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N E Camaño Silvestrini, M A Maine, H R Hadad, E Nocetti, M A Campagnoli
Landfill leachate is one of the most challenging types of wastewater to treat using constructed wetlands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two feeding strategies on the treatment efficiency of a landfill leachate using vertical flow wetlands (VFWs) planted with Typha domingensis or Canna indica. The tolerance of these macrophytes to the leachate was also evaluated. Coarse sand and light expanded clay aggregates (LECA) were used as substrates. Two feeding strategies (FS) were applied: FSA = 1 pulse per day of 0...
August 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Paul Joyce, Hanna Gustafsson, Clive A Prestidge
Nanostructured particle-lipid composites have emerged as state-of-the-art carrier systems for poorly water-soluble bioactive molecules due to their ability to control and enhance the lipase-mediated hydrolysis of encapsulated triglycerides, leading to a subsequent improvement in the solubilisation and absorption of encapsulated species. The first generation of particle-lipid composites (i.e. silica-lipid hybrid (SLH) microparticles) were designed and fabricated by spray drying a silica nanoparticle-stabilised Pickering emulsion, to create a novel three-dimensional architecture, whereby lipid droplets were encapsulated within a porous matrix support...
August 6, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Aaron B Klassen, Morgan Marshall, Mengtao Dai, N Clay Mann, Matthew D Sztajnkrycer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to describe the injury patterns, EMS response and interventions to mass shooting (MS) and active shooter (AS) incidents. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 2014-15 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) data sets. Date, time, and location for MS incidents were obtained from the Gun Violence Archive and then correlated with NEMSIS data set records. AS incidents were identified through FBI data...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Remzi İlay, Yasemin Kavdir
Gökçeada is the biggest island, and it is also known as the organic island of Turkey. Approximately 65% of the Gökçeada lands have slope > 12%. Climate, topography, land cover, and soil characteristics are considered to be the main natural factors affecting soil erosion severity in the Gökçeada. Prevention of soil degradation, hence the preservation or improvement of the overall quality of the soil, is directly related to the presence of stable soil aggregates. In addition, the resistance to weathering and replacement of soil particles are also relevant aspects in terms of sustainability...
August 16, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jie Song, Yi-Fei Sun, Xing Ji, Yu-Cheng Dai, Bao-Kai Cui
Laetiporus is a cosmopolitan genus of brown rot fungi. In this study, L.medogensis and L.xinjiangensis are described as new species from western China, based on morphological and molecular evidence. L.medogensis has only been found on gymnosperms so far and is distinguished by pinkish-buff to clay-buff pileal surface and buff-yellow pore surface, azonate to faintly zonate pileus and ellipsoid to ovoid basidiospores (5-6.2 × 4.2-5.2 μm). L.xinjiangensis is found on angiosperms and is characterised by pale-buff to clay-pink pileal surface, cream to light yellow pore surface, azonate to faintly zonate pileus, large pores (2-3 per mm) and small basidiospores (4...
2018: MycoKeys
Jianzhou He, Dengjun Wang, Dongmei Zhou
Soils are considered as a major sink for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) because of their inevitable release to the subsurface environment during production, transportation, use and disposal processes. In this context, the transport and retention of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different input particle concentration, particle size, and surface coating were investigated in clay loam using water-saturated column experiments. Our results showed that the mobility of AgNPs in the soil was considerably low, and >73...
August 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alexander A Grigoryan, Daphne R Jalique, Prabhakara Medihala, Simcha Stroes-Gascoyne, Gideon M Wolfaardt, Jennifer McKelvie, Darren R Korber
Aims: This study examined the diversity and sulfide-producing activity of microorganisms in microcosms containing commercial clay products ( e.g. , MX-80, Canaprill and National Standard) similar to materials which are currently considered for use in the design specifications for deep geologic repositories (DGR) for spent nuclear fuel. Methods and results: In anoxic microcosms incubated for minimum of 60 days with 10 g l-1 NaCl, sulfide production varied with temperature, electron donor and bentonite type...
