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Relative energy deficiency in sport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040508/relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport-in-male-athletes-a-commentary-on-its-presentation-among-selected-groups-of-male-athletes
#1
Louise M Burke, Graeme L Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P Morton, Adam S Tenforde
Low energy availability (LEA) is a key element of the Female Athlete Triad. Causes of LEA include failure to match high exercise energy expenditure (unintentional) or pathological behaviors of disordered eating (compulsive) and overzealous weight control programs (misguided but intentional). Recognition of such scenarios in male athletes contributed to the pronouncement of the more inclusive Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) syndrome. This commentary describes the insights and experience of the current group of authors around the apparently heightened risk of LEA in some populations of male athletes: road cyclists, rowers (lightweight and open weight), athletes in combat sports, distance runners, and jockeys...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30029584/pitfalls-of-conducting-and-interpreting-estimates-of-energy-availability-in-free-living-athletes
#2
REVIEW
Louise M Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L Fahrenholtz, Anna K Melin
The human body requires energy for numerous functions including, growth, thermogenesis, reproduction, cellular maintenance, and movement. In sports nutrition, energy availability (EA) is defined as the energy available to support these basic physiological functions and good health once the energy cost of exercise is deducted from energy intake (EI), relative to an athlete's fat-free mass (FFM). Low EA provides a unifying theory to link numerous disorders seen in both female and male athletes, described by the syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport, and related to restricted energy intake, excessive exercise or a combination of both...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008240/endocrine-effects-of-relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport
#3
REVIEW
Kirsty J Elliott-Sale, Adam S Tenforde, Allyson L Parziale, Bryan Holtzman, Kathryn E Ackerman
The term Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport was introduced by the International Olympic Committee in 2014. It refers to the potential health and performance consequences of inadequate energy for sport, emphasizing that there are consequences of low energy availability (EA; typically defined as <30 kcal·kg-1 fat-free mass·day-1 ) beyond the important and well-established female athlete triad, and that low EA affects populations other than women. As the prevalence and consequences of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport become more apparent, it is important to understand the current knowledge of the hormonal changes that occur with decreased EA...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978256/genetic-variation-in-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-er-signalling-pathways-in-female-and-male-elite-dancers-and-its-associations-with-low-bone-mineral-density-a-cross-section-and-longitudinal-study
#4
T Amorim, C Durães, J C Machado, G S Metsios, M Wyon, J Maia, A D Flouris, F Marques, L Nogueira, N Adubeiro, Y Koutedakis
The association of genetic polymorphisms with low bone mineral density in elite athletes have not been considered previously. The present study found that bone mass phenotypes in elite and pre-elite dancers are related to genetic variants at the Wnt/β-catenin and ER pathways. INTRODUCTION: Some athletes (e.g. gymnasts, dancers, swimmers) are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) which, if untreated, can lead to osteoporosis. To investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in the oestrogen receptor (ER) and the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways with low BMD in elite and pre-elite dancers (impact sport athletes)...
October 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972091/relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport-the-tip-of-an-iceberg
#5
EDITORIAL
Margo L Mountjoy, Louise M Burke, Trent Stellingwerff, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860237/low-energy-availability-surrogates-correlate-with-health-and-performance-consequences-of-relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport
#6
Kathryn E Ackerman, Bryan Holtzman, Katherine M Cooper, Erin F Flynn, Georgie Bruinvels, Adam S Tenforde, Kristin L Popp, Andrew J Simpkin, Allyson L Parziale
Low energy availability (EA) is suspected to be the underlying cause of both the Female Athlete Triad and the more recently defined syndrome, Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). The International Olympic Committee (IOC) defined RED-S as a syndrome of health and performance impairments resulting from an energy deficit. While the importance of adequate EA is generally accepted, few studies have attempted to understand whether low EA is associated with the health and performance consequences posited by the IOC...
June 2, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773536/ioc-consensus-statement-on-relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport-red-s-2018-update
#7
Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Kaiander Sundgot-Borgen, Louise M Burke, Kathryn E Ackerman, Cheri Blauwet, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Bronwen Lundy, Anna Katarina Melin, Nanna L Meyer, Roberta T Sherman, Adam S Tenforde, Monica Klungland Torstveit, Richard Budgett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771168/international-olympic-committee-ioc-consensus-statement-on-relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport-red-s-2018-update
#8
Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Kathryn E Ackerman, Cheri Blauwet, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Bronwen Lundy, Anna Melin, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Adam S Tenforde, Monica Klungland Torstveit, Richard Budgett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757049/prevalence-of-indicators-of-low-energy-availability-in-elite-female-sprinters
#9
Jennifer Sygo, Alexandra M Coates, Erik Sesbreno, Margo L Mountjoy, Jamie F Burr
Low energy availability (LEA), and subsequent relative energy deficiency in sport, has been observed in endurance, aesthetic, and team sport athletes, with limited data on prevalence in athletes in short-burst activities such as sprinting. We examined prevalence of signs and symptoms of LEA in elite female sprinters at the start of the training season (PRE), and at the end of a 5-month indoor training period (POST). Four of 13 female sprinters (31%) presented at PRE testing with at least one primary (amenorrhea, low bone mineral density, low follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, or estradiol, resting metabolic rate ≤29 kcal/kg fat-free mass, Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire score ≥8) and one secondary indicator of LEA (fasting blood glucose <4 mmol/L, free triiodothyronine <3...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722578/a-review-of-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport-in-artistic-synchronized-swimming
#10
REVIEW
Sherry Robertson, Margo Mountjoy
The syndrome of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a clinical entity characterized by low energy availability, which can negatively affect the health and performance of both male and female athletes. The underlying mechanism of RED-S is an inadequacy of dietary energy to support optimal health and performance. This syndrome refers to impaired physiological function, including metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health, with psychological consequences that can either precede (through restrictive dietary habits) or result from RED-S...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550413/sex-differences-in-common-sports-injuries
#11
REVIEW
Cindy Y Lin, Ellen Casey, Daniel C Herman, Nicole Katz, Adam S Tenforde
Common sports injuries include bone stress injuries (BSIs), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, and concussions. Less commonly recognized are the specific sex differences in epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes of these conditions by sex. An understanding of these factors can improve their clinical management, from prescribing appropriate prehabilitation to guiding postinjury rehabilitation and return to play. This narrative review summarizes the sex differences in the diagnosis and management of BSIs, ACL injuries, and concussions...
