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Shihe Xing, Biqing Zhou, Liming Zhang, Yanling Mao, Fan Wang, Chengrong Chen
Soil soluble organic nitrogen (SON) concentrations in terrestrial ecosystems were influenced differently and substantially by both biotic and abiotic factors. This study aimed to ascertain the mechanisms of the impact of the key factors on the SON concentrations of subtropical mountain ecosystems in southeastern China using an integrative approach, which combined a field plot survey, gray relational analysis and structure equation modeling. The results showed that the soil organic matter, clay content, protease activity and bacterial biomass were the key factors controlling the dynamics of the SON concentrations in subtropical mountain ecosystems...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Carol V Tadros, Pauline C Treble, Andy Baker, Stuart Hankin, Regina Roach
Constraining sources and site-specific processes of trace elements in speleothem geochemical records is key to an informed interpretation. This paper examines a 10-year data set of drip water solutes from Harrie Wood Cave, south-eastern Australia, and identifies the processes that control their response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation events which varies the site water balance. The contributions of aerosol and bedrock end-members are quantified via hydrochemical mass balance modelling. The parent bedrock is the main source for the drip water solutes: Mg, Sr, K and trace elements (Ba, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Pb and U), while atmospheric aerosol inputs also contribute significantly to drip water trace elements and Na, K and Zn...
October 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
S Balaghi, N Ghal-Eh, A Mohammadi, H R Vega-Carrillo
A prototype moisture measurement system was designed and constructed, based on neutron scattering, for preforming measurements in the laboratory. The system consisted of a rectangular soil container, an 241 Am/Be neutron source and two parallel 10 BF3 detectors (one near the source and the other far from it). Neutrons from the source are moderated and backscattered within the soil sample before being detected by two parallel counters, whose count ratios are shown to be linearly related to the soil moisture even within short measurement times...
October 8, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Vincent V Pham, Carolina Salguero, Shamsun Nahar Khan, Jennifer L Meagher, W Clay Brown, Nicolas Humbert, Hugues de Rocquigny, Janet L Smith, Victoria M D'Souza
The HIV Tat protein competes with the 7SK:HEXIM interaction to hijack pTEFb from 7SK snRNP and recruit it to the TAR motif on stalled viral transcripts. Here we solve structures of 7SK stemloop-1 and TAR in complex with Tat's RNA binding domain (RBD) to gain insights into this process. We find that 7SK is peppered with arginine sandwich motifs (ASM)-three classical and one with a pseudo configuration. Despite having similar RBDs, the presence of an additional arginine, R52, confers Tat the ability to remodel the pseudo configuration, required for HEXIM binding, into a classical sandwich, thus displacing HEXIM...
October 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Thomas Dabat, Arnaud Mazurier, Fabien Hubert, Emmanuel Tertre, Brian Grégoire, Baptiste Dazas, Eric Ferrage
The anisotropic properties of clay-rich porous media have significant impact on the directional dependence of fluids migration in environmental and engineering sciences. This anisotropy, linked to the preferential orientation of flat anisometric clay minerals particles, is studied here on the basis of the simulation of three-dimensional packings of non-interacting disks, using a sequential deposition algorithm under a gravitational field. Simulations show that the obtained porosities fall onto a single master curve when plotted against the anisotropy value...
