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Feeding And Preterm infant

Enrico Bertino, Laura Cavallarin, Francesco Cresi, Paola Tonetto, Chiara Peila, Giulia Ansaldi, Melissa Raia, Alessia Varalda, Marzia Giribaldi, Amedeo Conti, Sara Antoniazzi, Guido E Moro, Elena Spada, Silvano Milani, Alessandra Coscia
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the use of donkey milk-derived fortifier with commercial bovine milk-derived fortifier in very preterm or very low-birthweight newborns, in terms of feeding tolerance. METHODS: This trial included 156 newborns born at <32 weeks of gestational age and/or with a birthweight ≤1500 g. Newborns were randomized 1:1 to receive enteral feeding with either a bovine milk-based fortifier (BF-arm), or a new, donkey milk-derived fortifier (DF-arm) for 21 days...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Fauzia Shakeel, Melanie Newkirk, Taymeyah Altoubah, Denise Martinez, Ernest K Amankwah
BACKGROUND: We evaluated tolerance of hydrolyzed liquid protein (LP) supplement added to fortified human milk (HM) to optimize protein intake in preterm infants. METHODS: A prospective observational study of 31 subjects compared with 31 historic controls, receiving mothers own milk (MOM) and/or donor milk (DM) to assess LP tolerance, growth, and risk for morbidities was conducted. Milk was analyzed for nutrient content. Feeding intolerance, defined as cessation of feedings for ≥48 hours, abdominal distension and/or residuals, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and metabolic acidosis were used to assess safety, while weight and head circumference (HC) were used to evaluate growth...
October 15, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Gbolahan Ajibola, Jean Leidner, Gloria K Mayondi, Erik van Widenfelt, Tebogo Madidimalo, Chipo Petlo, Sikhulile Moyo, Mompati Mmalane, Paige L Williams, Adam R Cassidy, Roger Shapiro, Betsy Kammerer, Shahin Lockman
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively assess rates and detailed predictors of morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed uninfected children and HIV-unexposed children in Botswana in a more recent era. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their children in the prospective observational Tshipidi study at 2 sites (1 city and 1 village) in Botswana from May 2010-July 2012. Live-born children and their mothers were followed for 24 months postpartum...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Duc Ninh Nguyen, Thomas Thymann, Sandra K Goericke-Pesch, Shuqiang Ren, Wei Wei, Kerstin Skovgaard, Peter Damborg, Anders Brunse, Charlotte van Gorp, Boris W Kramer, Tim G Wolfs, Per T Sangild
Prenatal inflammation is a major risk for preterm birth and neonatal morbidity, but its effects on postnatal immunity and organ functions remain unclear. Using preterm pigs as a model for preterm infants, we investigated whether prenatal intra-amniotic (IA) inflammation modulates postnatal systemic immune status and organ functions. Preterm pigs exposed to IA lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 3 days were compared with controls at birth and postnatal day 5 after formula feeding. IA LPS induced mild chorioamnionitis but extensive intra-amniotic inflammation...
October 4, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Arianna Aceti, Isadora Beghetti, Luca Maggio, Silvia Martini, Giacomo Faldella, Luigi Corvaglia
The use of probiotics among very low-birth-weight infants is constantly increasing, as probiotics are believed to reduce the incidence of severe diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and to improve feeding tolerance. However, despite the enthusiasm towards these products in neonatal medicine, theoretical knowledge and clinical applications still need to be improved. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the most important gaps in the current literature about potential uses of probiotics in preterm infants, highlighting promising directions for future research...
October 10, 2018: Nutrients
Jacqueline Elizabeth Van Wijlen
AIM: This discursive paper aims to bring to the foreground the ongoing influence of Cartesian dualism and other important contextual complexities on breastfeeding in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is widely supported as the optimal form of nutrition for the first six months of life and beyond. Amidst a myriad of contextual factors, current breastfeeding rates are below globally targeted goals. For premature and/or critically ill infants, the importance of receiving breast milk is often encouraged based on its immunological and nutritive benefits as opposed to the entirety of the breastfeeding interaction, underscoring the influence of dualism in the NICU...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Stine Brandt Bering
This review focuses on the evidence for health benefits of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) for preterm infants to stimulate gut adaptation and reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in early life. The health benefits of breastfeeding are partly explained by the abundant HMOs that serve as prebiotics and immunomodulators. Gut immaturity in preterm infants leads to difficulties in tolerating enteral feeding and bacterial colonization and a high sensitivity to NEC, particularly when breast milk is insufficient...
October 8, 2018: Nutrients
Mohan Pammi, Charitharth Vivek Lal, Brandie D Wagner, Peter M Mourani, Pablo Lohmann, Ruth Ann Luna, Amy Sisson, Binoy Shivanna, Emily B Hollister, Steven H Abman, James Versalovic, Gary J Connett, Vineet Bhandari, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
OBJECTIVES: To summarize evidence regarding microbial dysbiosis of the airway associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and to explore heterogeneity among studies. STUDY DESIGN: We included studies that evaluated the airway microbiome in preterm infants who developed BPD using culture-independent molecular techniques and reported alpha- and beta-diversity metrics and microbial profiles. RESULTS: The 6 included studies had substantial clinical and methodological heterogeneity...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
C K Nyamasege, E W Kimani-Murage, M Wanjohi, D W M Kaindi, E Ma, M Fukushige, Y Wagatsuma
Inadequate knowledge in maternal nutrition is one of the determinants of low birth weight. However, little evidence is available on whether maternal nutrition counselling alone can influence birth weight among women from low socioeconomic households. This study assessed the effect of prenatal maternal nutritional counselling on birth weight and examined the related risk factors. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of home-based maternal nutritional counselling on nutritional outcomes, morbidity, breastfeeding, and infant feeding practices by the African Population and Health Research Center in two urban informal settlements of Nairobi...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Swati Murthy, Pamela R Parker, Steven J Gross
OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of two strategies to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants-adherence to a standardized feeding protocol and use of a hospital-based milk bank to provide exclusive preterm human milk feedings. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a single-center observational study from 2010 to 2015. Infants received preterm human milk, initially trophic feeds from days 7 to 14 after birth, followed by advancement of 15 mL/kg/day to reach a goal of 180 mL/kg/day...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Anish Pillai, Susan Albersheim, Julie Matheson, Vikki Lalari, Sylvia Wei, Sheila M Innis, Rajavel Elango
There are concerns around safety and tolerance of powder human milk fortifiers to optimize nutrition in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tolerance and safety of a concentrated preterm formula (CPF) as a liquid human milk fortifier (HMF) for premature infants at increased risk of feeding intolerance. We prospectively enrolled preterm infants over an 18-month period, for whom a clinical decision had been made to add CPF to human milk due to concerns regarding tolerance of powder HMF...
