-treatment-station
#14
C Bouvet, K Bertin, C Lafond, D Williaume, R de Crevoisier, E Leroy
The development of stereotaxic body radiotherapy in the last decade has forced the radiotherapy departments to redouble their efforts in the fields of quality and risk management. For this purpose, increasingly complex and rigorous controls of high performance machines as well as a solid team training must be put in place. Extreme hypofractionation requires both increased vigilance at the treatment desk and well-defined and known procedures. The in place organizations contribute to the control of the risks related to the stereotaxic body radiotherapy machines...
October 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169668/method-and-apparatus-for-the-automated-delivery-of-continuous-neural-stem-cell-trails-into-the-spinal-cord-of-small-and-large-animals
#15
Artem B Kutikov, Simon W Moore, Richard T Layer, Pamela E Podell, Nithya Sridhar, Andrea J Santamaria, Alex A Aimetti, Christoph P Hofstetter, Thomas R Ulich, James D Guest
Background: Immature neurons can extend processes after transplantation in adult animals. Neuronal relays can form between injected neural stem cells (NSCs) and surviving neurons, possibly improving recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Cell delivery methods of single or multiple bolus injections of concentrated cell suspensions thus far tested in preclinical and clinical experiments are suboptimal for new tract formation. Nonuniform injectate dispersal is often seen due to gravitational cell settling and clumping...
August 29, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167866/morphological-patterns-and-spatial-probability-maps-of-two-defining-sulci-of-the-posterior-ventrolateral-frontal-cortex-of-the-human-brain-the-sulcus-diagonalis-and-the-anterior-ascending-ramus-of-the-lateral-fissure
#16
Trisanna Sprung-Much, Michael Petrides
The sulcus diagonalis (ds) and the anterior ascending ramus of the lateral fissure (aalf) are two defining sulci of the posterior ventrolateral frontal cortex, which is also known as the anterior language region in the language dominant hemisphere. The aalf extends dorsally from the lateral fissure, separating the pars opercularis from the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus. The ds, which is a relatively vertical sulcus, is found within the pars opercularis. Given the proximity and similar orientation of these two sulci, it can be difficult to identify them properly...
August 30, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149419/regular-exercise-and-creatine-supplementation-prevent-chronic-mild-stress-induced-decrease-in-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-wnt-gsk3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#17
Yea-Hyun Leem, Morimasa Kato, Hyukki Chang
PURPOSE: Chronic stress can lead to mood-related psychomotor behaviors such as despair. Decreased hippocampal neurogenesis has been observed in patients with depression and in animal models of depression. Exercise enhances the population of the new born cells in the dentate gyrus (DG). A few studies have demonstrated that creatine has antidepressant effects in humans. However, the mechanism underpinning these effects is poorly understood. Therefore, we examined whether regular exercise and/or creatine was closely associated with the activity of the Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway in the hippocampal DG...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30125813/gaba-a-receptor-in-the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-ppt-nucleus-effects-on-cardiovascular-system
#18
Hosein Pasandi, Saman Abbaspoor, Mohammad Naser Shafei, Mahmoud Hosseini, Abolfazl Khajavirad
BACKGROUND: The pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT) nucleus is a heterogeneous nucleus with several functions including cardiovascular regulation. The presence of GABAA receptor has been shown in the PPT. Therefore, the cardiovascular effects of this receptor were examined. METHODS: Rats were divided into: Control; Muscimol; Bicuculline (BMI); Hexamethonium (Hexa)+BMI and Atropine+BMI groups. The femoral vein and artery were cannulated for drug administration and recording of cardiovascular parameters, respectively...
October 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120930/excitotoxic-lesion-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-wistar-rats-effects-on-trait-and-state-anxiety
#19
Tiago Costa Goes, Thiago Henrique Almeida Souza, Murilo Marchioro, Flavia Teixeira-Silva
The neural substrate of anxiety response (state anxiety) to a threatening situation is well defined. However, a lot less is known about brain structures implicated in the individual's predisposition to anxiety (trait anxiety). Scientific evidences lead us to suppose that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in both trait and state anxiety. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of mPFC in trait anxiety and to further evaluate its participation in state anxiety. Sixty six adult, Wistar, male rats were first tested in the free-exploratory paradigm (FEP) and were categorized according to their levels of trait anxiety (high, medium and low)...
September 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118828/phloroglucinol-ameliorates-cognitive-impairments-by-reducing-the-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-burden-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-the-hippocampus-of-5xfad-mice
#20
Eun-Jeong Yang, Usman Mahmood, Hyunju Kim, Moonseok Choi, Yunjung Choi, Jean-Pyo Lee, Joo-Youn Cho, Jin Won Hyun, Yong Sik Kim, Moon-Jeong Chang, Hye-Sun Kim
Among the various causative factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), oxidative stress has emerged as an important factor. Phloroglucinol is a polyphenol component of phlorotannin, which is found at sufficient levels in Ecklonia cava (E. cava). Phloroglucinol has been reported to exert antioxidant activities in various tissues. Previously, we reported that the stereotaxic injection of phloroglucinol regulated synaptic plasticity in an AD mouse model. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of phloroglucinol in AD...
October 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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