October 13, 2018: Materials
Vincent de Paul Obade
Sustainably utilizing global resources is critical for ensuring soil security which is pertinent for biomass production, climate change mitigation, environmental quality, biodiversity conservation and thus human wellbeing. A plethora of soil quality assessment metrics encapsulated in different concepts exist, with each typically biased towards identifying the interrelationship between agricultural production and specific physical, chemical or biological soil attributes. Because of diversity in soil classifications and crop requirements, considerable variation exist between these metrics making it difficult for end-users to select a suitable method...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nassima Dairi, Hafida Ferfera-Harrar, Marina Ramos, María Carmen Garrigós
Nano-biocomposite films based on plasticized cellulose acetate/triethyl citrate (CA/TEC) were prepared with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/gelatin-modified montmorillonite nanofiller (AgM) and thymol (Th). AgNPs were biosynthesized in situ the clay using Curcuma longa (C. longa) tuber extract. Full characterization of clay and the formulated films was conducted including morphological, physical and functional properties. From the results, the AgNPs showed spherical shape, face centred cubic crystalline structure, and small average size with narrow distribution...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Lei Wang, Xiaojun Miao, Jafar Ali, Tao Lyu, Gang Pan
Interfacial nanobubbles can exist on various hydrophobic and hydrophilic material interfaces. There are diverse applications for oxygen nanobubbles, which are closely related to their content and long-term stability. However, it remains challenging to determine the amount of nanobubbles loaded in a porous material. In this study, a novel method was used to quantify the total amount of oxygen nanobubbles loaded onto irregular particulate materials. Different materials were evaluated and their oxygen-loading capacities were found to be as follows: activated carbon (AC) > zeolite > biochar > diatomite > coal ash > clay...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
M Mavroulidou
Chemical ground improvement of soils of poor quality for construction has been increasingly used as a means of promoting sustainable construction practices. The production of conventional soil stabilisers such as cement or lime involves non-renewable natural resource and energy consumption and high carbon dioxide emissions; therefore, alternative stabilisers are sought. This study used waste paper sludge ash (PSA) to treat three different clays. The aim was to assess PSA effectiveness as an alternative to lime or cement for clay stabilisation based on plasticity characteristics, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), water retention and volumetric stability...
October 15, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Haleh Bakht Khosh Hagh, Fahimeh Farshi Azhar
Final purpose of tissue engineering is to regenerate or repair damaged tissues or organs. Desired repair efficacy necessitates proper physicochemical performances of scaffolds, among which adequate mechanical properties are crucial. Therefore, reinforcing tissue engineering scaffolds has been a hot research trend in recent years. In this regard, the use of some biomaterials as reinforcing materials is a longstanding area of interest. This article introduces the most popular reinforcing materials and focuses on recent advances in the use of these materials for reinforcing mechanical properties of tissue engineering scaffolds...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Jiacheng Shen, Roland Treu, Junye Wang, Fiona Nicholson, Anne Bhogal, Rachel Thorman
Organic fertilizers, such as digestates and manure, are increasingly applied in agricultural systems because of the benefits they provide in terms of plant nutrients and soil quality. However, there are few investigations of N2 O emissions following digestate application to agricultural soils using process-based models. In this study, we modified the UK-DNDC model to include digestate applications to soils by adding digestate properties to the model and considering the effect of organic fertilizer pH. Using the modified model, N2 O emissions were simulated from two organic fertilizers (digested food waste and livestock slurry) applied to three farms in the United Kingdom: one growing winter wheat at Wensum (WE) and two grasslands at Pwllpeiran (PW) and North Wyke (NW)...
September 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Juan Pablo Gutiérrez, Doris van Halem, Wim S J Uijttewaal, Efraín Del Risco, Luuk C Rietveld
As a consequence of the suspended sediments in river water, cake formation on the streambed and clogging of the aquifer may occur, leading to a decline in the production yield of riverbank filtration systems, particularly in highly turbid river waters. However, naturally occurring flow forces may induce sufficient scouring of the streambed, thereby self-regulating the thickness of the formed cake layer. This study assessed the recovery of the infiltration capacity in a simulated physically clogged riverbank filtration system, due to self-cleansing processes...
October 8, 2018: Water Research
R T Pate, D M Paulus Compart, F C Cardoso
Mitigation strategies are vital in minimizing the health and economic risks associated with dairy cattle exposure to aflatoxin (AF). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a commercially available aluminosilicate clay in a lactation diet on production responses, blood chemistry, and liver inflammatory markers of multiparous lactating Holstein cows during an AF challenge. Sixteen multiparous lactating Holstein cows [body weight (mean ± SD) = 758 ± 76 kg; days in milk = 157 ± 43 d] were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods: no adsorbent and no AF challenge (CON), no adsorbent and an AF challenge (POS), 113 g of aluminosilicate clay top-dressed on the total mixed ration (adsorbent; FloMatrix, PMI Nutritional Additives, Arden Hills, MN) with an AF challenge (F4), or 227 g of adsorbent with an AF challenge (F8)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Siddhant K Mehta, Wood W Dale, Michael D Dedwylder, Patrick F Bergin, Clay A Spitler
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the incidence of neurovascular injuries, compartment syndrome, early postoperative infection as well as the injury factors predictive of neurovascular injury following ballistic fractures of the radius and ulna. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed to identify all ballistic fractures of the radius and ulna in skeletally mature patients over a 5-year period at a single level-1 trauma center. Chart and radiographic review was performed to identify patient and injury demographics, associated neurologic or vascular injuries, and fracture characteristics...
