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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893081/paired-box-7-pax7-gene-molecular-characterization-polymorphism-and-its-association-with-growth-performance-in-goose-anser-cygnoides
#1
C Wang, Y Yang, Liu Yi, S Gong, Wang Ying, D He
1. Paired box (Pax7) gene is a member of the paired box family and plays a critical role in animal growth and muscle development. However, the molecular characterisation of the goose Pax7 gene is unknown. 2. The open reading frame of goose Pax7 is composed of 1509 bp, which encodes a protein of 503 amino acids and shares high homology with Pax7 of other birds. 3. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the genomic DNA sequence, 8 located in the intron region and two located in the exon region...
September 12, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887614/the-pro-fibrotic-connective-tissue-growth-factor-ctgf-ccn2-correlates-with-the-number-of-necrotic-regenerative-foci-in-dystrophic-muscle
#2
María Gabriela Morales, María José Acuña, Daniel Cabrera, Roel Goldschmeding, Enrique Brandan
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) has strong inflammatory and profibrotic activities. Its expression is enhanced in skeletal muscular dystrophies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a myopathy characterized by exacerbated inflammation and fibrosis. In dystrophic tissue, necrotic-regenerative foci, myofibroblasts, newly-regenerated muscle fibers and necrosis all occur simultaneously. To determine if CCN2 is involved in the appearance of the foci, we studied their presence and characteristics in mdx mice (DMD mouse model) compared to mdx mice hemizygous for CCN2 (mdx-Ccn2+/-)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887016/myotome-adaptability-confers-developmental-robustness-to-somitic-myogenesis-in-response-to-fibre-number-alteration
#3
Shukolpa D Roy, Victoria C Williams, Tapan G Pipalia, Kuoyu Li, Christina L Hammond, Stefanie Knappe, Robert D Knight, Simon M Hughes
Balancing the number of stem cells and their progeny is crucial for tissue development and repair. Here we examine how cell numbers and overall muscle size are tightly regulated during zebrafish somitic muscle development. Muscle stem/precursor cell (MPCs) expressing Pax7 are initially located in the dermomyotome (DM) external cell layer, adopt a highly stereotypical distribution and thereafter a proportion of MPCs migrate into the myotome. Regional variations in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of MPCs contribute to growth of the myotome...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884746/inflammatory-leiomyosarcoma-is-a-distinct-tumor-characterized-by-near-haploidization-few-somatic-mutations-and-a-primitive-myogenic-gene-expression-signature
#4
Elsa Arbajian, Jan Köster, Fredrik Vult von Steyern, Fredrik Mertens
Inflammatory leiomyosarcoma is a soft-tissue tumor resembling conventional leiomyosarcoma, but with a prominent intrinsic inflammatory component. Previous studies have suggested that inflammatory leiomyosarcoma differs genetically from leiomyosarcoma, but in-depth analyses are lacking. Here we provide a comprehensive picture of the genome and transcriptome of inflammatory leiomyosarcoma by combining cytogenetic, single-nucleotide polymorphism array, mRNA-sequencing, and whole-exome sequencing data. The results show that inflammatory leiomyosarcoma has a specific genetic profile characterized by near-haploidization with or without subsequent whole-genome doubling...
September 8, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883017/nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma
#5
Megan M Cleary, Atiya Mansoor, Teagan Settelmeyer, Yuichi Ijiri, Katherine J Ladner, Matthew N Svalina, Brian P Rubin, Denis C Guttridge, Charles Keller
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS) is a pediatric soft tissue cancer commonly associated with a chromosomal translocation that leads to the expression of a Pax3:Foxo1 or Pax7:Foxo1 fusion protein, the developmental underpinnings of which may give clues to its therapeutic approaches. In aRMS, the NFκB-YY1-miR-29 regulatory circuit is dysregulated, resulting in repression of miR-29 and loss of the associated tumor suppressor activity. To further elucidate the role of NFκB in aRMS, we first tested 55 unique sarcoma cell lines and primary cell cultures in a large-scale chemical screen targeting diverse molecular pathways...
