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Julia Frank, Maximilian Richter, Chiara de Rossi, Claus-Michael Lehr, Kathrin Fuhrmann, Gregor Fuhrmann
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are natural nanoparticles that play important roles in intercellular communication and are increasingly studied for biosignalling, pathogenesis and therapy. Nevertheless, little is known about optimal conditions for their transfer and storage, and the potential impact on preserving EV-loaded cargoes. We present the first comprehensive stability assessment of different widely available types of EVs during various storage conditions including -80 °C, 4 °C, room temperature, and freeze-drying (lyophilisation)...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Max Darnell, Alison O'Neil, Angelo Mao, Luo Gu, Lee L Rubin, David J Mooney
Variations in a multitude of material microenvironmental properties have been observed across tissues in vivo, and these have profound effects on cell phenotype. Phenomenological experiments have suggested that certain of these features of the physical microenvironment, such as stiffness, could sensitize cells to other features; meanwhile, mechanistic studies have detailed a number of biophysical mechanisms for this sensing. However, the broad molecular consequences of these potentially complex and nonlinear interactions bridging from biophysical sensing to phenotype have not been systematically characterized, limiting the overall understanding and rational deployment of these biophysical cues...
August 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Elizabeth Anderson, Priyanka Mehta, Jonathan Heywood, Barbara Rees, Heather Bone, Gareth Robinson, Darren Reynolds, Vyv Salisbury, Lawrence Mayer
CPX-351, a liposomal formulation co-encapsulating cytarabine and daunorubicin (DNR) in a synergistic 5:1 M ratio, has shown favourable response in newly diagnosed elderly high-risk AML. This study assessed intracellular ara-CTP levels following in vitro exposure of human immortalised leukaemic cell lines and primary AML blasts to CPX-351, and investigated fludarabine potentiation of intracellular ara-CTP formation from CPX-351. Comparison of intracellular handling of CPX-351 to cytarabine in HL-60 cells indicated slower conversion to ara-CTP for CPX-351, but equivalent cytotoxicity to cytarabine and combined DNR/cytarabine (DA) at 48 h, mostly likely reflecting the need for intracellular liposome processing to release encapsulated drugs...
August 11, 2018: Leukemia Research
Paul Joyce, Hanna Gustafsson, Clive A Prestidge
Nanostructured particle-lipid composites have emerged as state-of-the-art carrier systems for poorly water-soluble bioactive molecules due to their ability to control and enhance the lipase-mediated hydrolysis of encapsulated triglycerides, leading to a subsequent improvement in the solubilisation and absorption of encapsulated species. The first generation of particle-lipid composites (i.e. silica-lipid hybrid (SLH) microparticles) were designed and fabricated by spray drying a silica nanoparticle-stabilised Pickering emulsion, to create a novel three-dimensional architecture, whereby lipid droplets were encapsulated within a porous matrix support...
August 6, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Cheng-Yin Zhang, Neng-Hui Zhang
During the packaging and ejection of viral DNA, its mechanical properties play an essential role in viral infection. Some of these mechanical properties originate from different microscopic interactions of the encapsulated DNA in the capsid. Based on an updated mesoscopic model of the interaction potential by Parsegian et al., an alternative continuum elastic model of the free energy of the confined DNA in the capsid is developed in this work. With this model, we not only quantitatively identify the respective contributions from hydration repulsion, electrostatic repulsion, entropy and elastic bending but also predict the ionic effect of viral DNA's mechanical properties during the packaging and ejection...
August 4, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Ying Tang, Dianyong Tang, Jin Zhang, Dianping Tang
A simple and sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensing platform was designed for the high-efficient detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in foodstuff. Initially, phenoxy-derived dextran molecule was immobilized on the surface of QCM gold substrate by using thiolated β-cyclodextrin based on the supramolecular host-guest chemistry between phenoxy group and cyclodextrin. Then, AFB1 -bovine serum albumin (AFB1 -BSA)-conjugated concanavalin A (Con A) was assembled onto the QCM probe through the dextran-Con A interaction...
November 15, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Romain David, Norihisa Miki
Room temperature liquid metals such as GaInSn or EGaIn present the most attractive properties for soft and highly stretchable electronics. Recently, several methods have been investigated to functionalize the surface of the liquid met-al via coatings and encapsulation. However, most can hardly be extended to other samples than droplets. In this study, we focus on the tunability of the process of galvanic replacement of Ga-alloys with gold to form thin-film encapsula-tion. We characterized in-depth the obtainable composition and structure of a noble metal shell formed on the liquid metal via SEM, EDX and topographic laser microscopy, and highlighted the change in mechanism of galvanic re-placement in the different pH ranges...