March 14, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485333/female-athlete-triad-relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport-a-perspective-interview-with-professor-barbara-drinkwater
#12
Susan Carter
Barbara Drinkwater has been a lifelong champion of equality for women in many areas of life well before it was widely accepted. Her "walking the walk" of women breaking barriers in traditional male roles in administration and leadership is exemplified by her election as the first woman president of the American College of Sports Medicine in 1988. Some of the controversial areas in which Barbara was vocal in the arena of women in sport, besides triad/relative energy deficiency in sport, include increased opportunity and participation, total equality, acceptance of diversity, intolerance of harassment and abuse, and fairness with transgender athletes...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405793/within-day-energy-deficiency-and-metabolic-perturbation-in-male-endurance-athletes
#13
Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta, Anna Melin
Endurance athletes are at increased risk of relative energy deficiency associated with metabolic perturbation and impaired health. We aimed to estimate and compare within-day energy balance in male athletes with suppressed and normal resting metabolic rate (RMR) and explore whether within-day energy deficiency is associated with endocrine markers of energy deficiency. A total of 31 male cyclists, triathletes, and long-distance runners recruited from regional competitive sports clubs were included. The protocol comprised measurements of RMR by ventilated hood and energy intake and energy expenditure to predict RMRratio (measured RMR/predicted RMR), energy availability, 24-hr energy balance and within-day energy balance in 1-hr intervals, assessment of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood plasma analysis...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251536/collegiate-athletic-trainers-knowledge-of-the-female-athlete-triad-and-relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Emily Kroshus, J D DeFreese, Zachary Y Kerr
CONTEXT:   The female athlete triad (Triad) and relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) specify the consequences of energy imbalance. Athletic trainers (ATs) are positioned to identify athletes who are fueling themselves inadequately and experiencing related health and performance consequences. OBJECTIVE:   To assess the knowledge of collegiate ATs about the Triad and RED-S and to examine variability in related screening and referral behaviors among National Collegiate Athletic Association divisions...
January 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071833/-amenorrhea-in-athletic-adolescents-the-tip-of-the-iceberg
#15
Martine Jacot-Guillarmod, Cécile Diserens
The female athletic triad refers to the interaction between menstrual function, energy availability and bone density. When an imbalance appears between energy input and output, the global health of the athletic teenager is at risk of somatic and/or psychological complications as defined by the RED-S (Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports). In athletic girls menstrual disorder should be seen as an alert. It may be difficult to distinguish it from menstrual irregularity due to immature hypothalamic-hyphophysic-gonadal axis, which can be physiological at that age...
October 25, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737524/female-athlete-triad
#16
REVIEW
Meredith B Loveless
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The obstetrician/gynecologist (ob/gyn) may be the first provider to have the opportunity to recognize and diagnose female athlete triad. This review will help the ob/gyn to understand the female athlete triad and what is new on this topic, how to screen and diagnose the condition and the ob/gyn's role in treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Female athlete triad, also known as relative energy deficiency in sports, involves an interrelationship among energy availability, menstrual function and low bone density...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684389/relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport-red-s
#17
REVIEW
Siobhan M Statuta, Irfan M Asif, Jonathan A Drezner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665560/-female-athlete-triad-what-s-new
#18
Alexandra Nowak, Jean-Luc Ziltener, Silvia Bonfanti
The Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport has been suggested as the new and wider denomination of the Female athlete triad. This new terminology enables a wider approach to the different consequences of an insufficient energy intake amongst regular athletes. In fact, this energy dysbalance leads to a wider pathological phenomenon touching many systems (e.g. cardiovascular, psychological, hematological…). This designation is no longer restricted to the female gender, and now also includes men, whom are nowadays less affected or maybe only less assessed...
July 13, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631418/anthropometrics-and-body-composition-in-east-african-runners-potential-impact-on-performance
#19
REVIEW
Martin Mooses, Anthony C Hackney
Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2 max), fractional utilization of V̇O2 max during running, and running economy (RE) are crucial factors for running success for all endurance athletes. Although evidence is limited, investigations of these key factors indicate that East Africans' superiority in distance running is largely due to a unique combination of these factors. East African runners appear to have a very high level of RE most likely associated, at least partly, with anthropometric characteristics rather than with any specific metabolic property of the working muscle...
April 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577685/rowing-injuries-an-updated-review
#20
REVIEW
Jane S Thornton, Anders Vinther, Fiona Wilson, Constance M Lebrun, Mike Wilkinson, Stephen R Di Ciacca, Karen Orlando, Tomislav Smoljanovic
Although traditionally seen as a sport for elite schools and colleges, rowing is a founding Olympic event and is increasingly enjoyed by people of all ages and abilities. The sport's rapidly changing demographics shows significant growth in masters (age 27 years and above) and para-rowing populations. It has further expanded beyond its traditional flatwater format to include the discipline of open-water or coastal rowing, and an increased focus on indoor rowing. Rowing-specific injury research has similarly increased over the last decade since our last review, revealing areas of improved understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport...
April 2017: Sports Medicine
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