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Thomas Wild, Magda Budzowska, Susanne Hellmuth, Susana Eibes, Gopal Karemore, Marin Barisic, Olaf Stemmann, Chunaram Choudhary
The multisubunit ubiquitin ligase APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome) is essential for mitosis by promoting timely degradation of cyclin B1. APC/C is tightly regulated by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which involves MPS1 and MAD2-dependent temporal inhibition of APC/C. We analyzed the contribution of the APC/C subunits APC7 and APC16 to APC/C composition and function in human cells. APC16 is required for APC7 assembly into APC/C, whereas APC16 assembles independently of APC7. APC7 and APC16 knockout cells display no major defects in mitotic progression, cyclin B1 degradation, or SAC response, but APC/C lacking these two subunits shows reduced ubiquitylation activity in vitro...
November 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Rajeev Bhatia, Emma Schwendeman
BACKGROUND: A simple exercise test to evaluate for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is routinely ordered in pediatric patients with exercise-induced dyspnea. However, the utility of this test in establishing the cause of exercise-induced dyspnea is not thoroughly examined in the pediatric population. We sought to assess the efficiency of a simple EIB challenge test in finding the cause of exercise-induced dyspnea in pediatric patients referred to our tertiary center in the last 5 y...
September 25, 2018: Respiratory Care
Monika Sieverding, Constanze Eib, Andreas B Neubauer, Thomas Stahl
Do lifestyle preferences contribute to the remaining gender gap in higher positions in academia with highly qualified women-especially those with children-deliberately working fewer hours than men do? We tested the "mothers work less" hypothesis in two samples of early career researchers employed at universities in Germany (N = 202) and in the US (N = 197). Early career researchers in the US worked on average 6.3 hours more per week than researchers in Germany. In Germany, female early career researchers with children had drastically reduced work hours (around 8 hours per week) compared to male researchers with children and compared to female researchers without children, whereas we found no such effect for U...
2018: PloS One
Bhumika Aggarwal, Aruni Mulgirigama, Norbert Berend
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) can occur in individuals with and without asthma, and is prevalent among athletes of all levels. In patients with asthma, symptoms of EIB significantly increase the proportion reporting feelings of fearfulness, frustration, isolation, depression and embarrassment compared with those without symptoms. EIB can also prevent patients with asthma from participating in exercise and negatively impact their quality of life. Diagnosis of EIB is based on symptoms and spirometry or bronchial provocation tests; owing to low awareness of EIB and lack of simple, standardised diagnostic methods, under-diagnosis and mis-diagnosis of EIB are common...
August 14, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Sarah Ruderman, Adam Eshein, Vesta Valuckaite, Urszula Dougherty, Anas Almoghrabi, Andrew Gomes, Ajaypal Singh, Baldeep Pabla, Hemant K Roy, John Hart, Marc Bissonnette, Vani Konda, Vadim Backman
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the role of blood supply in early tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer. We leveraged the renin angiotensin system (RAS) to alter colonic blood supply and determine the effect on tumor initiation and progression. METHODS: To test the effect of blood supply on tumorigenesis, 53 male A/J mice were randomly assigned to one of three RAS modulation groups and one of two AOM treatments. The RAS modulation groups were I) water (RAS-unmodulated) as a control group, II) angiotensin-II and III) the angiotensin receptor blocker, Losartan...
August 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
Hanna Knihtilä, Anne Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anna S Pelkonen, Mika J Mäkelä, L Pekka Malmberg
BACKGROUND: Clinical significance of small airway obstruction in mild pediatric asthma is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate small airway properties in children with mild to moderate asthmatic symptoms and the association of small airway function with asthma control and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). METHODS: Children (5-10 years old) with recurrent wheezing (n = 42) or persistent troublesome cough (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 19) performed impulse oscillometry (IOS), spirometry, and a multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) test...
October 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Gerald S Zavorsky, Ralph D Zimmerman, Derek G Shendell, Lynda T Goodfellow
BACKGROUND: Prolonged endurance running may acutely reduce spirometric lung values. This study examined changes in spirometry before and immediately after prolonged endurance exercise (running and/or walking). Specifically, we examined potential factors that predict the presence of at least a 10% postexercise reduction in FEV1 . METHODS: After institutional review board approval, recruitment occurred at a pre-race exposition, where informed consent was obtained...
July 24, 2018: Respiratory Care
Beatriz Gullón, Patricia Gullón, Gemma Eibes, Cristóbal Cara, Antonia De Torres, Juan Carlos López-Linares, Encarnación Ruiz, Eulogio Castro
A large amount of olive-derived biomass is generated yearly in Spain, which could be used as a potential source of bioactive compounds. The present work evaluates the recovery of natural antioxidants from olive tree pruning (OTP) and olive mill leaves (OML). For this purpose, the effect of different solvents on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The solvent was found to have a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the TPC, TFC, and the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP activity, affording similar results for the extracts from the two by-products...
December 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Maisi Muniz Cabral David, Evelim Leal de Freitas Dantas Gomes, Maryjose Carvalho Mello, Dirceu Costa
BACKGROUND: Asthma is characterized by hyperresponsiveness of the airways, and exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a symptom that limits a large proportion of asthmatic patients, especially children. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) leads to a reduction in the reactivity of the airways. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of outpatient treatment with CPAP and bilevel pressure combined with respiratory physical therapy for children and adolescents with asthma following bronchial hyperresponsiveness caused by an exercise bronchoprovocation test...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
Kyubo Kim, Hong Je Cho, Jung Won Yoon, Sun Hee Choi, Youn Ho Sheen, Man Yong Han, Heysung Baek
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is diagnosed via exercise challenge on a treadmill, but such testing requires complex equipment and sufficient health-care resources. The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) test and mannitol bronchial provocation test (BPT) may serve as a surrogate for exercise testing. METHODS: We compared the diagnostic utilities of the FeNO test and mannitol BPT in predicting EIB in asthmatic children. We retrospectively analyzed data from 60 asthmatic children aged 6-16 years...