August 2018: Heliyon
Wei Zhang, Jianchao Zhang, Yahai Lu
It remains elusive if direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) occurs in canonical syntrophy involving short-chain fatty acids oxidation. In the present study, we determined the effects of carbon nanomaterials on syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in two lake sediment enrichments and a defined coculture comprising Syntrophomonas wolfei and Methanococcus Maripaludis. After four continuous transfers of enrichment cultivation, Syntrophomonas dominated the bacterial populations in enrichments, and the dominated methanogens comprised Methanosarcina and Methanospirillum in one enrichment (from Weiming Lake) and Methanoregula and Methanospirillum in another (from Erhai Lake)...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chiara Borga, Gilseung Park, Clay Foster, Jessica Burroughs-Garcia, Matteo Marchesin, Rikin Shah, Ameera Hasan, Syed T Ahmed, Silvia Bresolin, Lance Batchelor, Teresa Scordino, Rodney R Miles, Geertruy Te Kronnie, James L Regens, J Kimble Frazer
Precursor-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer, but there are no useful zebrafish pre-B ALL models. We describe the first highly- penetrant zebrafish pre-B ALL, driven by human MYC. Leukemias express B lymphoblast-specific genes and are distinct from T cell ALL (T-ALL)-which these fish also develop. Zebrafish pre-B ALL shares in vivo features and expression profiles with human pre-B ALL, and these profiles differ from zebrafish T-ALL or normal B and T cells. These animals also exhibit aberrant lymphocyte development...
August 15, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Ruqin Fan, Xueming Yang, Craig F Drury, Zhenhua Zhang
Few studies have evaluated structural features of soil organic carbon (SOC) in different soil particle fractions, especially SOC changes induced by tillage, using Fourier transformed mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. To make a contribution in this context, soil samples of a Brookston clay loam (mesic Typic Argiaquoll) with averaged pH and organic matter concentration at 7.28 and 43.9 g kg-1 , respectively, were collected from short-term no-tillage (NT97) and mouldboard plow (CT97) treatments initiated in 1997 and long-term no-tillage (NT83) and mouldboard plow (CT83) treatments initiated in 1983 under a corn-soybean rotation, and were separated into sand, silt, and clay fractions using sonication...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew Johnson, Robyn Clay-Williams, Paul Lane
In September 2017, the Royal Australasian College of Medical Administrators adopted a new clinical governance framework that recognised healthcare as a complex adaptive system, and embraced the need for resilient thinking and understanding the differences between work-as-imagined by managers and work-as-done at the front line of patient care. Directors of medical services may soon be implementing the framework in health services across Australia. This perspective describes a new conceptual model that underpins the Royal Australasian College of Medical Administrators framework, and characterises the challenges faced by all healthcare professionals when trying to achieve safe care for patients in an environment of variable complexity and unpredictability...
August 16, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
K R Daly, S D Keyes, T Roose
We show how a combination of X-ray computed tomography (X-CT) and image-based modelling can be used to calculate the effect of moisture content and compaction on the macroscopic structural properties of soil. Our method is based on the equations derived in Daly & Roose (2018 Proc. R. Soc. A 474 , 20170141. (doi:10.1098/rspa.2017.0141)), which we have extended so they can be directly applied to the segmented images obtained from X-CT. We assume that the soils are composed of air-filled pore space, solid mineral grains and a mixed phase composed of both clay particles and water...
July 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Bing Wang, Yurong Chen, Jing Lu, Wujun Jin
As a high-resolution geophysical method employed by the oil and gas industry, well logging can be used to accurately investigate reservoirs. Challenges associated with shale gas reservoir exploration increase the importance of applying elastic parameters or velocity at the logging scale. An efficient shale rock physics model is the foundation for the successful application of this method. We propose a procedure for modelling shale rock physics in which an appropriate modelling method is applied for different compositions of shale rock...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
G K Achini W Fernando, Sevvandi Jayakody, W M Hiranya K Wijenayake, Gawrie N L Galappaththy, Mangala Yatawara, Jeevanie Harishchandra
BACKGROUND: The exotic fish Poecilia reticulata is promoted in the tropics as a biological control agent for aquatic pathogenic carriers, such as mosquitoes. Such control measures are often adopted blindly, ignoring the potential of native species and the adverse effects of introduced species. The present study was conducted to assess the diet composition of two species of fish, the native Aplocheilus parvus and exotic P. reticulata, and to assess the availability of food items in their natural environment in four types of aquatic systems...