September 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854747/in-ovo-feeding-of-creatine-pyruvate-alters-energy-reserves-satellite-cell-mitotic-activity-and-myogenic-gene-expression-of-breast-muscle-in-embryos-and-neonatal-broilers
#6
M M Zhao, T Gao, L Zhang, J L Li, P A Lv, L L Yu, F Gao, G H Zhou
We investigated the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on energy reserves, satellite cell mitotic activity (SCMA) and myogenic gene expression in breast muscle of embryos and neonatal broilers. A total of 960 eggs were randomly allocated into three treatments: 1) non-injected control group, 2) saline group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%), and 3) CrPyr group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%) containing 12 mg CrPyr/egg at 17.5 d of incubation...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833130/inducible-satellite-cell-depletion-attenuates-skeletal-muscle-regrowth-following-a-scald-burn-injury
#7
Celeste C Finnerty, Colleen F McKenna, Lauren A Cambias, Camille R Brightwell, Anesh Prasai, Ye Wang, Amina El Ayadi, David N Herndon, Oscar E Suman, Christopher S Fry
Severe burns result in profound skeletal muscle atrophy; persistent muscle atrophy and weakness are major complications that hamper recovery from burn injury. Many factors contribute to the erosion of muscle mass following burn trauma, and we have previously shown concurrent activation and apoptosis of muscle satellite cells following a burn injury in pediatric patients. To determine the necessity of satellite cells during muscle recovery following a burn injury, we utilized a genetically modified mouse model (Pax7(CreER) -DTA) that allows for the conditional depletion of satellite cells in skeletal muscle...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808339/direct-reprogramming-of-fibroblasts-into-skeletal-muscle-progenitor-cells-by-transcription-factors-enriched-in-undifferentiated-subpopulation-of-satellite-cells
#8
Naoki Ito, Isao Kii, Noriaki Shimizu, Hirotoshi Tanaka, Takeda Shin'ichi
Satellite cells comprise a functionally heterogeneous population of stem cells in skeletal muscle. Separation of an undifferentiated subpopulation and elucidation of its molecular background are necessary to identify the reprogramming factors to induce skeletal muscle progenitor cells. In this study, we found that intracellular esterase activity distinguishes a subpopulation of cultured satellite cells with high stemness using esterase-sensitive cell staining reagent, calcein-AM. Gene expression analysis of this subpopulation revealed that defined combinations of transcription factors (Pax3, Mef2b, and Pitx1 or Pax7, Mef2b, and Pitx1 in embryonic fibroblasts, and Pax7, Mef2b and MyoD in adult fibroblasts) reprogrammed fibroblasts into skeletal muscle progenitor cells...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790171/the-ror1-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-plays-a-critical-role-in-regulating-satellite-cell-proliferation-during-regeneration-of-injured-muscle
#9
Koki Kamizaki, Ryosuke Doi, Makoto Hayashi, Takeshi Saji, Motoi Kanagawa, Tatsushi Toda, So-Ichiro Fukada, Hsin-Yi Henry Ho, Michael Eldon Greenberg, Mitsuharu Endo, Yasuhiro Minami
The Ror family receptor tyrosine kinases, Ror1 and Ror2 play important roles in regulating developmental morphogenesis and tissue- and organogenesis, but their roles in tissue regeneration in adult animals remains largely unknown. In this study, we examined the expression and function of Ror1 and Ror2 during skeletal muscle regeneration. Using an in vivo skeletal muscle injury model, we show that expression of Ror1 and Ror2 in skeletal muscles is induced transiently by the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, after injury, and that inhibition of TNF-α and IL-1β by neutralizing antibodies suppresses expression of Ror1 and Ror2 in injured muscles...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756524/muscle-satellite-cells-are-functionally-impaired-in-myasthenia-gravis-consequences-on-muscle-regeneration
#10
Mohamed Attia, Marie Maurer, Marieke Robinet, Fabien Le Grand, Elie Fadel, Rozen Le Panse, Gillian Butler-Browne, Sonia Berrih-Aknin
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disease caused in most cases by anti-acetyl-choline receptor (AChR) autoantibodies that impair neuromuscular signal transmission and affect skeletal muscle homeostasis. Myogenesis is carried out by muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs). However, myogenesis in MG had never been explored. The aim of this study was to characterise the functional properties of myasthenic SCs as well as their abilities in muscle regeneration. SCs were isolated from muscle biopsies of MG patients and age-matched controls...
