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Non-diet approach

David A Talan, Darin J Saltzman, Daniel A DeUgarte, Gregory J Moran
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses and a recent guideline acknowledge that conservative management of uncomplicated appendicitis with antibiotics can be successful for patients who wish to avoid surgery. However, guidance as to specific management does not exist. METHODS: PUBMED and EMBASE search of trials describing methods of conservative treatment was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies involving 2944 antibiotic-treated participants were identified...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
H Pontzer, B M Wood, D A Raichlen
Hunter-gatherer populations are remarkable for their excellent metabolic and cardiovascular health and thus are often used as models in public health, in an effort to understand the root, evolutionary causes of non-communicable diseases. Here, we review recent work on health, activity, energetics and diet among hunter-gatherers and other small-scale societies (e.g. subsistence farmers, horticulturalists and pastoralists), as well as recent fossil and archaeological discoveries, to provide a more comprehensive perspective on lifestyle and health in these populations...
December 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Yanan Ma, Wanshui Yang, Tracey G Simon, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Teresa T Fung, Jing Sui, Dawn Chong, Trang VoPham, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Deliang Wen, Edward L Giovannucci, Andrew T Chan, Xuehong Zhang
Although adherence to healthy dietary guidelines has been associated with a reduced risk of several health outcomes including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, little is known about the role of dietary patterns in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. We prospectively assessed the associations of 3 key commonly used a priori dietary patterns, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), Alternate Mediterranean Diet (AMED), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) with risk of incident hepatocellular carcinoma in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses' Health Study, two large prospective cohort studies...
December 1, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Aspen T Reese, Rachel N Carmody
The gut microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecological community that is increasingly recognized to play important roles in host metabolic, immunological, and behavioral functioning. As such, identifying new routes for manipulating the microbiota may provide valuable additional methods for improving host health. Dietary manipulations and prebiotic supplementation are active targets of research for altering the microbiota, but, to date, this work has disproportionately focused on carbohydrates. However, many other resources can limit or shape microbial growth...
November 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Marie-Amélie Forin-Wiart, Marie-Lazarine Poulle, Sylvain Piry, Jean-François Cosson, Claire Larose, Maxime Galan
DNA metabarcoding of faecal samples is being successfully used to study the foraging niche of species. We assessed the ability of two benchtop high-throughput sequencing (HTS) platforms, to identify a large taxonomic array of food items from domestic cats Felis silvestris catus, including prey and human-related food taxa (pet food and leftovers leaving undetectable solid remains in faeces). Scats from a captive feeding trial (n = 41) and from free-ranging individuals (n = 326) were collected and analysed using a cytb mini-barcode in independent PCR replicates on the Ion PGM and the MiSeq platforms...
November 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexander Kraus, Maureen McKeague, Nina Seiwert, Georg Nagel, Susanne M Geisen, Nathalie Ziegler, Ioannis A Trantakis, Bernd Kaina, Adam D Thomas, Shana J Sturla, Jörg Fahrer
N-nitroso compounds are alkylating agents, which are widespread in our diet and the environment. They induce DNA alkylation adducts such as O6 -methylguanine (O6 -MeG), which is repaired by O6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Persistent O6 -MeG lesions have detrimental biological consequences like mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. Due to its pivotal role in the etiology of cancer and in cytotoxic cancer therapy, it is important to detect and quantify O6 -MeG in biological specimens in a sensitive and accurate manner...
November 16, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Charles J Glueck, Naila Goldenberg
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has multiple etiologies including ovarian and adrenal hyperandrogenism, neuro-endocrine and hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction, and disorders of peripheral insulin resistance. Obesity is neither necessary nor sufficient for the PCOS phenotype, and the association of PCOS with obesity is not universal, with national, cultural, and ethnic differences. Obesity, particularly visceral adiposity which is common in obese and non-obese women with PCOS, amplifies and worsens all metabolic and reproductive outcomes in PCOS...
