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Feeding And Preterm infant

Allison Thomas Rose, Ravi Mangal Patel
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common serious gastrointestinal morbidity in preterm infants. A number of risk factors for NEC have been reported in the literature. With the exception of decreasing gestational age, decreasing birth weight and formula feeding, there is disagreement on the importance of reported risk factors with uncertain causality. Causal risk factors may be observed at any time before the onset of NEC, including prior to an infant's birth. The purpose of this review is to examine the existing literature and summarize risk factors for NEC...
August 1, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Simonetta Costa, Luca Maggio, Giovanni Alighieri, Giovanni Barone, Francesco Cota, Giovanni Vento
BACKGROUND: Human milk (HM) is the best feeding for premature infants. When own mother's milk (OMM) is insufficient or unavailable, pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) and preterm formula (PF) are the alternative nutritional sources, but the benefits of donor milk over formula are not defined. This study aimed to assess whether, in the absence of OMM, the PF could guarantee a feeding tolerance not inferior to that seen with the use of PDHM during the first two weeks of life of very preterm infants...
August 16, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Sandra Fucile, Miona Milutinov, Kevyn Timmons, Kimberly Dow
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of an oral sensorimotor intervention on breastfeeding establishment and maintenance in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-one preterm infants born ≤34 weeks gestation were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received a 15-minute program consisting of stroking the peri-oral structures for the first 5 minutes, tongue exercises for the next 5 minutes, followed by non-nutritive sucking for the final 5 minutes...
August 16, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Hima B John, Charis Suraj, Sanjeev M Padankatti, Tunny Sebastian, Earnest Rajapandian
BACKGROUND: Premature infants have difficulties in transitioning from gavage to breastfeeding. Targeted interventions to support breastfeeding in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are scarce. PURPOSE: This pilot study evaluates the effectiveness of nonnutritive sucking at the mother's breast in premature infants to facilitate breastfeeding performance and exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study design constituted a single-blinded randomized control trial, with 9 participants randomly allocated into experimental (n = 4) and control (n = 5) groups...
August 10, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Katherine Sanchez, Jessica O Boyce, Angela T Morgan, Alicia J Spittle
BACKGROUND: Feeding difficulties threaten growth, health and neurodevelopment, and are prevalent among infants born preterm. The literature differs on (i) whether these problems persist into early childhood, and (ii) risk factors in the preterm population. In this study we explore feeding difficulties and risk factors in preterm and term-born three-year-olds. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether three-year-olds born <30 weeks have poorer feeding outcomes than their term-born peers; and identify predictors of feeding outcomes in children born <30 weeks...
August 6, 2018: Appetite
Amir Kugelman, Liron Borenstein-Levin, Huda Jubran, Gil Dinur, Shlomit Ben-David, Elena Segal, Julie Haddad, Fanny Timstut, Iris Stein, Imad R Makhoul, Ori Hochwald
Iatrogenesis is more common in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) because the infants are vulnerable and exposed to prolonged intensive care. Sixty percent of extremely low-birth-weight infants are exposed to iatrogenesis. The risk factors for iatrogenesis in NICUs include prematurity, mechanical or non-invasive ventilation, central lines, and prolonged length of stay. This led to the notion that "less is more." In the delivery room delayed cord clamping is recommended for term and preterm infants, and suction for the airways in newborns with meconium-stained fluid is not performed anymore...