July 29, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740214/compensatory-anabolic-signaling-in-the-sarcopenia-of-experimental-chronic-arthritis
#11
Robert D Little, Iván Prieto-Potin, Sandra Pérez-Baos, Amanda Villalvilla, Paula Gratal, Flavia Cicuttini, Raquel Largo, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont
Inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis may alter the regulation of muscle mass leading to a secondary sarcopenia, commonly termed rheumatoid cachexia (RC). We characterized alterations to muscle structure and various pro-inflammatory, catabolic and regenerative markers in an animal model of RC. Antigen induced arthritis (AiA) was performed in 20 male adult rabbits. AiA animals exhibited significantly less weight gain, a markedly elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP), lighter muscles with shorter cross-sectional diameter and increased myonuclei when compared to controls...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736900/depletion-of-pax7-satellite-cells-does-not-affect-diaphragm-adaptations-to-running-in-young-or-aged-mice
#12
Kevin A Murach, Amy L Confides, Angel Ho, Janna R Jackson, Lina S Ghazala, Charlotte A Peterson, Esther E Dupont-Versteegden
Satellite cell contribution to un-stressed diaphragm is higher compared to hind limb muscles, which is likely attributable to constant activation of this muscle to drive ventilation. Whether satellite cell depletion negatively impacts diaphragm quantitative and qualitative characteristics under stressed conditions in young and aged mice is unknown. We therefore challenged the diaphragm with prolonged running activity in the presence and absence of Pax7+ satellite cells in young and aged mice using an inducible Pax7(CreER) -R26R(DTA) model...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735515/determination-of-cell-fate-in-skeletal-muscle-following-bmp-gene-transfer-by-in-vivo-electroporation
#13
Mariko Kawai, Yu-Ki Ohmori, Mai Nishino, Masayo Yoshida, Kaori Tabata, Do-Saku Hirota, Ayako Ryu-Mon, Hiromitsu Yamamoto, Junya Sonobe, Yo-Hei Kataoka, Noriko Shiotsu, Mika Ikegame, Hiroki Maruyama, Toshio Yamamoto, Kazuhisa Bessho, Kiyoshi Ohura
We previously developed a novel method for gene transfer, which combined a non-viral gene expression vector with transcutaneous in vivo electroporation. We applied this method to transfer the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) gene and induce ectopic bone formation in rat skeletal muscles. At present, it remains unclear which types of cells can differentiate into osteogenic cells after BMP gene transfer by in vivo electroporation. Two types of stem cells in skeletal muscle can differentiate into osteogenic cells: muscle-derived stem cells, and bone marrow-derived stem cells in the blood...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732241/generation-of-skeletal-myogenic-progenitors-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-non-viral-delivery-of-minicircle-dna
#14
Jaemin Kim, Vanessa K P Oliveira, Ami Yamamoto, Rita C R Perlingeiro
Currently, the most efficient and promising approach for generating large numbers of engraftable human skeletal myogenic progenitors from pluripotent stem cells requires the conditional in vitro overexpression of PAX7 using lentiviral vectors. Because a non-integrating approach would be preferable to eliminate or minimize the risk associated with random genomic integration, here we investigate whether transient expression of PAX7 using minicircle DNA would enable the generation of functional pluripotent stem cell-derived myogenic progenitors, equivalent to those generated by lentivirus...
