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Andrea B Agarwal, Cheng-Yuan Feng, Amy L Altick, David R Quilici, Dan Wen, L Alan Johnson, Christopher S von Bartheld
Purpose: To determine whether structural protein composition and expression of key regulatory genes are altered in strabismic human extraocular muscles. Methods: Samples from strabismic horizontal extraocular muscles were obtained during strabismus surgery and compared with normal muscles from organ donors. We used proteomics, standard and customized PCR arrays, and microarrays to identify changes in major structural proteins and changes in gene expression. We focused on muscle and connective tissue and its control by enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Józef Dulak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Cell Cycle
Addolorata Pisconti, Glen B Banks, Farshad Babaeijandaghi, Nicole Dalla Betta, Fabio M V Rossi, Jeffrey S Chamberlain, Bradley B Olwin
BACKGROUND: The skeletal muscle stem cell niche provides an environment that maintains quiescent satellite cells, required for skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Syndecan-3, a transmembrane proteoglycan expressed in satellite cells, supports communication with the niche, providing cell interactions and signals to maintain quiescent satellite cells. RESULTS: Syndecan-3 ablation unexpectedly improves regeneration in repeatedly injured muscle and in dystrophic mice, accompanied by the persistence of sublaminar and interstitial, proliferating myoblasts...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
Gina M Aloisio, Ileana Cuevas, Yuji Nakada, Christopher G Peña, Diego H Castrillon
The precise identity of spermatogonial stem cells-the germline stem cell of the adult testis-remains a controversial topic. Technical limitations have included the lack of specific markers and methods for lineage tracing of Asingle spermatogonia and their subsets. Immunolocalization of proteins in tissue sections has been a standard tool for the in situ identification and visualization of rare cellular subsets. However, these studies are limited by the need for faithful and reliable protein markers to define these cell types, as well as the availability of specific antibodies to these markers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Angela Zissler, Peter Steinbacher, Reinhold Zimmermann, Stefan Pittner, Walter Stoiber, Arne C Bathke, Alexandra M Sänger
BACKGROUND: Muscle injuries are among the most common sports-related lesions in athletes; however, optimal treatment remains obscure. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) may be a promising approach in this context, because it has gained increasing importance in tissue regeneration in various medical fields. HYPOTHESIS: ESWT stimulates and accelerates regenerative processes of acute muscle injuries. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Kyle S Martin, Christopher D Kegelman, Kelley M Virgilio, Julianna A Passipieri, George J Christ, Silvia S Blemker, Shayn M Peirce
Numerous studies have pharmacologically modulated the muscle milieu in the hopes of promoting muscle regeneration; however, the timing and duration of these interventions are difficult to determine. This study utilized a combination of in silico and in vivo experiments to investigate how inflammation manipulation improves muscle recovery following injury. First, we measured macrophage populations following laceration injury in the rat tibialis anterior (TA). Then we calibrated an agent-based model (ABM) of muscle injury to mimic the observed inflammation profiles...
October 7, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Alba Chacon-Cabrera, Joaquim Gea, Esther Barreiro
Skeletal muscle dysfunction and atrophy are characteristic features accompanying chronic conditions. Epigenetic events regulate muscle mass and function maintenance. We hypothesized that the pattern of epigenetic events (muscle-enriched microRNAs and histone acetylation) and acetylation of transcription factors known to signal muscle wasting may differ between early- and late-time points in skeletal muscles of mice exposed to hindlimb immobilization (I) and recovery following I. Body and muscle weights, grip strength, muscle-enriched microRNAs, histone deacetylases (HDACs), acetylation of proteins, histones, and transcription factors (TF), myogenic TF factors, and muscle phenotype were assessed in gastrocnemius of mice exposed to periods (1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days, I groups) of hindlimb immobilization, and in those exposed to reloading for different periods of time (1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, R groups) following 7-day immobilization...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Colin Fennelly, Zhan Wang, Tracy Criswell, Shay Soker
It is important to maintain the myogenic properties of muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) during in vitro expansion for stem cell therapies and tissue engineering applications. Controlling cell fate for biomedical interventions will require insight on all aspects that influence cellular properties. The resting membrane potential (Vmem) has proven to be a key parameter involved in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. This current work is focused on elucidating the impact of sustained depolarization on MPC growth and differentiation in vitro...
