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Maria A Lilli, Nikolaos P Nikolaidis, George P Karatzas, Nicolas Kalogerakis
A laboratory study was conducted to assess the mobility and mechanisms of chromium release from soils obtained from an area of wide spread geogenic contamination. The agricultural soil sample used in this study was taken from the Schimatari area in Asopos River basin in Greece. In order to refine the isolation of minerals contained in the soil, two types of separation analysis were conducted. First, a size fractionation with hydrocyclone and second, a weight fractionation with heavy liquids. The separated fractions were characterized using chemical, mineralogical and surface analysis...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Thiago R Schossler, Robélio L Marchão, Isis L Dos Santos, Djavan P Santos, Júlio César A Nóbrega, Glenio G Santos
Soil quality is essential for maintaining the sustainability of agro-ecosystems and ecosystem services provided by this natural resource. The present study aimed to assess the physical quality of soil through the characterization of the physical properties in grain production systems in the Southwest region of Piauí State, Brazil. The study was carried out in the Cerrado region of Piauí in four cities in areas of expansion of the agricultural frontier of the state: Baixa Grande do Ribeiro, Sebastião Leal, Uruçuí and Bom Jesus...
October 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Iwona Janica, Stefano Del Buffa, Agnieszka Mikołajczak, Matilde Eredia, Dawid Pakulski, Artur Ciesielski, Paolo Samorì
Phyllosilicates are layered materials possessing unique thermal properties, commonly exploited in their multilayered crystalline form as refractory insulators and heating elements. A more versatile use of such materials, however, would require their existence in the form of inks and dispersions ready to be patterned. Within this framework, the liquid-phase exfoliation of low-cost, low-purity materials such as bulk multiphasic minerals and powders represents an economically advantageous approach for the production of 2D nano-sized objects with a defined composition, size and morphology...
December 5, 2018: Nanoscale
Xiaoli Wang, Libing Liao
The Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction patterns is used widely for obtaining the structural information of clay minerals. However, the complex hydration behavior and the variability of interlayer contents are often considered difficult to be described correctly by a simple structure model. In the present work, the use of Cu-triethylenetetramine (Cu-trien)-exchanged nontronites has been proposed to simplify the interlayer structure. This method provides a potential to obtain the structural information of nontronites, for example, the layer charge density, occupancies of cis -octahedral sites, and the iron content by the Rietveld analysis from the X-ray powder diffraction patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Emmanuel M Ayo, Athanasia Matemu, Germana H Laswai, Martin E Kimanya
Aflatoxins in feeds cause great health hazards to animals, and thus eventually to humans as well. The potential of clays from Arusha (AC), Kilimanjaro (KC), the Coast (CC), and Morogoro (MC), as well as volcanic ash (VA) and rice husk ash (RA), were evaluated for their capacity to adsorb aflatoxins B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁), and G₂ (AFG₂) relative to a commercial binder Mycobind® (R) using in vitro technique. On average, CC, VA, KC, MC, AC, RA, and R adsorbed 39.9%, 51.3%, 61.5%, 62.0%, 72...
December 3, 2018: Toxins
Eduardo Bonet-Martínez, Luis Pérez-Villarejo, Dolores Eliche-Quesada, Eulogio Castro
The aluminum recycling industry produces aluminum filter dust (AFD), a waste byproduct of the aluminum recycling process composed mainly of aluminum oxide in a percentage between 60⁻70%, 8% calcium oxide, almost 15% sodium chloride, and between 5⁻10% potassium chloride. Due to its aluminum content, this waste can be used as a raw material in the manufacture of ceramic bricks, at the same time reducing the environmental impact produced in landfill. In this work, the partial substitution of a clay mixture (40% black, 30% red, and 30% yellow clay) by different proportions of AFD in the range 0⁻25 wt % for the production of fired clay brick was studied...
December 2, 2018: Materials
Hai-Lei Kou, Wen-Zhou Diao, Tao Liu, Dan-Liang Yang, Suksun Horpibulsuk
The behavior of open-ended pipe piles is different from that of closed-ended pipe piles due to the soil plugging effect. In this study, a series of field tests were conducted to investigate the behavior of open-ended prestressed high-strength concrete (PHC) pipe piles installed into clay. Two open-ended PHC pipe piles were instrumented with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and jacked into clay for subsequent static loading tests. Soil plug length of the test piles was continuously measured during installation, allowing for calculation of the incremental filling ratio...