August 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Edil de Albuquerque Rodrigues Filho, José Ângelo Rizzo, Adriana Velozo Gonçalves, Marco Aurélio de Valois Correia Junior, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti Sarinho, Décio Medeiros
BACKGROUND: Respiratory complaints after exercise are common in patients with rhinitis. Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) may be one of the causes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate EIB prevalence in a group of children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis, to compare the treadmill running (TR) and eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) challenge methods as diagnostic tools and to assess the association between respiratory complaints on exercise and EIB. METHODS: Patients aged between 10 and 20 years were studied at the Pulmonology Department of the Hospital das Clínicas -UFPE- Recife, Brazil...
May 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Anna R Jackson, James H Hull, James G Hopker, John W Dickinson
Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in elite football players and assess subsequent impact of therapy on airway health and exercise performance. 97 male professional football players completed an airway health assessment with a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) challenge to diagnose EIB. Players demonstrating a positive result (EVH+ ) were prescribed inhaler therapy depending on severity, including inhaled corticosteroids and inhaled short-acting β2 -agonists, and underwent repeat assessment after 9 weeks of treatment...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Beatriz Gullón, Gemma Eibes, Izaskun Dávila, María Teresa Moreira, Jalel Labidi, Patricia Gullón
Hydrothermal treatment is an environmentally friendly technology that allows the solubilisation of hemicellulosic oligosaccharides with potential for their use as prebiotics. The purpose of this study was to solubilize oligosaccharides and antioxidant compounds from chestnut shells by a hydrothermal processing. The highest content of oligosaccharides (18.3 g/L), with a relatively low level of monosaccharides (2.4 g/L) and degradation products (0.5 g/L) was obtained at 180 °C (severity of 3.08). In addition, the liquors presented a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds with good antioxidant properties...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Matteo Bonini, Omar S Usmani
Proper endotyping of EIB and precision medicine strategies would allow subjects to fully profit from the very beneficial effects of exercise, without incurring health risks or affecting performances
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
Oluwafemi Oluwole, Donna C Rennie, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Roland Dyck, Anna Afanasieva, Shelley Kirychuk, George Katselis, Joshua A Lawson
BACKGROUND: Studies have reported protective and adverse associations between microbial exposure and childhood asthma. However, among children with asthma the relationships between endotoxin and exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is less clear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between exposure to endotoxin in house dust with atopy and EIB in children with asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren (aged 7-17 years) in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada...
July 2018: Environmental Research
Michael D Kennedy, Jessie M S Gill, Alastair N H Hodges
Background: Diagnosing Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) requires bronchial provocation tests that are performed at rest and after exercise or hyperventilation in either a lab or field setting. Presently, it is unclear whether the proposed AHR field test for swimming induces sufficient provocation due to lack of intensity. Thus we aimed to examine how the 8 minute field swim test compared to all out racing and a lower intensity practice exposure affected AHR. We hypothesized that the race would affect AHR the most thereby highlighting the importance of maximal effort in swim AHR...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Fred H Brennan, Jeffrey Alent, Michael J Ross
Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB)/bronchoconstriction (EIC) describes two clinical entities by which exercise triggers bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Exercise is a common trigger of bronchospasm in the asthmatic (EIA), as well as athletes without the underlying inflammation associated with asthma (EIC/EIB). Approximately 10% to 20% of the general population have EIA or EIB (). The approach to the diagnosis and subsequent management relies on the clinician's ability to recognize clinical signs and symptoms, then selecting the correct diagnostic test...
March 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Constanze Eib, Claudia Bernhard-Oettel, Linda L Magnusson Hanson, Constanze Leineweber
Organizational justice perceptions are considered a predictor of health and well-being. To date, empirical evidence about whether organizational justice perceptions predict health or health predicts organizational justice perceptions is mixed. Furthermore, the processes underlying these relationships are largely unknown. In this article, we study whether bidirectional relationships can be explained by 2 different mediation mechanisms. First, based on the allostatic load model, we suggest that the relationships between organizational justice perceptions and different health indicators are mediated through mental preoccupation with work...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
J Zhang, Y K Fan, P Wang, Q Q Chen, G Wang, A E Xu, L Q Chen, R Hu, W Chen, Z Q Song, F Hao
BACKGROUND: China has one of the largest populations with tuberculosis worldwide. Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is a rare manifestation of mycobacterial infection. Although CTB is well described, it is important to periodically revisit the prevailing clinical and epidemiological features in most populated countries such as China, India, and Indonesia, where tuberculosis is still a major health problem. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to re-evaluate the CTB cases in China in the past 50 years to obtain a comprehensive insight into this multiplex entity...
April 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
E B Hunt, B Murphy, C Murphy, T Crowley, O Cronin, S Hay, M Stack, B Bowen, N J Ronan, E Greene, J A Eustace, B J Plant, D M Murphy
Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) is an acute, transient airway narrowing occurring after exercise which may impact athletic performance. Studies report 10% of the general population and up to 90% of asthmatics experience EIB. Ninety-two players from three elite hurling squads underwent a spirometric field-based provocation test with real-time heart rate monitoring and lactate measurements to ensure adequate exertion. Players with a new diagnosis of EIB and those with a negative field-test but with a previous label of EIB or asthma underwent further reversibility testing and if negative, methacholine challenge...
December 18, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
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