November 13, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Sylvia A Metcalfe, Chriselle Hickerton, Jacqueline Savard, Elaine Stackpoole, Rigan Tytherleigh, Erin Tutty, Bronwyn Terrill, Erin Turbitt, Kathleen Gray, Anna Middleton, Brenda Wilson, Ainsley J Newson, Clara Gaff
Personal genomic testing using direct-to-consumer and consumer-directed models, with or without involvement of healthcare providers, is increasing internationally, including in Australia. This study forms a sub-set of the Genioz study - Genomics: National Insights of Australians. We aimed to explore Australians' experiences with these types of tests, especially online DNA tests, and their views regarding whom they would seek support from around understanding test results. The study used a mixed methods approach, employing an exploratory quantitative online survey and follow-up qualitative semi-structured interviews...
November 13, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Glauco B O Machado, Fosca P P Leite, Erik E Sotka
Consumers can regulate the acquisition and use of nutrients through behavioral and physiological mechanisms. Here, we present an experimental approach that simultaneously integrates multiple nutritional traits, feeding assays, and juvenile performance to assess whether a marine herbivore (the amphipod Ampithoe valida ) regulates the intake of elements (carbon and nitrogen), macronutrients (protein and non-protein) or both when offered freeze-dried tissues of seaweeds varying in nutritional content. We assessed behavioral regulation of nutrients in three ways...
2018: PeerJ
Nicole Rizkalla, Nicole R Zane, Janice L Prodell, Okan U Elci, Lynne G Maxwell, Mary Ann DiLiberto, Athena F Zuppa
OBJECTIVES: Opioid pharmacotherapy is the cornerstone of postoperative analgesia. Despite its effectiveness, it has a variety of potential adverse effects. Therefore, a multimodal approach with non-opioid analgesics would be optimal. The aim of this study was to determine if intravenous (IV) acetaminophen would reduce opioid requirements and improve clinical outcomes in children after surgery. METHODS: A single-center, randomized, double-blind study was conducted in 57 children (10-18 years old) undergoing posterior spine fusion surgery between July 2011 to May 2014...
September 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Keryn L Taylor, Steve Simpson, George A Jelinek, Sandra L Neate, Alysha M De Livera, Chelsea R Brown, Emily O'Kearney, Claudia H Marck, Tracey J Weiland
Background: Depression is common and has a significant impact on quality of life for many people with multiple sclerosis (MS). A preventive management approach via modification of lifestyle risk factors holds potential benefits. We examined the relationship between modifiable lifestyle factors and depression risk and the change in depression over 2.5 years. Methods: Sample recruited using online platforms. 2,224 (88.9%) at baseline and 1,309 (93.4%) at 2.5 years follow up completed the necessary survey data...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Abdul Basit, Asher Fawwad, Kulsoom Baqa
The rising burden of diabetes is mainly ascribed to environmental and emotional changes. The main contributors are sedentary lifestyle including internet and TV usage, caloric rich diets leading to increasing obesity. The National Diabetes Survey of Pakistan (NDSP 2016-2017) has reported the prevalence of diabetes as 26.3% in Pakistan. Pakistan with very high numbers of prevalent diabetes needs a cost-effective population based approach for screening. Proper governance system has to be adopted to facilitate multi sectoral collaboration, including transparency and evaluation for achieving Non- Communicable Disease (NCD) associated targets...
November 10, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Rachael Horne, Jane A Foster
Advances in understanding the role of the microbiome in physical and mental health are at the forefront of medical research and hold potential to have a direct impact on precision medicine approaches. In the past 7 years, we have studied the role of microbiota-brain communication on behavior in mouse models using germ-free mice, mice exposed to antibiotics, and healthy specific pathogen free mice. Through our work and that of others, we have seen an amazing increase in our knowledge of how bacteria signal to the brain and the implications this has for psychiatry...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Laura Haigh, Susan Bremner, David Houghton, Elsbeth Henderson, Leah Avery, Timothy Hardy, Kate Hallsworth, Stuart McPherson, Quentin M Anstee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary interventions for weight loss are effective therapies for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The Mediterranean diet might benefit these patients but it is not followed consistently in Northern European countries. We examined factors that determine Mediterranean diet adoption and maintenance in a northern European population. METHODS: We used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the effects of a 12-week Mediterranean diet intervention and perceived barriers and facilitators...
