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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768039/loss-of-sonic-hedgehog-gene-leads-to-muscle-development-disorder-and-megaesophagus-in-mice
#1
Xueting Jia, Li Min, Shengtao Zhu, Shutian Zhang, Xiaofeng Huang
Sonic hedgehog ( Shh) is crucial for organogenesis in the foregut. This study investigated the function of Shh at the late-gestational stage; during which, the esophagus continues to differentiate. We established cytokeratin 14 ( CK14)-Cre;Shhfl/fl mice in which the down-regulation of Shh in the epithelium occurred at approximately the same time as esophageal muscle conversion. Hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining, with antibodies against keratin 14, Shh, patched 1 (Ptch1), Gli1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), high-molecular-weight caldesmon (hCD), myogenin, paired box 7 (Pax7), β3-tubulin, and protein gene product 9...
May 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761654/low-load-resistance-exercise-during-inactivity-is-associated-with-greater-fibre-area-and-satellite-cell-expression-in-older-skeletal-muscle
#2
Daniel R Moore, Ryan P Kelly, Michaela C Devries, Tyler A Churchward-Venne, Stuart M Phillips, Gianni Parise, Adam P Johnston
BACKGROUND: Age-related sarcopenia is accelerated by physical inactivity. Low-load resistance exercise (LLRE) counters inactivity-induced muscle atrophy in older adults, but changes in muscle fibre morphology are unstudied. We aimed to determine the impact of LLRE during short-term inactivity (step-reduction) on muscle fibre size and capillarity as well as satellite cell (SC) content in older skeletal muscle. METHODS: Fourteen older (~71 years) male adults underwent 14 days of step reduction (<1500 steps/day) while performing six sessions of LLRE (~30% maximal strength) with one leg (SR + EX) while the contralateral leg served as an untrained control (SR)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742392/direct-reprogramming-of-mouse-fibroblasts-into-functional-skeletal-muscle-progenitors
#3
Ori Bar-Nur, Mattia F M Gerli, Bruno Di Stefano, Albert E Almada, Amy Galvin, Amy Coffey, Aaron J Huebner, Peter Feige, Cassandra Verheul, Priscilla Cheung, Duygu Payzin-Dogru, Sylvain Paisant, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Harald C Ott, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Michael A Rudnicki, Amy J Wagers, Konrad Hochedlinger
Skeletal muscle harbors quiescent stem cells termed satellite cells and proliferative progenitors termed myoblasts, which play pivotal roles during muscle regeneration. However, current technology does not allow permanent capture of these cell populations in vitro. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the myogenic transcription factor MyoD, combined with exposure to small molecules, reprograms mouse fibroblasts into expandable induced myogenic progenitor cells (iMPCs). iMPCs express key skeletal muscle stem and progenitor cell markers including Pax7 and Myf5 and give rise to dystrophin-expressing myofibers upon transplantation in vivo...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733324/identification-of-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-by-immunofluorescence-with-pax7-and-laminin-antibodies
#4
Xuesong Feng, Faiza Naz, Aster H Juan, Stefania Dell'Orso, Vittorio Sartorelli
Immunofluorescence is an effective method that helps to identify different cell types on tissue sections. In order to study the desired cell population, antibodies for specific cell markers are applied on tissue sections. In adult skeletal muscle, satellite cells (SCs) are stem cells that contribute to muscle repair and regeneration. Therefore, it is important to visualize and trace the satellite cell population under different physiological conditions. In resting skeletal muscle, SCs reside between the basal lamina and myofiber plasma membrane...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723585/platycodon-grandiflorum-derived-saponin-enhances-exercise-function-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-and-mitochondrial-function
#5
Yong An Kim, Sun Woo Jin, Suck Hoon Oh, Gi Ho Lee, Hoa Thi Pham, Jae Ho Choi, Young Chul Chung, Wang Lok Lee, Sang Kyum Kim, Hye Gwang Jeong
Lower physical performance is an important risk factor in hypokinetic-related chronic disease, metabolic syndrome, and muscle atrophy. Our previous research demonstrated that Platycodon grandiflorum-derived saponin (PS) protects against eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and mitochondrial function-related peroxisomal acyl-coenzme A oxidase (ACOX-1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1) in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and it inhibits osteoclast differentiation. However, the effects of PS on physical performance remain unknown...