September 30, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Deanna Gigliotti, Jeff R S Leiter, Peter B MacDonald, Jason Peeler, Judy E Anderson
BACKGROUND: Rotator-cuff injury (RCI) is common and painful; even after surgery, joint stability and function may not recover. Relative contributions to atrophy from disuse, fibrosis, denervation, and satellite-cell responsiveness to activating stimuli are not known. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Potential contributions of denervation and disrupted satellite cell responses to growth signals were examined in supraspinatus (SS) and control (ipsilateral deltoid) muscles biopsied from participants with RCI (N = 27)...
2016: PloS One
Gang Li, Qing-Shan Li, Wen-Bin Li, Jian Wei, Wen-Kai Chang, Zhi Chen, Hu-Yun Qiao, Ying-Wei Jia, Jiang-Hua Tian, Bing-Sheng Liang
Denervation often results in skeletal muscle atrophy. Different mechanisms seem to be involved in the determination between denervated slow and fast skeletal muscle atrophy. At the epigenetic level, miRNAs are thought to be highly involved in the pathophysiological progress of denervated muscles. We used miRNA microarrays to determine miRNA expression profiles from a typical slow muscle (soleus muscle) and a typical fast muscle (tibialis anterior muscle) at an early denervation stage in a rat model. Results showed that miR-206, miR-195, miR-23a, and miR-30e might be key factors in the transformation process from slow to fast muscle in denervated slow muscles...
August 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Yoshitaka Ohno, Yusuke Matsuba, Naohiro Hashimoto, Takao Sugiura, Yoshinobu Ohira, Toshitada Yoshioka, Katsumasa Goto
Effects of myostatin (MSTN)-suppression on the regeneration of injured skeletal muscle under unloading condition were investigated by using transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative form of MSTN (MSTN-DN). Both MSTN-DN and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to continuous hindlimb suspension (HS) for 6 weeks. Cardiotoxin (CTX) was injected into left soleus muscle under anesthesia 2 weeks after the initiation of HS. Then, the soleus muscles were excised following 6-week HS (4 weeks after CTX-injection). CTX-injection caused to reduce the soleus fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in WT mice under both unloading and weight-bearing conditions, but not in MSTN-DN mice...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Pengpeng Bi, Feng Yue, Yusuke Sato, Sara Wirbisky, Weiyi Liu, Tizhong Shan, Yefei Wen, Daoguo Zhou, Jennifer Freeman, Shihuan Kuang
Skeletal myogenesis involves sequential activation, proliferation, self-renewal/differentiation and fusion of myogenic stem cells (satellite cells). Notch signaling is known to be essential for the maintenance of satellite cells, but its function in late-stage myogenesis, i.e. post-differentiation myocytes and post-fusion myotubes, is unknown. Using stage-specific Cre alleles, we uncovered distinct roles of Notch1 in mononucleated myocytes and multinucleated myotubes. Specifically, constitutive Notch1 activation dedifferentiates myocytes into Pax7(+) quiescent satellite cells, leading to severe defects in muscle growth and regeneration, and postnatal lethality...
September 19, 2016: ELife
Bilal Al Jaam, Katy Heu, Florian Pennarubia, Alexandre Segelle, Laetitia Magnol, Agnès Germot, Sébastien Legardinier, Véronique Blanquet, Abderrahman Maftah
Postnatal skeletal muscle growth results from the activation of satellite cells and/or an increase in protein synthesis. The Notch signalling pathway maintains satellite cells in a quiescent state, and once activated, sustains their proliferation and commitment towards differentiation. In mammals, POFUT1-mediated O-fucosylation regulates the interactions between NOTCH receptors and ligands of the DELTA/JAGGED family, thus initiating the activation of canonical Notch signalling. Here, we analysed the consequences of downregulated expression of the Pofut1 gene on postnatal muscle growth in mutant Pofut1(cax/cax) (cax, compact axial skeleton) mice and differentiation of their satellite cell-derived myoblasts (SCDMs)...