August 14, 2018: BMC Ecology
Johannes W A van Dijk, Clay C C Wang
The potential of tailoring enzymes in combination with engineered hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like enzymes was explored and resulted in methylated and prenylated forms of novel natural products, highlighting the possibilities and limitations of this approach.
August 14, 2018: Organic Letters
Golayeh Yousefi, Mehdi Homaee, Ali Akbar Norouzi
This study was aimed (i) to examine using diffuse reflectance spectra within VNIR region to estimate soil heavy metals concentrations at large scale, (ii) to compare the influence of different pre-processing models on predictive model accuracy, and (iii) to explore the best predictive models. A number of 325 topsoil samples were collected and their spectral data, pH, clay content, organic matter, Ni, and Cu concentrations were determined. To improve spectral data, various pre-processing methods including Savitzky-Golay smoothing filter, Savitzky-Golay smoothing filter with first and second derivatives, and standard normal variant (SNV) were used...
August 13, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jie Dong, Junping Zhang
Superamphiphobic coatings (SAPCs) that resist wetting of water and low-surface-tension liquids have generated widespread attention in academia, but are very challenging to invent. Liquid adhesion, low stability, complicated and expensive preparation methods are the typical characteristics of SAPCs, which seriously hinder real-world applications of SAPCs. Here, we report a comprehensive study about preparation of SAPCs from abundant nanoclays with fibrous, plate-like and porous microstructures. The SAPCs are prepared simply by hydrolytic condensation of silanes in the presence of nanoclays, followed by spray-coating the as-formed suspensions onto substrates...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Antoun Al Absi, Hannah Wurzer, Coralie L Guerin, Céline Hoffmann, Flora Moreau, Xianqing Mao, Joshua Brown-Clay, Rémi Petrolli, Carla Pou Casellas, Monika Dieterle, Jean Paul Thiery, Salem Chouaib, Guy Berchem, Bassam Janji, Clement Thomas
Elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanisms of immune evasion in cancer is critical for the development of immunotherapies aimed to restore and stimulate effective antitumor immunity. Here we evaluate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in breast cancer cell resistance to cytotoxic NK cells. A significant fraction of breast cancer cells responded to NK cell attack via a surprisingly rapid and massive accumulation of F-actin near the immunological synapse, a process we termed 'actin response'. Live cell imaging provided direct evidence that the actin response is associated with tumor cell resistance to NK cell-mediated cell death...
August 13, 2018: Cancer Research
Elaine Pereira Dos Santos, Marcus Vinícius Lia Fook, Oscar Manoel Loureiro Malta, Suédina Maria de Lima Silva, Itamara Farias Leite
Purified clay was modified with different amounts of alkyl ammonium and phosphonium salts and used as filler in the preparation of PET nanocomposites via melt intercalation. The effect of this type of filler on morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of PET nanocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyses (TG), tensile properties, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the mixture of alkyl ammonium and phosphonium salts favored the production of PET nanocomposites with intercalated and partially exfoliated morphologies with slight improvement in thermal stability...
August 10, 2018: Materials
David W Russ, Sean M Garvey, Clay Densmore, Trevor Hawks, Stephanie Herman, Katherine Pardi
AIM: Contusion injury in aging muscle has not been studied in detail, but older adults are at risk for such injuries due to increased risk of falls. As falls in older populations are unlikely to be eliminated, interventions to minimize the negative impact of falls, including contusion injury should be pursued. Dietary fish oil (FO) is a common often supplement in older adults, which is associated with factors that might reduce or worsen the negative impact of contusion. METHODS: Here, we investigate whether 8 weeks of FO can blunt the impact of contusion injury in adult (n = 14) and aged (n = 12) rats...
August 10, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
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