August 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Priyesh Jain, Hsiang-Chieh Hung, Bowen Li, Jinrong Ma, Dianyu Dong, Xiaojie Lin, Andrew Sinclair, Peng Zhang, Mary Beth O'Kelly, Liqian Niu, Shaoyi Jiang
We report the synthesis of a zwitterionic carboxybetaine disulfide crosslinker (CBX-SS), and biodegradable poly(carboxybetaine) (PCB) hydrogels and nanocages (NCs) made using this crosslinker. The structure of CBX-SS combines zwitterionic carboxybetaine to confer nonfouling properties and a disulfide linkage to facilitate degradation. The physical, mechanical and fouling characteristics of PCB hydrogels crosslinked with CBX-SS were investigated. Then, the degradation characteristics of CBX-SS-crosslinked hydrogels were evaluated through their weight loss and release of an encapsulated protein in a reducing environment...
August 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Karishma Khan, Mohd Aqil, Syed Sarim Imam, Abdul Ahad, Thasleem Moolakkadath, Yasmin Sultana, Mohd Mujeeb
The aim was to formulate an optimized ursolic acid (UA) loaded lipid vesicle using formulation by design approach (FbD) for improving the drug targeting by nasal route for brain tumor. Three factors were evaluated at three different levels using anethole (terpene) (A), ethanol (B) and phospholipid90 G (C) as independent variables and their individual and combined effects were observed for PDI (Y1 ), vesicle size (Y2 ) and encapsulation efficiency (Y3 ) to select an optimal system (UALVopt). The optimized formulation was further converted into gel and evaluated for drug release, nasal permeation study, brain/plasma uptake and histopathology study...
July 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ruma Baksi, Devendra Pratap Singh, Swapnil P Borse, Rita Rana, Vipin Sharma, Manish Nivsarkar
Quercetin (QCT) is a flavonoid, abundantly present in plants and has gained considerable interest for its antioxidant property and chemo preventive activity. Bioavailability of QCT is very low due to its poor aqueous solubility and instability. Researchers are working on the application of nanotechnology to target chemotherapeutic drugs to the tumour site. The aim of the present study was to develop quercetin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (QCT-CS NPs) with enhanced encapsulation efficiency and sustained release property...
July 24, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sabrina Nicolas, Marie-Alexandrine Bolzinger, Lars Petter Jordheim, Yves Chevalier, Hatem Fessi, Eyad Almouazen
Clinical use of calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ) as an anticancer agent is currently limited by the requirement of supraphysiological doses and associated hypercalcemia. Nanoencapsulation of calcitriol is a strategy to overcome these drawbacks, allowing reduced administrated doses and/or frequency, while retaining the therapeutic activity towards cancer cells. For this purpose, we investigated the impact of calcitriol encapsulation on its antiproliferative activity and optimized formulation parameters with that respect...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Smriti Shrestha, Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Anil Kumar Anal
The conjugates of biomacromolecules such as protein and polysaccharides have potential to stabilize the emulsion system and encapsulate valuable bioactive compounds for biofortification in food systems. In this study, native banana starch (NBS) was isolated from green culled banana and modified into resistant starch (type III) by lintnerization followed by autoclaving-cooling process, resulting in lintnerized-autoclaved banana starch (LABS). Soy protein isolate (SPI) was used for developing the polysaccharide-protein conjugates i...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Youchuang Chao, Sze Yi Mak, Shakurur Rahman, Shipei Zhu, Ho Cheung Shum
Droplets containing ternary mixtures can spontaneously phase-separate into high-order structures upon a change in composition, which provides an alternative strategy to form multiphase droplets. However, existing strategies always involve nonaqueous solvents that limit the potential applications of the resulting multiple droplets, such as encapsulation of biomolecules. Here, a robust approach to achieve high-order emulsion drops with an all-aqueous nature from two aqueous phases by osmosis-induced phase separation on a microfluidic platform is presented...