September 2016: Open Biology
Areta M Czerwinska, Joanna Nowacka, Magdalena Aszer, Sylwia Gawrzak, Karolina Archacka, Anna Fogtman, Roksana Iwanicka-Nowicka, Katarzyna Jańczyk-Ilach, Marta Koblowska, Maria A Ciemerych, Iwona Grabowska
The transcription factor Pax7 plays a key role during embryonic myogenesis and in adult organisms in that it sustains the proper function of satellite cells, which serve as adult skeletal muscle stem cells. Recently we have shown that lack of Pax7 does not prevent the myogenic differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. In the current work we show that the absence of functional Pax7 in differentiating embryonic stem cells modulates cell cycle facilitating their proliferation. Surprisingly, deregulation of Pax7 function also positively impacts at the proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
September 9, 2016: Cell Cycle
Jinyue Wang, Xiaohong Wang, Weidou Feng
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper was to study the effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway on reloading-mediated restoration of disuse muscle loss induced by hind limb suspension in rats. DESIGN: Rats were divided into 4 groups: control group (CON), HLS group (hind limb suspension for 2 weeks), HLS + R group (hind limb suspension for 2 weeks followed by 2 weeks of natural reloading), and HRS + E group (hind limb suspension for 2 weeks followed by 2 weeks of treadmill exercise)...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Sara Oliván, Ana C Calvo, Amaya Rando, Mireia Herrando-Grabulosa, Raquel Manzano, Pilar Zaragoza, Eduardo F Tizzano, Jose Aquilera, Rosario Osta
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary childhood disease that causes paralysis and progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and spinal motor neurons. SMA is associated with reduced levels of full-length Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein, due to mutations in the Survival of Motor Neuron 1 gene. Nowadays there are no effective therapies available to treat patients with SMA, so our aim was to test whether the non-toxic carboxy-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin heavy chain (TTC), which exhibits neurotrophic properties, might have a therapeutic role or benefit in SMA...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Neia Naldaiz-Gastesi, María Goicoechea, Sonia Alonso-Martín, Ana Aiastui, Macarena López-Mayorga, Paula García-Belda, Jaione Lacalle, Carlos San José, Marcos J Araúzo-Bravo, Lidwine Trouilh, Véronique Anton-Leberre, Diego Herrero, Ander Matheu, Antonio Bernad, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Jaime J Carvajal, Frédéric Relaix, Adolfo Lopez de Munain, Patricia García-Parra, Ander Izeta
The dermal Panniculus carnosus (PC) muscle is important for wound contraction in lower mammals and represents an interesting model of muscle regeneration due to its high cell turnover. The resident satellite cells (the bona fide muscle stem cells) remain poorly characterized. Here we analyzed PC satellite cells with regard to developmental origin and purported function. Lineage tracing shows that they originate in Myf5(+), Pax3/Pax7(+) cell populations. Skin and muscle wounding increased PC myofiber turnover, with the satellite cell progeny being involved in muscle regeneration but with no detectable contribution to the wound-bed myofibroblasts...
September 13, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Domiziana Costamagna, Hendrik Mommaerts, Maurilio Sampaolesi, Przemko Tylzanowski
Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin(-/-) mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1...
2016: Scientific Reports
Joana Esteves de Lima, Marie-Ange Bonnin, Carmen Birchmeier, Delphine Duprez
The importance of mechanical activity in the regulation of muscle progenitors during chick development has not been investigated. We show that immobilization decreases NOTCH activity and mimics a NOTCH loss-of-function phenotype, a reduction in the number of muscle progenitors and increased differentiation. Ligand-induced NOTCH activation prevents the reduction of muscle progenitors and the increase of differentiation upon immobilization. Inhibition of NOTCH ligand activity in muscle fibers suffices to reduce the progenitor pool...
2016: ELife
Ruth Morona, José Luis Eduardo Ferran, Luis Puelles, Agustín González
Our previous analysis of progenitor domains in the pretectum of Xenopus revealed three molecularly distinct anteroposterior subdivisions identified as precommissural (PcP), juxtacommissural (JcP), and commissural (CoP) histogenetic domains (Morona et al. [2011] J Comp Neurol 519:1024-1050). Here we analyzed at later developmental stages the nuclei derived from these areas, attending to their gene expression patterns and histogenesis. Transcription-factor gene markers were used to selectively map derivatives of each domain: Pax7 and Pax6 (CoP); Foxp1 and Six3 (JcP); and Xiro1, VGlut2, Ebf1, and Ebf3 (PcP)...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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