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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221286/automatic-lung-rads%C3%A2-classification-with-a-natural-language-processing-system
#1
Sebastian E Beyer, Brady J McKee, Shawn M Regis, Andrea B McKee, Sebastian Flacke, Gilan El Saadawi, Christoph Wald
Background: Our aim was to train a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm to capture imaging characteristics of lung nodules reported in a structured CT report and suggest the applicable Lung-RADS™ (LR) category. Methods: Our study included structured, clinical reports of consecutive CT lung screening (CTLS) exams performed from 08/2014 to 08/2015 at an ACR accredited Lung Cancer Screening Center. All patients screened were at high-risk for lung cancer according to the NCCN Guidelines®...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219117/prediction-of-radiation-necrosis-in-a-rodent-model-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-apparent-transverse-relaxation-r-sub-2-sub-sup-sup
#2
Jean-Guy Belliveau, Michael D Jensen, James M P Stewart, Igor Solovey, Martyn L Klassen, Glenn S Bauman, Ravi S Menon
Radiation necrosis remains an irreversible long-term side-effect following radiotherapy to the brain. The ability to predict areas that could ultimately develop into necrosis could lead to prevention and management of radiation necrosis. Materials and Methods: Fischer 344 rats were irradiated using two platforms (micro-CT irradiator and x-RAD 225 IGRT) with radiation up to 30 Gy for the micro-CT and 40 Gy for the xRAD-224 to half the brain. Animals were subsequently imaged using a 9.4T MRI scanner every 2-4 weeks for up to 28 weeks using a 7-echo gradient echo sequence...
December 8, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218367/cirrhosis-and-li-rads
#3
Demetrios Papadatos, Kathryn J Fowler, Ania Z Kielar, Jennifer Cui, Claude B Sirlin
Chronic liver disease, irrespective of cause, can eventually lead to cirrhosis, which is the primary risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In patients with cirrhosis or appropriate risk factors, HCC can be diagnosed by imaging with high specificity using liver imaging reporting and data system v2017, obviating the need for histologic confirmation. Confident recognition of cirrhosis by conventional imaging alone can be challenging, as radiologists are not always provided with the requisite information to determine if the patient has cirrhosis or other risk factors for HCC...
December 7, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218120/characteristics-and-correlates-of-woman-eligible-for-targeted-screening-mammography-in-oman
#4
Mahmood Masud Al Awfi, Obaid Said Al-Hubaishi
Objectives: We sought to determine the characteristics of women eligible for a high-yield screening mammography program in Oman. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of women who underwent breast cancer screening at the Oman Cancer Association from 22 December 2009 to 6 February 2011. Women with a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) score of 4-5 were compared with those with a score of 1-3 based on well-known breast cancer risk factors using the case-control approach analysis...
November 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218063/analysis-of-the-most-common-three-mefv-mutations-in-630-patients-with-familial-mediterranean-fever-in-iranian-azeri-turkish-population
#5
Morteza Bagheri, Isa Abdi Rad
Introduction: The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of M694V, M680I and V726A mutations of the MEFV gene in 630 Azeri Turkish patients with family Mediterranean fever. Material and Methods: The MEFV gene mutations were detected using allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction. Outcomes: 630 cases with a mean age ± SD of 28.54±16.54 ranging from 2.5 to 76 years old including 268 (42.54%) males and 362 (57...
September 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217341/coronary-artery-disease-reporting-and-data-system-cad-radstm-inter-observer-agreement-for-assessment-categories-and-modifiers
#6
Christopher D Maroules, Christian Hamilton-Craig, Kelley Branch, James Lee, Roberto C Cury, Pál Maurovich-Horvat, Ronen Rubinshtein, Dustin Thomas, Michelle Williams, Yanshu Guo, Ricardo C Cury
BACKGROUND: The Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) provides a lexicon and standardized reporting system for coronary CT angiography. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate inter-observer agreement of the CAD-RADS among an panel of early career and expert readers. METHODS: Four early career and four expert cardiac imaging readers prospectively and independently evaluated 50 coronary CT angiography cases using the CAD-RADS lexicon...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213007/the-value-of-lesion-size-as-an-adjunct-to-the-bi-rads-mri-2013-descriptors-in-the-diagnosis-of-solitary-breast-masses
#7
Makiko Kawai, Masako Kataoka, Shotaro Kanao, Mami Iima, Natsuko Onishi, Akane Ohashi, Rena Sakaguchi, Masakazu Toi, Kaori Togashi
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the MRI findings of breast solitary masses in diagnostic procedures to decide the appropriate category based on American College of Radiology (ACR) BI-RADS-MRI 2013, with the focus on lesion size. METHODS: A retrospective review of 2,603 consecutive breast MRI reports identified 250 pathologically-proven solitary breast masses. Dynamic-contrast enhanced images and diffusion-weighted images were performed on a 3.0/1.5 Tesla Scanner with a 16/4 channel dedicated breast coil...
