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Non-diet approach

Anupam Rej, Imran Aziz, David Surendran Sanders
Humankind has existed for 2·5 million years but only in the past 10 000 years have we been exposed to wheat. Therefore, it could be considered that wheat (gluten) is a novel introduction to humankind's diet! Prior to 1939, the rationing system had already been devised. This led to an imperative to try to increase agricultural production. Thus, it was agreed in 1941 that there was a need to establish a Nutrition Society. The very roots of the Society were geared towards necessarily increasing the production of wheat...
October 16, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Audrey C Tierney, Ioannis Zabetakis
OBJECTIVE: In Ireland, the major causes of death are CVD. The current Irish healthy eating guidelines and food pyramid primarily advocate a low-fat diet. However, there is overwhelming scientific evidence for the benefits of a Mediterranean diet (Med Diet) in the prevention and management of metabolic disease as well as improving overall health and well-being. In the current commentary, the rationale to incorporate the principles of the Med Diet into the Irish dietary guidelines is presented...
October 15, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Kathiroli Sujithra, Srinivasan Subramani, Indumathi Dhananjayan, Veerasamy Vinothkumar
Diabetes is a major non-communicable life threatening chronic and pervasive condition that is consuming the world health in a petrifying rate. The circulatory system is one of the major sources of hyperglycemia induced ROS generation. Historically, garlic has been revered as part of a healthful diet. Organosulfur compounds have been attributed to the medicinal properties and health benefits of garlic. The present study focuses on the ameliorative role of Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) in combating diabetic complications in diabetic rats...
October 15, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Sara Calderón Larrañaga, Manuela Expósito Ruiz, Pilar Cruz Vela, Ana Cuadrado Conde, Lucía Alquézar Villarroya, Ana Garach Gómez, Alberto Ruiz Hernández, Isabel Toral López
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short and medium term effectiveness of a Primary Care-driven oral health promotion intervention. DESIGN: A non-randomised community intervention trial. SETTING: Three socio-demographically similar primary schools of a deprived neighborhood in Granada, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two intervention and 109 control students aged 5 to 6, as well as the teachers and the parent's association of the intervention school (IS) participated in the study...
October 10, 2018: Atencion Primaria
Eugenio F Fornasiero, Sunit Mandad, Hanna Wildhagen, Mihai Alevra, Burkhard Rammner, Sarva Keihani, Felipe Opazo, Inga Urban, Till Ischebeck, M Sadman Sakib, Maryam K Fard, Koray Kirli, Tonatiuh Pena Centeno, Ramon O Vidal, Raza-Ur Rahman, Eva Benito, André Fischer, Sven Dennerlein, Peter Rehling, Ivo Feussner, Stefan Bonn, Mikael Simons, Henning Urlaub, Silvio O Rizzoli
The turnover of brain proteins is critical for organism survival, and its perturbations are linked to pathology. Nevertheless, protein lifetimes have been difficult to obtain in vivo. They are readily measured in vitro by feeding cells with isotopically labeled amino acids, followed by mass spectrometry analyses. In vivo proteins are generated from at least two sources: labeled amino acids from the diet, and non-labeled amino acids from the degradation of pre-existing proteins. This renders measurements difficult...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Alejandra Rodríguez, Päivi Pajukanta
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a broad definition for diseases of the heart and blood vessels with high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Atherosclerosis and hypertension are the most common causes of CVD, and multiple factors confer the susceptibility. Some of the predisposing factors are modifiable such as diet, smoking, and exercise, whereas others, including age, sex, and individual's genetic variations contributing to the CVD composition traits, are non-modifiable. This latter group includes serum lipid traits...
2018: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Lana de Souza Rosa, Nathállia Araújo Jordão, Nathália da Costa Pereira Soares, Joelma Freire deMesquita, Mariana Monteiro, Anderson Junger Teodoro
Colon cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in the USA and Europe. Despite aggressive therapies, many tumors are resistant to current treatment protocols and epidemiological data suggest that diet is a major factor in the etiology of colon cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and the influence of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic (3,4-DHPAA), p -coumaric ( p -CoA), vanillic (VA) and ferulic (FA) acids on cell viability, cell cycle progression, and rate of apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29)...
October 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Minesh P Mehta, Rupesh Kotecha
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
A Oerlemans, M F P van Dael, R C H Vermeulen, F G M Russel, P T J Scheepers
Young children differ from adults in their exposure and susceptibility to environmental chemicals (e.g. pesticides) because of various factors such as behavior, diet and physiology. Their heightened vulnerability to environmental stressors makes it important to obtain appropriate urine samples for exposure characterization. However, collecting urine from non-toilet-trained children has been shown to be methodologically and practically challenging. Four urine collection approaches were tested: a disposable diaper, a urine bag, a collection pad and the clean catch...
October 4, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Arianna Mazzotti, Maria Turchese Caletti, Lucia Brodosi, Silvia Di Domizio, Maria Luisa Forchielli, Salvatore Petta, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Giampaolo Bianchi, Giulio Marchesini
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interventions aimed at lifestyle changes are pivotal for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and web-based programs might help remove barriers in both patients and therapists. METHODS: In the period 2010-15, 716 consecutive NAFLD cases (mean age, 52; type 2 diabetes, 33%) were treated in our Department with structured programs. The usual protocol included motivational interviewing and a group-based intervention (GBI), chaired by physicians, dietitians and psychologists (five weekly meetings, n = 438)...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Stephen Barrett, Stephen Begg, Paul O'Halloran, Michael Kingsley
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether integrated motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour therapy leads to changes in lifestyle mediators of overweight and obesity in community-dwelling adults. METHOD: Six electronic databases were systematically searched up to 04 October, 2017. Analyses were restricted to randomised controlled trials that examined the effect of integrated motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour therapy on lifestyle mediators of overweight and obesity (physical activity, diet, body composition) in community-dwelling adults...