December 1, 2018: Sensors
Deividas Rumsys, Edmundas Spudulis, Darius Bacinskas, Gintaris Kaklauskas
This study is focused on the experimental investigation of compressive strength and durability properties of lightweight concrete mixtures with fine expanded glass and expanded clay aggregates using different microfillers. The paper proposes the relationships between the compressive strength and density of concrete mixtures with different proportions of the lightweight aggregates mentioned above. The performed experimental studies have revealed the tendencies of possible usage of different amounts of fine lightweight aggregates and their combinations in the production of concrete mixtures depending on the demands of practical application...
November 30, 2018: Materials
Risto Uusitalo, Riitta Lemola, Eila Turtola
No-till as a water protection measure is highly efficient in controlling erosion and particulate P (PP) loss but tends to increase dissolved reactive P (DRP) concentrations in runoff water. In a 9-yr field study on a clay soil in Southwest Finland, the effects of no-till and autumn plowing on surface runoff and subsurface drainage water quality were compared. The site had a 2% slope and was under spring cereal cropping, with approximately replacement fertilizer P rates. Vertical stratification of soil-test P that had developed during a preceding 6-yr grass ley was undone by plowing but continued to develop under no-till...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ling Ou, Travis W Gannon, Consuelo Arellano, Matthew L Polizzotto
Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) is one of the most widely used herbicides worldwide, and groundwater contamination is of concern, especially in heavily used regions and in edaphic conditions prone to leaching. Soil sorption plays an essential role in atrazine environmental fate, yet consistent atrazine risk prediction remains limited. A quantitative meta-analysis was conducted to characterize the effect of soil properties on atrazine sorption, using 378 previous observations in 48 publications from 1985 to 2015 globally, which included data on soil properties and sorption parameters...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
D R Ferreira, J A Thornhill, E I N Roderick, Y Li
Many studies have shown that the adsorption of ions like K and Cs on 2:1 clay minerals can prompt the collapse of their interlayers and render the adsorbing ions nonexchangeable. This study sought to better understand this unique adsorption mechanism through the generation of an adsorption envelope for Cs adsorption on vermiculite and the exploration of the kinetics of interlayer collapse. The collapse of the vermiculite interlayer was confirmed via X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the timing of interlayer collapse was determined by placing Cs in competition with K at different time intervals...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Trine Norgaard, Marcos Paradelo, Per Moldrup, Sheela Katuwal, Lis W de Jonge
The mobilization and transport of colloid particles in soils can have negative agronomic and environmental effects. This work investigates the controls of particle release and transport from undisturbed soil columns sampled from an agricultural, loamy field with clay and silt contents of 0.05 to 0.14 and 0.07 to 0.16 kg kg, respectively. Forty-five soil columns (20 × 20 cm) were collected from the field and exposed to a constant irrigation of 10 mm h for 8 h. The accumulated mass of particles in the outflow from each column was highly correlated ( = 0...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Chaoqi Chen, Giselle Kristi Guron, Amy Pruden, Monica Ponder, Pang Du, Kang Xia
There is interest in understanding effects of amending soil with manure in a cultivation setting and if composting can provide benefits. Raw or composted manure from cattle administered with and without sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline, and tylosin was amended to loamy sand and silty clay loam soils, where lettuce ( L.), radish ( L.), and broccoli ( L. var. ) were cultivated and compared with those grown in soil amended with fertilizer as a control. Upon plant maturation, rhizosphere and bulk soils were analyzed for antibiotics, and 1, B, (W), and I1 genes were quantified...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Sabrina J Ruis, Humberto Blanco-Canqui, Paul J Jasa, Richard B Ferguson, Glen Slater