August 17, 2018: Small
Hengpan Yang, Hanwen Zhang, Yu Wu, Liangdong Fan, XiaoYan Chai, QianLing Zhang, Jianhong Liu, Chuanxin He
Numerous catalysts have been successfully introduced into CO2 fixation in aqueous or organic systems. However, one single catalyst owning both activities is still rarely seen, to the best of our knowledge. In this report, we develop a core-shell structured AgNWs/NC700 composite using Ag nanowires core encapsulated by nitrogen-doped carbon shell. Through contrast experiments and DFT calculations, it was confirmed that Ag nanowires worked as the active sites for CO2 fixation and the uniformly coating of nitrogen-doped carbon created a CO2-rich environment around Ag nanowires, which could significantly improve the catalytic activity of Ag nanowires for electrochemical CO2 fixation...
August 17, 2018: ChemSusChem
Akitsu Kawabe, Shinichi Matsumoto, Masayuki Shimoda
BACKGROUND: New methods of beta-cell replacement have been developed to maintain excellent glycemic control, improve quality of life, and even eliminate insulin injections in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Previously, we demonstrated that being insulin-free is the strongest motivation for accepting a newly developed therapy. Multiple allogeneic islet transplantations with immunosuppression using a human donor is the best option to be insulin-free, but the necessity for immunosuppression and donor shortage are major issues...
August 17, 2018: Islets
Lingxin Kong, Yanxin Zhang, Weigang Zhang, Yunshan Zhang, Lin Yu, Tieyi Yan, Pengcheng Geng
We designed a cylinder-type fiber-optic Vernier probe based on cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) in this paper. It is fabricated by inserting a short single-mode fiber (SMF) column into a large-aperture hollow-core fiber (LA-HCF) with an internal diameter of 150 µm, which structures a length adjusted air microcavity with the lead-in SMF inserted into the LA-HCF from the other end. The length of the SMF column is 537.9 µm. By adjusting the distance between the SMF column and the lead-in SMF, the spectral change is displayed intuitively, and the Vernier spectra are recorded and analyzed...
June 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Ju Huo, Guiyang Zhang, Jiashan Cui, Ming Yang
This paper is concerned with the precise calibration algorithm and error compensation technique for a binocular vision measurement system. By invoking a fixed constraint relationship between the binocular cameras, these two cameras can be preferably bound together as one camera, which means that in each iteration only one camera needs external parameter tuning for optimized encapsulation, and the iteration time is reduced. The global optimal solutions are obtained by substituting the initial iterative solutions into the optimized iterative equations of the spatial points...
July 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Sandra Nurttila, Rene Becker, Joeri Hessels, Sander Woutersen, Joost Reek
In this study we describe the design of a biomimetic and fully base-metal photocatalytic system for photocatalytic proton reduction in a homogeneous medium. A synthetic pyridylphosphole-appended [FeFe]hydrogenase mimic is encapsulated inside a supramolecular zinc porphyrin-based Fe4(Zn-L)6 metal-organic cage structure. The binding is driven by the selective pyridine-zinc porphyrin interaction and results in the catalyst being bound strongly inside the hydrophobic cavity of the cage. Excitation of the capsule-forming porphyrin ligands with visible light, while probing the infrared spectrum, confirms that electron transfer takes place from the excited porphyrin cage to the catalyst residing inside the capsule...
August 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
J Parrish, K S Lim, K Baer, G J Hooper, T B F Woodfield
Traditional 2D monolayer cell cultures and submillimeter 3D tissue construct cultures used widely in tissue engineering are limited in their ability to extrapolate experimental data to predict in vivo responses due to their simplistic organization and lack of stimuli. The rise of biofabrication and bioreactor technologies has sought to address this through the development of techniques to spatially organize components of a tissue construct, and devices to supply these tissue constructs with an increasingly in vivo-like environment...
August 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Susan A Safley, Norma S Kenyon, Dora M Berman, Graham F Barber, Melissa Willman, Stephanie Duncanson, Neal Iwakoshi, Robert Holdcraft, Lawrence Gazda, Peter Thompson, I Raul Badell, Athanassios Sambanis, Camillo Ricordi, Collin J Weber
BACKGROUND: Xenogeneic donors would provide an unlimited source of islets for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The goal of this study was to assess the function of microencapsulated adult porcine islets (APIs) transplanted ip in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic non-human primates (NHPs) given targeted immunosuppression. METHODS: APIs were encapsulated in: (a) single barium-gelled alginate capsules or (b) double alginate capsules with an inner, islet-containing compartment and a durable, biocompatible outer alginate layer...
August 17, 2018: Xenotransplantation
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