December 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209739/hepatocarcinogenesis-and-li-rads
#8
Kazim H Narsinh, Jennifer Cui, Demetri Papadatos, Claude B Sirlin, Cynthia S Santillan
Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multi-step process characterized by progressive cellular and molecular dedifferentiation of hepatocytes and culminating in the emergence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Knowledge of hepatocarcinogenesis is important because familiarity with the associated imaging features can lead to improved diagnosis of HCC at its early stages. The article reviews the alterations that accumulate leading to HCC result in abnormal imaging features, many of which are included in LI-RADS v2017 as major and ancillary features...
December 5, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207520/plants-of-the-genus-zingiber-as-a-source-of-bioactive-phytochemicals-from-tradition-to-pharmacy
#9
REVIEW
Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Elena Maria Varoni, Bahare Salehi, Javad Sharifi-Rad, Karl R Matthews, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Farzad Kobarfard, Salam A Ibrahim, Dima Mnayer, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Majid Sharifi-Rad, Zubaida Yousaf, Marcello Iriti, Adriana Basile, Daniela Rigano
Plants of the genus Zingiber (Family Zingiberaceae) are widely used throughout the world as food and medicinal plants. They represent very popular herbal remedies in various traditional healing systems; in particular, rhizome of Zingiber spp. plants has a long history of ethnobotanical uses because of a plethora of curative properties. Antimicrobial activity of rhizome essential oil has been extensively confirmed in vitro and attributed to its chemical components, mainly consisting of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as α-zingiberene, ar-curcumene, β-bisabolene and β-sesquiphellandrene...
December 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203428/calibration-by-commutable-control-materials-is-able-to-reduce-inter-method-differences-of-current-high-performance-methods-for-hba2
#10
Renata Paleari, Ferruccio Ceriotti, Cornelis L Harteveld, Marta Strollo, Greet Bakker-Verweij, Jeanet Ter Huurne, Sharda Bisoen, Andrea Mosca
BACKGROUND: Most of the current methods used for the determination of HbA2 seem not well aligned. A comparison among the best performing techniques and the commutability of some control materials currently available and under development has been evaluated. METHODS: Forty blood samples were analyzed in duplicate over two separate days by different HPLC and capillary electrophoresis systems. The commutabilities of different control materials (NIBSC WHO reagent, Bio-Rad Lyphochek, and home prepared lyophilized controls RP1-3) have been assessed by analyzing the controls in quadruplicate over two consecutive days together with the blood samples...
December 2, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202586/pharmacological-treatments-available-for-the-management-of-underactive-bladder-in-neurological-conditions
#11
Seyedeh-Sanam Ladi-Seyedian, Behnam Nabavizadeh, Lida Sharifi-Rad, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh
Underactive bladder (UAB) is a common cause of lower urinary tract dysfunction which has an increasing incidence with aging. It is characterized as an incompetent detrusor contraction with reduced strength and/or duration to completely empty the bladder. UAB is observed in both men and women. The exact definition, classification, and pathophysiological mechanism responsible for UAB is still debatable, however neurologic, myogenic, and iatrogenic causes are explained. The symptom complex related to UAB includes hesitancy, diminished sensation of bladder filling, a slow urinary stream, increased post-void residue, and etc...
December 5, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201499/biparametric-mri-of-the-prostate
#12
REVIEW
Michele Scialpi, Alfredo D'Andrea, Eugenio Martorana, Corrado Maria Malaspina, Maria Cristina Aisa, Maria Napoletano, Emanuele Orlandi, Valeria Rondoni, Pietro Scialpi, Diamante Pacchiarini, Diego Palladino, Michele Dragone, Giancarlo Di Renzo, Annalisa Simeone, Giampaolo Bianchi, Luca Brunese
Biparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (bpMRI) of the prostate combining both morphologic T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is emerging as an alternative to multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) to detect, to localize and to guide prostatic targeted biopsy in patients with suspicious prostate cancer (PCa). BpMRI overcomes some limitations of mpMRI such as the costs, the time required to perform the study, the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents and the lack of a guidance for management of score 3 lesions equivocal for significant PCa...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201097/the-evaluation-and-comparing-of-cytotoxic-effects-of-ferula-gummosa-gum-scutellaria-lindbergii-kelussia-odoratissima-and-artemisia-kopetdaghensis-extracts-on-achn-cell-line
#13
Azar Hosseini, Elham Bakhtiari, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad, Samira Shahraki, Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Shahrzad Havakhah, Mohammad Sadegh Amiri
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of most fatal cancers. In most patients it is resistant to chemotherapy. Ferula gummosa gum, Scutellaria lindbergii, Kelussia odoratissima, and Artemisia kopetdaghensis are herbs about which there are some cytotoxic activity reports. In this study, cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of these four extracts on RCC cell line (ACHN) were evaluated and compared (ACHN) cells were treated with different concentrations of herbal extracts (15-500 μg/mL). Cell proliferation was determined after 24, 48, and 72 h...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201070/rapid-weight-loss-vs-slow-weight-loss-which-is-more-effective-on-body-composition-and-metabolic-risk-factors
#14
Damoon Ashtary-Larky, Matin Ghanavati, Nasrin Lamuchi-Deli, Seyedeh Arefeh Payami, Sara Alavi-Rad, Mehdi Boustaninejad, Reza Afrisham, Amir Abbasnezhad, Meysam Alipour
Background: Achieving weight loss (WL) in a short time regardless of its consequences has always been the focus of many obese and overweight people. In this study, anthropometric and metabolic effects of two diets for rapid and slow WL and their consequences were examined. Methods: Forty-two obese and overweight individuals were randomly divided to 2 groups; rapid WL (weight loss of at least 5% in 5 weeks) and slow WL (weight loss of at least 5% in 15 weeks). To compare the effects of the rate of WL in 2 groups, the same amount of was achieved with different durations...