Cover crops (CCs) could alter soil processes, but the effects of early versus late termination of CCs on gas fluxes are not well known. We evaluated temporal changes in fluxes of CO, NO, and CH and related soil properties in no-till corn ( L.) with and without winter rye ( L.) CCs that were terminated early (30 d before planting) or late (at planting) in a rainfed silty clay loam and an irrigated silt loam in Nebraska from April 2016 to June 2017. Gas fluxes, soil temperature, and soil water content were measured biweekly to monthly, and wet aggregate stability and particulate organic matter concentrations were measured seasonally...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Sally A Entrekin, Natalie A Clay, Anastasia Mogilevski, Brooke Howard-Parker, Michelle A Evans-White
Secondary freshwater salinization, a common anthropogenic alteration, has detrimental, lethal and sub-lethal effects on aquatic biota. Ions from secondary salinization can become toxic to terrestrial and aquatic organisms when exposed to salinized runoff that causes periodic high-concentration pulses. Gradual, low-level (less than 1000 ppm salinity) increases in salt concentrations are also commonly documented in regions with urbanization, agriculture, drilling and mining. Despite widespread low-level salt increases, little is known about the biological and ecological consequences in coupled riparian-stream systems...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Paola Calle, Lorena Monserrate, Francisco Medina, Madeleine Calle Delgado, Ana Tirapé, Marynes Montiel, Omar Ruiz Barzola, Omar Alvarado Cadena, Gustavo A Dominguez, Juan José Alava
Water and sediment quality, macrobenthos diversity and mercury levels were assessed in the Salado Estuary, Gulf of Guayaquil (Ecuador) during 2008, 2009 and 2014. Severe hypoxia, anoxia and large fluctuations of salinity occurred in an impacted sector within Guayaquil city relative to a mangrove area within the Salado Mangroves Faunal Production Reserve. Significant inter-site and temporal differences were observed for dissolved oxygen, salinity, total dissolved solids, percentage of silts and clays, and species diversity...
November 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yuanyuan Tang, Xin Zheng, Wei Ma, Pengfei Wu
Serious environmental pollution has been frequently caused by the release of heavy metals from wastes generated from industrial activities. Although some of the heavy metals can be stabilized in ceramic matrix, the replacement of traditional ceramic precursors is needed due to adverse effects caused by clay mining. With abundant contents of aluminum, iron and silicon, the beneficial use of residues from sewage sludge incineration processes has attracted much attention. In this study, ZnO was simulated as zinc-bearing industrial waste, and the stabilization of zinc was achieved in aluminum- and iron-rich ceramic matrix provided by the residues of sewage sludge incineration...
December 2018: Waste Management
Mykola Kharytonov, Valentina Pidlisnyuk, Tatyana Stefanovska, Mykhailo Babenko, Nadia Martynova, Iryna Rula
The possibility of Miscanthus×giganteus cultivation as an energy crop on the different types of mining rocks was studied. It was revealed that a loess-like loam and red-brown clay with the added black soil were the most suitable for plant growing. The yield of dry above-ground biomass ranged from 4.3 to 6.8 t DM ha-1 after the first year of cultivation and from 8.9 to 9.7 t DM ha-1 after the second year while using these substrates. The application of amendments stimulated the growth and development of plants and increased productivity from 50 to 140%...
November 30, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mardi Mohammed Algandaby, Salama M El-Darier
Germination bioassay was carried out to test the biological activity of Achillea santolina L. (ASAE), Artemisia monosperma Del. (AMAE), Pituranthus tortuosus L. (PTAE) and Thymus capitatus L. (TCAE) aqueous extracts (collected from Taif region, KSA) on germination percentage (GP), plumule (PL) and radicle (RL) lengths (mm) besides seedling dry weight (SDW) (mg/seedlings) of Medicago polymorpha L. The inhibitory effect of P . tortuosus was insignificant compared to the other three donor species which attained the strongest allelopathic potential in the following order: A ...
November 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Andrew McDonough, Scott Baker, Eric Grimm, Aaron Todd, Michael Luciani, Debbie Terry
Prior to 2012 street sediment from the Greater Toronto Area was being managed by a local authority and provided to rural landowners under the assumption it was clean fill. The aim of this study was to characterise the chemical and physical composition of that street sediment applied to an agricultural field in southwestern Ontario, Canada and determine if contaminants had migrated to native soil. Soil was sampled from an impact and a background location during the fall of 2016 at four soil depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm below the surface) to characterise texture, pH, organic content, recoverable metals and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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