July 30, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Roberta Pineda, Kelsey Dewey, Amy Jacobsen, Joan Smith
OBJECTIVE:  To identify the progression of non-nutritive sucking (NNS) across postmenstrual age (PMA) and to investigate the relationship of NNS with medical and social factors and oral feeding. STUDY DESIGN:  Fifty preterm infants born at ≤32 weeks gestation had NNS assessed weekly starting at 32 weeks PMA with the NTrainer System. Oral feeding was assessed at 38 weeks PMA. RESULTS:  There were increases in NNS bursts per minute ( p  = 0...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Linda D Breeman, Julia Jaekel, Nicole Baumann, Peter Bartmann, Josef G Bäuml, Mihai Avram, Christian Sorg, Dieter Wolke
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To determine the combined impact of infant multiple/persistent regulatory problems (RPs), parenting quality and maternal mental health on childhood attention problems. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, population-based cohort study including 16 paediatric hospitals in Southern Bavaria (Germany). SUBJECTS: 1459 infants were followed from birth to 8 years of age. OUTCOME MEASURES: RPs were assessed at 5 and 20 months using interviews by trained paediatricians; parenting quality was assessed between birth and 5 months using parent interviews and nurses' observations; maternal mental health was assessed at birth and 5 months using standardized parents' interviews; childhood data on attention problems were collected at 8 years, using parent reports and expert behaviour observation ratings...
August 2, 2018: Early Human Development
Jason L Robinson, Victoria A Smith, Barbara Stoll, Umang Agarwal, Muralidhar H Premkumar, Patricio Lau, Stephanie M Cruz, Rodrigo Manjarin, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Douglas G Burrin, Juan C Marini
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with low plasma arginine and vascular dysfunction. It is not clear whether low intestinal citrulline production, the precursor for arginine synthesis, occurs before and thus predisposes to NEC or if it results from tissue damage. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that whole-body rates of citrulline, arginine and nitric oxide synthesis are low in premature pigs and that they precede NEC. Piglets delivered by cesarean-section at 103-d (Preterm, PT), 110-d (Near-Term, NT), or 114-d of gestation (Full-Term, FT) were given total parenteral nutrition and after 2 days, orogastrically fed infant formula for 42h to induce NEC...
July 26, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Hannakaisa Niela-Vilén, Anna Axelin, Sanna Salanterä, Hanna-Leena Melender
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is an important element of motherhood with a preterm infant, but the role of maternal emotions in relation to breastfeeding is vague. PURPOSE: To describe maternal emotions regarding and insights into breastfeeding during the first year after a preterm birth. METHODS: In total, 80 mothers of preterm infants (<35 gestational weeks) participated in this secondary analysis of a larger study. The data were collected with an open question at discharge and 3, 6, and 12 months after the expected birth date and analyzed using thematic analysis...
July 24, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Barbara K Kościelniak, Nina Mól, Przemko Kwinta, Krystyna Sztefko, Przemysław J Tomasik
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The objective of the study was to evaluate the circulating concentrations of plasma free fatty acids (FFA), fatty acid binding proteins: FABP-1 and FABP-4 in preterm infants depending on different feeding protocol. METHODS: A total of 43 premature infants (≤34 weeks) were enrolled in the study, and divided into 3 subgroups: nursed while staying in the department (53%), breast-fed only during the first 24 h (16%), and formulafed from the beginning (31%)...
July 25, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Thao T Griffith, Aleeca F Bell, Rosemary White-Traut, Barbara Medoff-Cooper, Kristin Rankin
OBJECTIVE: Primary: to identify the potential relationship between duration of tube feeding and success of oral feeding in preterm infants; secondary: to identify the potential relationships among duration of tube feeding and alert behavioral states, orally directed behaviors, and nutritive sucking. DESIGN: A descriptive correlational study. SETTING: A Level III NICU at an inner-city hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight preterm infants who were born between 28 and 32 weeks gestational age, were clinically stable, and were expected to have at least 1 week of tube feeding during their initial hospitalizations...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
Thao T Griffith, Aleeca F Bell, Catherine Vincent, Rosemary White-Traut, Barbara Medoff-Cooper, Kristin Rankin
BACKGROUND: The term "oral feeding success" (OFS) is frequently used in clinical practice and research. However, OFS is inconsistently defined, which impacts the ability to adequately evaluate OFS, identify risk factors, and implement interventions in clinical practice and research. PURPOSE: To develop the defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences for the concept of OFS in preterm infants during their initial hospitalization. METHODS: PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases were searched for English articles containing the key words "oral feeding success" and "preterm infants...