October 6, 2018: Injury
Maria Camila Montealegre, Subarna Roy, Franziska Böni, Muhammed Iqbal Hossain, Tala Navab-Daneshmand, Lea Caduff, A S G Faruque, Mohammad Aminul Islam, Timothy R Julian
Soils in household environments in low- and middle-income countries may play an important role in the persistence, proliferation, and transmission of Escherichia coli Our goal was to investigate the risk factors for detection, survival, and growth of E. coli in soils collected from household plots. E. coli was enumerated in soil and fecal samples from human, chicken, and cattle from 52 households in rural Bangladesh. Associations between E. coli concentrations in soil, household-level factors, and soil physicochemical characteristics were investigated...
October 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jayanti M Clay, Joanne K Daggy, Sunetris Fluellen, Brownsyne Tucker Edmonds
OBJECTIVE: To assess women's attitudes and preferences related to recent changes in cervical cancer screening guidelines. METHODS: We distributed 380 surveys in three University based and Community clinics. Study participants anonymously completed surveys, which included questions related to demographics, cervical cancer, screening practices, risk perception and attitudes towards changing practices. RESULTS: 315 women agreed to participate (83%)...
October 3, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Bartolomeo Coppola, Nicola Cappetti, Luciano Di Maio, Paola Scarfato, Loredana Incarnato
In this study, the possibility of using a layered silicate-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) in additive manufacturing applications was investigated. In particular, the aim of this work was to study the influence of printing temperature in the 3D printing process of PLA/clay nanocomposites. For this reason, two PLA grades (4032D and 2003D, D-isomer content 1.5 and 4, respectively) were melt-compounded by a twin screw extruder with a layered silicate (Cloisite 30B) at 4 wt %. Then, PLA and PLA/clay feedstock filaments (diameter 1...
October 11, 2018: Materials
J Clay Bavinger, Yinxi Yu, Brian L VanderBeek
PURPOSE: To determine whether sterile preloading of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents reduces the risk of postintravitreal injection endophthalmitis. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using medical claims data from a large, national US insurer. Cohorts were created using intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections from 2005 to 2016. For inclusion, patients had to have at least 6 months of data before the injection and were excluded for any previous diagnosis of endophthalmitis, multiple injected drugs on the day of injection, or intraocular surgery within 15 days of the injection or between an injection and a diagnosis of endophthalmitis...
October 3, 2018: Retina
Justin E Pye, Clay E Wood, Justin C Burton
Experiments and simulations suggest that simple liquids may experience slip while flowing near a smooth, hydrophobic surface. Here we show how precursors to molecular slip can be observed in the complex response of a liquid to oscillatory shear. We measure both the change in frequency and bandwidth of a quartz crystal microbalance during the growth of a single drop of water immersed in an ambient liquid. By varying the hydrophobicity of the surface using self-assembled monolayers, our results show little or no slip for water on all surfaces...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Wartini Ng, Budiman Minasny, Brendan Malone, Patrick Filippi
Background: The use of visible-near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy for rapid soil characterisation has gained a lot of interest in recent times. Soil spectra absorbance from the visible-infrared range can be calibrated using regression models to predict a set of soil properties. The accuracy of these regression models relies heavily on the calibration set. The optimum sample size and the overall sample representativeness of the dataset could further improve the model performance. However, there is no guideline on which sampling method should be used under different size of datasets...
2018: PeerJ
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