April 30, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709011/muscle-wasting-in-osteoarthritis-model-induced-by-anterior-cruciate-ligament-transection
#6
Jordana Miranda de Souza Silva, Paulo Vinicius Gil Alabarse, Vivian de Oliveira Nunes Teixeira, Eduarda Correa Freitas, Francine Hehn de Oliveira, Rafael Mendonça da Silva Chakr, Ricardo Machado Xavier
This study aimed to investigate the molecular pathways involved in muscle wasting in an animal model of osteoarthritis (OA) induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) in rats. Reduction of protein syntheses, increased proteolysis and impaired muscle regeneration are important pathways related to muscle wasting, and myogenin, MyoD, myostatin and MuRF-1 are some of their markers. Female Wistar rats were allocated into two groups: OA (submitted to the ACLT) and SHAM (submitted to surgery without ACLT)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704886/physiological-role-of-kv%C3%AE-2-akr6-in-murine-skeletal-muscle-growth-and-regulation
#7
Kalyan C Chapalamadugu, Jared Tur, Sachin L Badole, Rakesh C Kukreja, Marco Brotto, Srinivas M Tipparaju
AIM: Potassium channel accessory subunits (Kvβ) play a key role in cardiac electrical activity through ion channel modulation. In the present study we hypothesize that Kvβ2 regulates skeletal muscle growth and fiber phenotype via protein-protein interactions. METHODS: Kvβ2 knockout mouse model was used for morphometric, immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis to evaluate the role of Kvβ2 in skeletal muscle physiology. RESULTS: Deletion of Kvβ2 gene in mice (Kvβ2 knockout, KO) leads to significant decrease in body weight along with skeletal muscle size...
April 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684491/dynamic-regulation-of-mrna-and-mirna-associated-with-the-developmental-stages-of-skin-pigmentation-in-japanese-ornamental-carp
#8
Xue Tian, Xiaolei Pang, Liangyan Wang, Mengrong Li, Chuanju Dong, Xiao Ma, Lei Wang, Dongying Song, Jianxin Feng, Peng Xu, Xuejun Li
The Japanese ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Koi) is famous for multifarious colors and patterns, making it commonly culture and trade across the world. Although functional genes and inheritance of color traits have been commonly studied, seldom attentions were focused on the genetic regulation during the developmental process of pigmentation. To better understand the mechanism of skin color development, we observed the morphogenesis of pigment cells during the post-embryonic stages and analysed the temporal expression pattern of mRNAs/miRNAs profiles in four distinct developmental stages...
April 20, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681515/the-dystrophin-glycoprotein-complex-regulates-the-epigenetic-activation-of-muscle-stem-cell-commitment
#9
Natasha C Chang, Marie-Claude Sincennes, Fabien P Chevalier, Caroline E Brun, Melanie Lacaria, Jessica Segalés, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves, Hong Ming, Michael A Rudnicki
Asymmetrically dividing muscle stem cells in skeletal muscle give rise to committed cells, where the myogenic determination factor Myf5 is transcriptionally activated by Pax7. This activation is dependent on Carm1, which methylates Pax7 on multiple arginine residues, to recruit the ASH2L:MLL1/2:WDR5:RBBP5 histone methyltransferase complex to the proximal promoter of Myf5. Here, we found that Carm1 is a specific substrate of p38γ/MAPK12 and that phosphorylation of Carm1 prevents its nuclear translocation...
April 19, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674282/bioenergetics-mechanisms-regulating-muscle-stem-cell-self-renewal-commitment-and-function
#10
REVIEW
Phablo Abreu
Muscle stem cells or satellite cells are crucial for muscle maintenance and repair. These cells are mitotically quiescent and uniformly express the transcription factor Pax7, intermittently entering the cell cycle to give rise to daughter myogenic precursors cells and fuse with neighboring myofibers or self-renew, replenishing the stem cell pool in adult skeletal muscle. Pivotal roles of muscle stem cells in muscle repair have been uncovered, but it still remains unclear how muscle stem cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how muscle stem cells maintain muscle tissue homeostasis...