July 19, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Qian-Qian Li, Qian Liu, Jun-Mei Yan, Xian Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the growth and development of very low birth weight (VLBW)/extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants within the corrected age of 6 months and the effect of different feeding patterns on growth and development. METHODS: A total of 109 VLBW/ELBW preterm infants who were discharged from January 2016 to April 2017 and who had completed regular follow-up were enrolled, and their growth and development within the corrected age of 6 months were monitored...
July 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Jinhee Park, Britt Frisk Pados, Suzanne M Thoyre
BACKGROUND: Side-lying position is an increasingly common feeding strategy used by parents, nurses, and feeding therapists to support oral feeding in preterm infants. Better understanding of the research evidence on the effect of the side-lying position will help clinicians make informed decisions and guide future research in this important area. PURPOSE: To identify and summarize the available evidence on the effect of side-lying position on oral feeding outcomes in preterm infants...
August 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Shikha Pundir, Johanna Mäkelä, Anu Nuora, Niina Junttila, Clare Rosemary Wall, Kaisa Linderborg, David Cameron-Smith, Hanna Lagström
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Human milk (HM) contains a wide array of non-nutritive bioactive elements, including glucocorticoid hormones (glucocorticoid; cortisol and cortisone). The relationship between milk-borne glucocorticoids, measures of maternal health and patterns of breast-feeding is not yet established. This study was conducted to determine the influence of maternal and infant related biological and socio-demographic factors on the levels of glucocorticoids hormones in HM. METHODS: Samples were obtained from lactating mothers (n = 656) participating in the Finnish cohort the STEPS study (Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children) when the infants were 11...
July 2, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Emriye Hilal Yayan, Sibel Kucukoglu, Yeliz Suna Dag, Nazlı Karsavuran Boyraz
BACKGROUND: Body position affects the gastric emptying rate and hence the amount of gastric residue. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the effect of the post-feeding position of preterm infants on gastric residue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This experimental study was conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a university hospital (İnönü University Turgut Özal Medical Center) in Eastern Turkey. The study included 40 preterm infants weighing less than 2,000 g, who were fed orogastrically...
July 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Shemi Thomas, Saudamini Nesargi, Preena Roshan, Renjita Raju, Shiny Mathew, Sheeja P, Suman Rao
BACKGROUND: Preterm neonates often have feed intolerance that needs to be differentiated from necrotizing enterocolitis. Gastric residual volumes (GRV) are used to assess feed tolerance but with little scientific basis. PURPOSE: To compare prefeed aspiration for GRV and prefeed measurement of abdominal girth (AG) in the time taken to reach full feeds in preterm infants. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial. Infants with a gestational age of 27 to 37 weeks and birth weight of 750 to 2000 g, who required gavage feeds for at least 48 hours, were included...
August 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Line Hedegaard Toftlund, Susanne Halken, Lone Agertoft, Gitte Zachariassen
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding promotes healthy growth in very-preterm-born infants (VPI), but extra nutritional supply is needed to ensure catch-up growth and brain development. OBJECTIVES: To investigate how different types of post-discharge nutrition affect growth until 6 years of age in children born VPI. METHODS: This was a 6-year follow-up study of 281 VPI. Median gestational age (GA) was 30 + 0 weeks (range 24-32 weeks). When breastfed at discharge, they were randomized to unfortified human milk (UHM) or fortified human milk (FHM)...
July 16, 2018: Neonatology
Karoline Pahsini, Sabine Marinschek, Zahra Khan, Berndt Urlesberger, Peter J Scheer, Marguerite Dunitz-Scheer
BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition support (ENS) is a standard of care in all NICUs. As a result of long-term ENS, tube dependency can develop. Tube dependency is an inability to make the transition from tube to oral feeds despite the absence of medical reasons for ENS and might lead to symptoms like oral aversion and food refusal. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of prematurity in a large cohort of tube dependent children. METHODS: Prospectively collected data on tube dependent children who participated in a program based on the "Graz Model of tube weaning" from January 2009 to December 2015 was analysed quantitatively...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
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