August 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721121/does-the-injection-of-platelet-rich-plasma-induce-changes-in-the-gene-expression-and-morphology-of-intact-thoroughbred-skeletal-muscle
#15
Kentaro Fukuda, Hirofumi Miyata, Atsutoshi Kuwano, Taisuke Kuroda, Norihisa Tamura, Yasumitsu Kotoyori, Yoshinori Kasashima
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy is promising for treating skeletal muscle injuries in human athletes by promoting muscle regeneration. It might also be useful for treating muscle injuries in equine athletes. In the present study, muscle regeneration induced by injection of PRP into intact muscle of Thoroughbred was investigated. Autologous PRP and saline were injected twice into intact left and right gluteus medius muscles of seven clinically healthy Thoroughbreds. Muscle samples were collected from the injection sites by needle biopsy at 2 and 7 days after PRP injection...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714082/in-situ-macrophage-phenotypic-transition-is-affected-by-altered-cellular-composition-prior-to-acute-sterile-muscle-injury
#16
Andreas Patsalos, Attila Pap, Tamas Varga, Gyorgy Trencsenyi, Gerardo Alvarado Contreras, Ildiko Garai, Zoltan Papp, Balazs Dezso, Eva Pintye, Laszlo Nagy
KEY POINTS: The in situ phenotypic switch of macrophages is delayed in acute injury following irradiation. The combination of bone marrow transplantation and local muscle radiation protection allows for the identification of a myeloid cell contribution to tissue repair. PET-MRI allows monitoring of myeloid cell invasion and metabolism. Altered cellular composition prior to acute sterile injury affects the in situ phenotypic transition of invading myeloid cells to repair macrophages. There is reciprocal intercellular communication between local muscle cell compartments, such as PAX7 positive cells, and recruited macrophages during skeletal muscle regeneration...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700649/autophagy-mediates-cell-cycle-response-by-regulating-nucleocytoplasmic-transport-of-pax6-in-limbal-stem-cells-under-ultraviolet-a-stress
#17
Maria Laggner, Andreas Pollreisz, Gerald Schmidinger, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Ying-Ting Chen
Limbal stem cells (LSC) account for homeostasis and regeneration of corneal epithelium. Solar ultraviolet A (UVA) is the major source causing oxidative damage in the ocular surface. Autophagy, a lysosomal degradation mechanism, is essential for physiologic function and stress defense of stem cells. PAX6, a master transcription factor governing corneal homeostasis by regulating cell cycle and cell fate of LSC, responds to oxidative stress by nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Impaired autophagy and deregulated PAX6 have been reported in oxidative stress-related ocular surface disorders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693603/differential-requirement-for-satellite-cells-during-overload-induced-muscle-hypertrophy-in-growing-versus-mature-mice
#18
Kevin A Murach, Sarah H White, Yuan Wen, Angel Ho, Esther E Dupont-Versteegden, John J McCarthy, Charlotte A Peterson
BACKGROUND: Pax7+ satellite cells are required for skeletal muscle fiber growth during post-natal development in mice. Satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion also appears to persist into early adulthood. Given the important role of satellite cells during muscle development, we hypothesized that the necessity of satellite cells for adaptation to an imposed hypertrophic stimulus depends on maturational age. METHODS: Pax7(CreER)-R26R(DTA) mice were treated for 5 days with vehicle (satellite cell-replete, SC+) or tamoxifen (satellite cell-depleted, SC-) at 2 months (young) and 4 months (mature) of age...
July 10, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689354/functional-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-traumatic-peripheral-nerve-muscle-injury-model
#19
Renate Wanner, Manuel Gey, Alireza Abaei, Daniela Warnecke, Luisa de Roy, Lutz Dürselen, Volker Rasche, Bernd Knöll
Traumatic injuries to human peripheral nerves are frequently associated with damage to nerve surrounding tissues including muscles and blood vessels. Currently, most rodent models of peripheral nerve injuries (e.g., facial or sciatic nerve) employ surgical nerve transection with scissors or scalpels. However, such an isolated surgical nerve injury only mildly damages neighboring tissues and weakly activates an immune response. In order to provide a rodent nerve injury model accounting for such nerve-associated tissue damage and immune cell activation, we developed a drop tower-based facial nerve trauma model in mice...
July 8, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676130/skeletal-muscle-derived-interstitial-progenitor-cells-pics-display-stem-cell-properties-being-clonogenic-self-renewing-and-multi-potent-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Beverley J Cottle, Fiona C Lewis, Victoria Shone, Georgina M Ellison-Hughes
BACKGROUND: The development of cellular therapies to treat muscle wastage with disease or age is paramount. Resident muscle satellite cells are not currently regarded as a viable cell source due to their limited migration and growth capability ex vivo. This study investigated the potential of muscle-derived PW1(+)/Pax7(-) interstitial progenitor cells (PICs) as a source of tissue-specific stem/progenitor cells with stem cell properties and multipotency. METHODS: Sca-1(+)/PW1(+) PICs were identified on tissue sections from hind limb muscle of 21-day-old mice, isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) technology and their phenotype and characteristics assessed over time in culture...
July 4, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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