April 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651539/skeletal-muscle-stem-cell-characteristics-and-myonuclei-content-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Rasmus Jentoft Boutrup, Jean Farup, Kristian Vissing, Michael Kjaer, Ulla Ramer Mikkelsen
To investigate satellite cells (SCs) and myonuclei characteristics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Resting biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were obtained from thirteen RA patients and thirteen matched healthy controls (CON). Muscle biopsies were immunohistochemically stained and analyzed for fiber type specific content of SCs (Pax7+ ), proliferating SCs (Pax7+ /MyoD+ ) and differentiating SCs (myogenin+ ). Furthermore, we quantified fiber type specific content of myonuclei and myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA)...
April 12, 2018: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625618/exposure-to-radial-extracorporeal-shock-waves-modulates-viability-and-gene-expression-of-human-skeletal-muscle-cells-a-controlled-in-vitro-study
#12
Stefan G Mattyasovszky, Eva K Langendorf, Ulrike Ritz, Christoph Schmitz, Irene Schmidtmann, Tobias E Nowak, Daniel Wagner, Alexander Hofmann, Pol M Rommens, Philipp Drees
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical and animal studies have shown that extracorporeal shock wave therapy has a promoting influence on the healing process of musculoskeletal disorders. However, the underlying biological effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on human skeletal muscle cells have not yet been investigated. METHODS: In this study, we investigated human skeletal muscle cells after exposure to radial extracorporeal shock waves in a standardized in vitro setup...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581287/fusogenic-micropeptide-myomixer-is-essential-for-satellite-cell-fusion-and-muscle-regeneration
#13
Pengpeng Bi, John R McAnally, John M Shelton, Efrain Sánchez-Ortiz, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
Regeneration of skeletal muscle in response to injury occurs through fusion of a population of stem cells, known as satellite cells, with injured myofibers. Myomixer, a muscle-specific membrane micropeptide, cooperates with the transmembrane protein Myomaker to regulate embryonic myoblast fusion and muscle formation. To investigate the role of Myomixer in muscle regeneration, we used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate conditional knockout Myomixer alleles in mice. We show that genetic deletion of Myomixer in satellite cells using a tamoxifen-regulated Cre recombinase transgene under control of the Pax7 promoter abolishes satellite cell fusion and prevents muscle regeneration, resulting in severe muscle degeneration after injury...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555813/recapitulating-early-development-of-mouse-musculoskeletal-precursors-of-the-paraxial-mesoderm-in-vitro
#14
Jérome Chal, Ziad Al Tanoury, Masayuki Oginuma, Philippe Moncuquet, Bénédicte Gobert, Ayako Miyanari, Olivier Tassy, Getzabel Guevara, Alexis Hubaud, Agata Bera, Olga Sumara, Jean-Marie Garnier, Leif Kennedy, Marie Knockaert, Barbara Gayraud-Morel, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Olivier Pourquié
Body skeletal muscles derive from the paraxial mesoderm, which forms in the posterior region of the embryo. Using microarrays, we characterize novel mouse presomitic mesoderm (PSM) markers and show that, unlike the abrupt transcriptome reorganization of the PSM, neural tube differentiation is accompanied by progressive transcriptome changes. The early paraxial mesoderm differentiation stages can be efficiently recapitulated in vitro using mouse and human pluripotent stem cells. While Wnt activation alone can induce posterior PSM markers, acquisition of a committed PSM fate and efficient differentiation into anterior PSM Pax3+ identity further requires BMP inhibition to prevent progenitors from drifting to a lateral plate mesoderm fate...
March 19, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536116/muscle-stem-progenitor-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-of-bone-marrow-origin-for-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-in-muscular-dystrophies
#15
REVIEW
Aleksandra Klimczak, Urszula Kozlowska, Maciej Kurpisz
Muscular dystrophies represent a group of diseases which may develop in several forms, and severity of the disease is usually associated with gene mutations. In skeletal muscle regeneration and in muscular dystrophies, both innate and adaptive immune responses are involved. The regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) of bone marrow origin was confirmed by the ability to differentiate into diverse tissues and by their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties by secretion of a variety of growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines...