October 31, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Abir Hussain, Dhiya Al-Jumeily, Ahmed Aljaaf, Naeem Radi
Diabetes is one of the main public health chronic conditions that are potentially reaching epidemic proportions globally. Worldwide, the occurrence of these types of diseases are increasing sharply at a worrying degree, with death of around 18 million people every year from cardiovascular disease, for which diabetes and hypertension are major predisposing factors. Two major concerns are that much of this increase in Diabetes is predicated to be happened in developing countries, with a growing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) at a younger age including some obese children even before puberty...
October 30, 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Yannick Nicolas Gerber, Guillaume Patrick Saint-Martin, Claire Mathilde Bringuier, Sylvain Bartolami, Christophe Goze-Bac, Harun Najib Noristani, Florence Evelyne Perrin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a pronounced neuroinflammation driven by activation and proliferation of resident microglia as well as infiltrating peripheral monocyte-derived macrophages. Depending on the time post-lesion, positive and detrimental influences of microglia/macrophages on axonal regeneration had been reported after SCI, raising the issue whether their modulation may represent an attractive therapeutic strategy. Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) regulates microglia/macrophages proliferation, differentiation and survival thus, pharmacological treatments using CSF1 receptor (CSF1R) inhibitors had been used to ablate microglia...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Elena Galán, Pol Llonch, Arantxa Villagrá, Harel Levit, Severino Pinto, Agustín Del Prado
INTRODUCTION: Projected temperature rise in the upcoming years due to climate change has increased interest in studying the effects of heat stress in dairy cows. Environmental indices are commonly used for detecting heat stress, but have been used mainly in studies focused on the productivity-related effects of heat stress. The welfare approach involves identifying physiological and behavioural measurements so as to start heat stress mitigation protocols before the appearance of impending severe health or production issues...
2018: PloS One
Ibrahim Bala Salisu, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Amina Yaqoob, Abdul Qayyum Rao, Tayyab Husnain
Genetically modified (GM) crops expressing insect resistance and herbicide tolerance provide a novel approach for improved crop production but their advent at the same time presents serious challenges in terms of food safety. Although prevailing scientific proof has suggested that transgenic crops are analogous to their conventional counterparts, their use in human and animal diet gave rise to emotional public discussion. A number of studies had been conducted to evaluate the potential unintended effects of transgenic crops expressing single transgene, but very few studies for those with multiple transgenes...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Elisa Gomez Torrijos, Rosario Gonzalez-Mendiola, Manuela Alvarado, Robledo Avila, Alicia Prieto-Garcia, Teresa Valbuena, Jesus Borja, Sonsoles Infante, M Pilar Lopez, Eva Marchan, Patricia Prieto, Mar Moro, Ana Rosado, Vanessa Saiz, M Luisa Somoza, Olga Uriel, Angelina Vazquez, Pilar Mur, Paloma Poza-Guedes, Joan Bartra
Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was first described in the 1990s, showing an increasing incidence and prevalence since then, being the leading cause of food impaction and the major cause of dysphagia. Probably, in a few years, EoE may no longer be considered a rare disease. Methods: This article discusses new aspects of the pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of EoE according to the last published guidelines. Results: The epidemiological studies indicate a multifactorial origin for EoE, where environmental and genetic factors take part...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Hiral A Bhagat, Sarah A Compton, David L Musso, Christopher P Laudeman, Kimberly M P Jackson, Na Young Yi, Lidia S Nierobisz, Lawrence Forsberg, Jay E Brenman, Jonathan Z Sexton
Obesity and insulin resistance are primary risk factors for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is generally exhibited by non-progressive simple steatosis. However, a significant subset of patient's progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that is defined by the presence of steatosis, inflammation and hepatocyte injury with fibrosis. Unfortunately, there are no approved therapies for NAFLD or NASH and therefore therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Niclosamide is an U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved anthelmintic drug that mediates its effect by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation...
2018: PloS One
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