October 5, 2018: BMC Public Health
Deirdre Hahn, Elisabeth M Hodson, Denis Fouque
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as reduced function of the kidneys present for 3 months or longer with adverse implications for health and survival. For several decades low protein diets have been proposed for participants with CKD with the aim of slowing the progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and delaying the onset of renal replacement therapy. However the relative benefits and harms of dietary protein restriction for preventing progression of CKD have not been resolved...
October 4, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Anoop Misra
Prevention of diabetes poses significant challenges; especially when applied as public health intervention. While several trials, most importantly Diabetes Prevention Program, show that intensive lifestyle modification leading to weight loss is the most important intervention, many individuals and some populations may show resistance to these interventions. Roadblocks to lifestyle intervention alone or in combination include: age, some ethnic groups (e.g., south Asians), genetic make-up, and some characteristics of body phenotype...
January 2018: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
Mario Ciccotti, Anna Raguzzini, Tommaso Sciarra, Giovina Catasta, Paola Aiello, Cosimo Buccolieri, Raffaella Reggi, Maura Palmery, Florigio Lista, Ilaria Peluso
Veterans with disability represent a big burden worldwide and often require long-term rehabilitation. Unhealthy dietary and lifestyle habits, including smoke and alcohol abuse, are common in veterans. In the context of integrative medicine approaches, the "complementary and alternative medicine" has been suggested for the management of chronic diseases. However, the potential risk of interaction between herbal products, dietary supplements and drugs must be considered in veterans. The Mediterranean diet has been suggested as a natural, non-pharmacological nutraceutical for healthy ageing...
October 3, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Valeria Calcaterra, Daniela Larizza, Rachele De Giuseppe, Federica De Liso, Catherine Klersy, Riccardo Albertini, Irene Pozzebon, Maria Pilar Princis, Chiara Montalbano, Alexandra Madè, Hellas Cena
OBJECTIVE: Patients with Turner syndrome (TS) have an unfavorable cardiometabolic profile. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a potential cardiovascular risk factor influenced by genetic and environmental factors, therapies, unbalanced diets and other lifestyle factors. We retrospectively studied the relationship between total plasma homocysteine (Hcy), serum vitamin B12 (B12) and folate concentration (s-F) in TS patients, taking into account the genetic profile, diet, smoking habits, hormonal therapies and dietary supplements of the subjects...
October 2, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Chris J Law, Emma Duran, Nancy Hung, Ekai Richards, Isaac Santillan, Rita S Mehta
Size and shape are often considered important variables that lead to variation in performance. In studies of feeding, size-corrected metrics of the skull are often used as proxies of biting performance; however, few studies have examined the relationship between cranial shape in its entirety and estimated bite force across species and how dietary ecologies may affect these variables differently. Here, we used geometric morphometric and phylogenetic comparative approaches to examine relationships between cranial morphology and estimated bite force in the carnivoran clade Musteloidea...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Rovshan G Sadygov, Jayant Avva, Mahbubur Rahman, Kwangwon Lee, Sergei Ilchenko, Takhar Kasumov, Ahmad Borzou
Metabolic labeling with heavy water followed by LC-MS is a high throughput approach to study proteostasis in vivo. Advances in mass spectrometry and sample processing have allowed consistent detection of thousands of proteins at multiple time points. However, freely available automated bioinformatics tools to analyze and extract protein decay rate constants are lacking. Here, we describe d2ome - a robust, automated software solution for in vivo protein turnover analysis. d2ome is highly scalable, uses innovative approaches to non-linear fitting, implements Grubbs' outlier detection and removal, uses weighted-averaging of replicates, applies a data dependent elution time windowing and uses mass accuracy in peak detection...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Linda Van Horn, Alan Peaceman, Mary Kwasny, Eileen Vincent, Angela Fought, Jami Josefson, Bonnie Spring, Lisa M Neff, Niki Gernhofer
INTRODUCTION: Technology-enhanced antenatal diet and lifestyle intervention could prevent excess gestational weight gain and benefit mother and child. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized clinical trial. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Overweight and obese ethnically diverse pregnant women in Chicago, Illinois, were enrolled between October 2012 and December 2015, with antenatal data collection completed by July 2016. Analysis was completed June 2017. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized when their fetus was gestational age 16 weeks to dietitian-led Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet and physical activity coaching that was received as three individual and six group counseling sessions by phone and webinar...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Amanda J Lee, Sarah Kane, Meron Lewis, Elizabeth Good, Christina M Pollard, Timothy J Landrigan, Mathew Dick
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the rationale, development and final protocol of the Healthy Diets Australian Standardised Affordability and Pricing (ASAP) method which aims to assess, compare and monitor the price, price differential and affordability of healthy (recommended) and current (unhealthy) diets in Australia. The protocol is consistent with the International Network for Food and Obesity / non-communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support's (INFORMAS) optimal approach to monitor food price and affordability globally...
September 27, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Yafei Shi, Jiaxin Hu, Jin Geng, Tingting Hu, Bingjian Wang, Wenting Yan, Yicheng Jiang, Jiangjin Li, Shaowen Liu
BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) has long been used for treating bacterial diarrhea due to its antimicrobial effect and is currently used to treat obesity, diabetes, hyperlipemia and atherosclerosis. Given the poor oral bioavailability of BBR, the mechanisms through which BBR mediates metabolic disorders are not well understood. The present study was designed to explore the role of BBR-induced gut microbiota modulation in the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Male apoE-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without the intragastric administration of BBR...
November 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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