October 4, 2018: Nutrients
Behnam Sadeghirad, Ivan D Florez, Yaping Chang, Farid Forutan, Dena Zeraatkar, Rebecca L Morgan, Shaneela Shahid, Malgorzata M Bala, Joseph Beyene, Martin Offringa, Thomasin Adams-Webber, Philip M Sherman, Enas El-Gouhary, Gordon H Guyatt, Bradley C Johnston
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a common and devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Current literature on the prevention of NEC has limitations including lack of direct and indirect comparisons of available therapies. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, CINAHL, Scopus, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database, and grey literature sources to identify eligible trials evaluating NEC preventive therapies. Eligible studies will (1) enroll preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) and/or low birth weight (birth weight <2500 g) infants, (2) randomize infants to any preventive intervention or a placebo, or alternative active or nonactive intervention...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Zahra Khodagholi, Talieh Zarifian, Farin Soleimani, Maryam Khoshnood Shariati, Enayatollah Bakhshi
Objectives: Given the positive effects of stimulation with breast milk odor and non-nutritive sucking (NNS) on preterm feeding skills, we examined the effect of NNS and milk odor, on the time of achieving independent oral feeding in preterm infants. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted at two Neonatal Intensive Care Units of Tehran, Iran in 2016. Overall, 32 neonates with gestational ages of 28-32 wk were enrolled in two groups; NNS with and without olfactory stimuli (breast milk odor)...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
Silvia Martini, Arianna Aceti, Martina Furini, Alessandra Munarini, Cristina La Riccia, Vilma Mantovani, Giacomo Faldella, Luigi Corvaglia
BACKGROUND: Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are crucial for neural and visual development after premature birth. Preterm infants usually require tube feeding (TF) until the achievement of adequate oral feeding skills; the impact of TF on DHA and AA delivery has not been investigated yet. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different TF techniques on the delivery of AA and DHA contained in human milk (HM). METHODS: HM samples (65 mL each) were collected and divided into three 20-mL aliquots...
September 27, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Stephanie L Bourque, Claire Levek, Diane L Melara, Theresa R Grover, Sunah S Hwang
Objectives To describe the demographics, clinical characteristics and referral patterns of premature infants to a regional level IV neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); to determine the prevalence and predictors of back-transport of infants ≤ 32 weeks gestational age in a level IV NICU; for infants not back-transported closer to maternal residence, determine the length of stay beyond attainment of clinical stability. Methods Data (2010-2014) from the Children's Hospital Neonatal Database and individual chart review for infants ≤ 32 weeks admitted to a level IV NICU whose maternal residence was outside the metro area were included...
September 25, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Vanessa S Bomfim, Alceu A Jordão, Larissa G Alves, Francisco E Martinez, José Simon Camelo
BACKGROUND: Human milk, with essential nutrients and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as the omega 3 and 6 fatty acids is important for development of the central nervous system and the retina in very low birth weight infants (<1,500 g). However, breast milk may not be sufficient to meet these needs. The possibility of supplementing breast milk with a lyophilisate of human milk was explored in this study. The objectives of this study were to determine the total lipid content and the lipid profile of the Human Milk on Baseline (HMB) and that of the Concentrates with the Human Milk + lyophilisate (with lyophilisate of milk in the immediate period (HMCI), at 3 months (HMC3m), and at 6 months (HMC6m) of storage)...
2018: PloS One
Matthew B Wallenstein, David K Stevenson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Wei Qi Fan, Amy Gan, Olivia Crane
The aim of this study was to observe after following a routine change in the feeding protocol whether the earlier introduction of nutrient supplements improved nutritional outcomes in moderately preterm to late preterm low birth weight (LBW) babies. In this prospective observational study, LBW babies between 31 and 39 weeks' gestation admitted to a Special Care Nursery were assigned to two groups (F80, n = 45, F160, n = 42) upon commencing nutrient supplement at total fluid intake achievement of 80 or 160 mL/kg/day...
September 20, 2018: Nutrients
Manuel Blesa, Gemma Sullivan, Devasuda Anblagan, Emma J Telford, Alan J Quigley, Sarah A Sparrow, Ahmed Serag, Scott I Semple, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are at increased risk of alterations in brain structure and connectivity, and subsequent neurocognitive impairment. Breast milk may be more advantageous than formula feed for promoting brain development in infants born at term, but uncertainties remain about its effect on preterm brain development and the optimal nutritional regimen for preterm infants. We test the hypothesis that breast milk exposure is associated with improved markers of brain development and connectivity in preterm infants at term equivalent age...
September 18, 2018: NeuroImage
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