March 13, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523096/separation-of-functionally-divergent-muscle-precursor-cell-populations-from-porcine-juvenile-muscles-by-discontinuous-percoll-density-gradient-centrifugation
#16
Claudia Miersch, Katja Stange, Monika Röntgen
BACKGROUND: Satellite cells (SC) and their descendants, muscle precursor cells (MPC), play a key role in postnatal muscle development, regeneration, and plasticity. Several studies have provided evidence that SC and MPC represent a heterogeneous population differing in their biochemical and functional properties. The identification and characterization of functionally divergent SC subpopulations should help to reveal the precise involvement of SC/MPC in these myogenic processes. The aim of the present work was therefore to separate SC subpopulations by using Percoll gradients and to characterize their myogenic marker profiles and their functional properties (adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation)...
March 9, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521230/role-of-zebrafish-fhl1a-in-satellite-cell-and-skeletal-muscle-development
#17
F Chen, W Yuan, X Mo, J Zhuang, Y Wang, J Chen, Z Jiang, X Zhu, Q Zeng, Y Wan, F Li, Y Shi, L Cao, X Fan, S Luo, X Ye, Y Chen, G Dai, J Gao, X Wang, H Xie, P Zhu, Y Li, X Wu
BACKGROUND: Four-and-a-half LIM domains protein 1 (FHL1) mutations are associated with human myopathies. However, the function of this protein in skeletal development remains unclear. METHODS: Whole-mount in situ hybridization and embryo immunostaining were performed. RESULTS: Zebrafish Fhl1A is the homologue of human FHL1. We showed that fhl1A knockdown causes defective skeletal muscle development, while injection with fhl1A mRNA largely recovered the muscle development in these fhl1A morphants...
2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513560/roles-of-il-1%C3%AE-%C3%AE-in-regeneration-of-cardiotoxin-injured-muscle-and-satellite-cell-function
#18
Chayanit Chaweewannakorn, Masahiro Tsuchiya, Masashi Koide, Hiroyasu Hatakeyama, Yukinori Tanaka, Shinichirou Yoshida, Shunji Sugawara, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Keiichi Sasaki, Makoto Kanzaki
Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is a complex process involving interactions between inflammatory microenvironments and satellite cells. Interleukin (IL)-1 is a key mediator of inflammatory responses and exerts pleiotropic impacts on various cell types. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of IL-1 during skeletal muscle regeneration. We herein show that IL-1α/β-double-knockout (IL-1KO) mice exhibit delayed muscle regeneration after cardiotoxin (CTX) injection, characterized by delayed infiltrations of immune cells accompanied by suppressed local production of pro-inflammatory factors including IL-6 and delayed increase of PAX7-positive satellite cells post-injury as compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480498/analysis-of-muscle-stem-cell-fate-through-modulation-of-ampk-activity
#19
Marine Theret, Linda Gsaier, Sabrina Ben Larbi, Michèle Weiss-Gayet, Rémi Mounier
In this chapter, we describe the methods to isolate and culture muscle stem cells (MuSCs) from murine skeletal muscle in order to decipher the intrinsic effect of AMP-activated kinase activity on MuSC fate. Culture of MuSCs is a powerful model to recapitulate every step of stem cell behavior observed in vivo: activation, proliferation, differentiation, fusion and also self-renewal. We provide the detailed procedures to isolate pure MuSCs by a flow cytometry-based method using the selection of a combination of specific markers and to characterize MuSC fate (quiescence, activation, and differentiation) in response to AMPK activity modulation by assessing of the expression of stem cell (e...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475516/exposure-to-microgravity-for-30-days-onboard-bion-m1-caused-muscle-atrophy-and-impaired-regeneration-in-murine-femoral-quadriceps
#20
E A Radugina, E A C Almeida, E Blaber, V A Poplinskaya, Y V Markitantova, E N Grigoryan
Mechanical unloading in microgravity during spaceflight is known to cause muscular atrophy, changes in muscle fiber composition, gene expression, and reduction in regenerative muscle growth. Although some limited data exists for long-term effects of microgravity in human muscle, these processes have mostly been studied in rodents for short periods of time. Here we report on how long-term (30-day long) mechanical unloading in microgravity affects murine muscles of the femoral Quadriceps group. To conduct these studies we used muscle tissue from 6 microgravity mice, in comparison to habitat (7), and vivarium (14) ground control mice from the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Bion M1 biosatellite mission in 2013...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
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