July 2017: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199386/triangle-of-akt2-mirna-and-tumorigenesis-in-different-cancers
#15
REVIEW
Maryam Honardoost, Seyed Mohammad Ali Hosseini Rad
AKT (AK mouse plus Transforming or Thymoma) is a frequent oncogene expressed in most tissues which includes three isoforms AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3. Hyperactivation of AKT signaling is a central key in many human cancer progressions, through modulating angiogenesis, tumor growth, and cell migration, invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Among all three isoforms, AKT2 is most related to cancer cell invasion, metastasis, and survival. Amplification and overexpression of AKT2 have been shown in many cancers. Accumulating evidence shows the potential role of different miRNA involvements in cancer progression by activating or suppressing AKT2 expression...
December 4, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198639/baseline-multiparametric-mri-for-selection-of-prostate-cancer-patients-suitable-for-active-surveillance-which-features-matter
#16
Francesco Sanguedolce, Giuseppe Petralia, Heminder Sokhi, Elena Tagliabue, Nicola Anyamene, Giles Hellawell, Anwar R Padhani
INTRODUCTION: Increasing evidence has supported the use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for the detection of prostate cancer. However, its role in selecting patients clinically suitable for active surveillance (AS) is still in development. We aimed to find relevant mpMRI features that might be helpful for refinement of the selection of low-risk prostate cancer patients for AS. We also evaluated the interobserver variability in reporting prostate mpMRI features. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2008 to 2012, 135 patients were selected for AS using Epstein criteria...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198315/mimicking-the-effects-of-spaceflight-on-bone-combined-effects-of-disuse-and-chronic-low-dose-rate-radiation-exposure-on-bone-mass-in-mice
#17
Kanglun Yu, Alison H Doherty, Paula C Genik, Sara E Gookin, Danielle M Roteliuk, Samantha J Wojda, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Michael M Weil, Seth W Donahue
During spaceflight, crewmembers are subjected to biomechanical and biological challenges including microgravity and radiation. In the skeleton, spaceflight leads to bone loss, increasing the risk of fracture. Studies utilizing hindlimb suspension (HLS) as a ground-based model of spaceflight often neglect the concomitant effects of radiation exposure, and even when radiation is accounted for, it is often delivered at a high-dose rate over a very short period of time, which does not faithfully mimic spaceflight conditions...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198006/characteristics-of-pi-rads-4-lesions-within-the-prostatic-peripheral-zone-a-retrospective-diagnostic-accuracy-study-evaluating-170-lesions
#18
Prasad R Shankar, Nicole E Curci, Matthew S Davenport
PURPOSE: To determine whether peripheral zone PI-RADS 4 observations can be further risk-stratified. METHODS: This was an IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective diagnostic accuracy study. Peripheral zone PI-RADS 4 observations prospectively identified at the study institution from 8/1/2015 to 12/31/2016 (n = 170 in 149 mpMRIs) were reviewed independently by two blinded genitourinary radiologists on the basis of (a) PI-RADS v2 shape, (b) pattern of peripheral zone sparing, and (c) rationale for PI-RADS 4 designation...
December 2, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197841/haemorrhagic-conversion-of-infectious-myelitis-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#19
Michael Stephen Pohlen, Jonathan Sunwei Lin, Kevin Yuqi Wang, Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad, Christie M Lincoln
A 28-year-old man recently diagnosed with HIV (CD4 19 cells/mm3, viral load 3.6 million copies/mL, not on highly active antiretroviral therapy on initial diagnosis at outside hospital), disseminated histoplasmosis, shingles and syphilis presented with paraplegia developing over 3 days. Spine MRI demonstrated a longitudinally extensive cord lesion extending from C3 to the tip of the conus. Brain MRI was consistent with meningoencephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid findings were notable for positive varicella zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCRs as well as a Venereal Disease Research Laboratory titre of 1:2...
December 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196555/ral-gtpases-biology-and-potential-as-therapeutic-targets-in-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Chao Yan, Dan Theodorescu
More than a hundred proteins comprise the RAS superfamily of small GTPases. This family can be divided into RAS, RHO, RAB, RAN, ARF, and RAD subfamilies, with each shown to play distinct roles in human cells in both health and disease. The RAS subfamily has a well-established role in human cancer with the three genes, HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS being the commonly mutated in tumors. These RAS mutations, most often functionally activating, are especially common in pancreatic, lung, and colorectal cancers. Efforts to inhibit RAS and related GTPases have produced inhibitors targeting the downstream effectors of RAS signaling, including inhibitors of the RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)-ERK kinase pathway and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase-AKT-mTOR kinase pathway...
January 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
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