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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317646/engineering-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-a-functional-skeletal-muscle-tissue
#1
Lingjun Rao, Ying Qian, Alastair Khodabukus, Thomas Ribar, Nenad Bursac
The generation of functional skeletal muscle tissues from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has not been reported. Here, we derive induced myogenic progenitor cells (iMPCs) via transient overexpression of Pax7 in paraxial mesoderm cells differentiated from hPSCs. In 2D culture, iMPCs readily differentiate into spontaneously contracting multinucleated myotubes and a pool of satellite-like cells endogenously expressing Pax7. Under optimized 3D culture conditions, iMPCs derived from multiple hPSC lines reproducibly form functional skeletal muscle tissues (iSKM bundles) containing aligned multi-nucleated myotubes that exhibit positive force-frequency relationship and robust calcium transients in response to electrical or acetylcholine stimulation...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315567/the-influence-of-capillarization-on-satellite-cell-pool-expansion-and-activation-following-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-healthy-young-men
#2
Joshua P Nederveen, Sophie Joanisse, Tim Snijders, Aaron Cq Thomas, Dinesh Kumbhare, Gianni Parise
Factors that determine the skeletal muscle satellite cell (SC) response remain incompletely understood. It is known, however, that SC activation status is closely related to the anatomical relationship between SC and muscle capillaries. We investigated the impact of muscle fibre capillarization on the expansion and activation status of SC following a muscle damaging exercise protocol in healthy young men. Twenty-nine young men (21 ± 0.5 yrs) performed 300 unilateral eccentric contractions (180 deg·s-1 ) of the knee extensors...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314416/transient-microrna-expression-enhances-myogenic-potential-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#3
Joanna Bem, Iwona Grabowska, Maciej Daniszewski, Dorota Zawada, Areta Czerwinska, Lukasz Bugajski, Katarzyna Piwocka, Anna Fogtman, Maria A Ciemerych
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known regulators of various cellular processes, including pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We analyzed differentiation of two ESC lines - D3 and B8, and observed significant differences in the expression of miRNAs and genes involved in pluripotency and differentiation. We also examined if transient miRNA overexpression could serve as a sufficient impulse modulating differentiation of mouse ESCs. ESCs were transfected with miRNA Mimics and differentiated in embryoid bodies and embryoid body outgrowths...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304851/development-of-the-excitation-contraction-coupling-machinery-and-its-relation-to-myofibrillogenesis-in-human-ipsc-derived-skeletal-myocytes
#4
Jeanne Lainé, Gunnar Skoglund, Emmanuel Fournier, Nacira Tabti
BACKGROUND: Human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived myogenic progenitors develop functional and ultrastructural features typical of skeletal muscle when differentiated in culture. Besides disease-modeling, such a system can be used to clarify basic aspects of human skeletal muscle development. In the present study, we focus on the development of the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, a process that is essential both in muscle physiology and as a tool to differentiate between the skeletal and cardiac muscle...
January 5, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284454/the-effect-of-low-intensity-shockwave-treatment-li-swt-on-human-myoblasts-and-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#5
Lise K Hansen, Henrik D Schrøder, Lars Lund, Karthikeyan Rajagopal, Vrisha Maduri, Jeeva Sellathurai
BACKGROUND: Transplanting myogenic cells and scaffolds for tissue engineering in skeletal muscle have shown inconsistent results. One of the limiting factors is neovascularization at the recipient site. Low intensity shockwave therapy (Li-SWT) has been linked to increased tissue regeneration and vascularization, both integral to survival and integration of transplanted cells. This study was conducted to demonstrate the response of myoblasts and skeletal muscle to Li-SWT. METHOD: Primary isolated human myoblasts and explants were treated with low intensity shockwaves and subsequently cell viability, proliferation and differentiation were tested...
December 29, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273779/reading-and-editing-the-pleurodeles-waltl-genome-reveals-novel-features-of-tetrapod-regeneration
#6
Ahmed Elewa, Heng Wang, Carlos Talavera-López, Alberto Joven, Gonçalo Brito, Anoop Kumar, L Shahul Hameed, May Penrad-Mobayed, Zeyu Yao, Neda Zamani, Yamen Abbas, Ilgar Abdullayev, Rickard Sandberg, Manfred Grabherr, Björn Andersson, András Simon
Salamanders exhibit an extraordinary ability among vertebrates to regenerate complex body parts. However, scarce genomic resources have limited our understanding of regeneration in adult salamanders. Here, we present the ~20 Gb genome and transcriptome of the Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl, a tractable species suitable for laboratory research. We find that embryonic stem cell-specific miRNAs mir-93b and mir-427/430/302, as well as Harbinger DNA transposons carrying the Myb-like proto-oncogene have expanded dramatically in the Pleurodeles waltl genome and are co-expressed during limb regeneration...
December 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258830/trichinella-spiralis-muscle-larvae-excretory-secretory-products-induce-changes-in-cytoskeletal-and-myogenic-transcription-factors-in-primary-myoblast-cultures
#7
Lizbeth Hernández-Ancheyta, María Del Rosario Salinas-Tobón, Juan Carlos Cifuentes-Goches, Javier Hernández-Sánchez
Trichinella spiralis infection in skeletal muscle culminates with nurse cell formation. The participation of excretory-secretory products of the muscle larvae (ML-ESP) has been implicated in this process through different studies performed in infected muscle and the muscle cell line C2C12. In this work, we developed primary myoblast cultures to analyze the changes induced by ML-ESP in muscle cells. Microarray analyses revealed expression changes in muscle cell differentiation, proliferation, cytoskeleton organization, cell motion, transcription, cell cycle, apoptosis and signaling pathways such as MAPK, Jak-STAT, Wnt and PI3K-Akt...
December 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214748/alterations-in-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-regulation-of-muscle-regeneration-in-healthy-ageing-and-the-influence-of-sarcopenia
#8
Joanna Brzeszczyńska, Angelika Meyer, Robin McGregor, Alain Schilb, Simone Degen, Valentina Tadini, Neil Johns, Ramon Langen, Annemie Schols, David J Glass, Ronenn Roubenoff, James A Ross, Kenneth C H Fearon, Carolyn A Greig, Carsten Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. While all humans lose muscle with age, 2-5% of elderly adults develop functional consequences (disabilities). The aim of this study was to investigate muscle myogenesis in healthy elderly adults, with or without sarcopenia, compared with middle-aged controls using both in vivo and in vitro approaches to explore potential biomarker or causative molecular pathways associated with sarcopenic versus non-sarcopenic skeletal muscle phenotypes during ageing...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193426/low-osteogenic-yield-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-associates-with-differential-neural-crest-promoter-methylation
#9
Nicole Renee Lee Sparks, Ivann Kenneth Carvajal Martinez, Cristina Helen Soto, Nicole Isolde Zur Nieden
Human pluripotent stem cell-derived osteoblasts possess great potential for utilization in bone disorder elucidation and repair; yet, while the general ability of human pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts and lay down bone-specific matrix has been shown, previous studies lack the complete characterization of the process whereby such osteoblasts are derived as well as a comparison between the osteogenic efficiency of multiple cell lines. Here, we compared the osteogenic potential of two human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (RIV9 and RIV4) to human H9 embryonic stem cells...
November 29, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186180/clonogenic-myogenic-progenitors-expressing-mcam-cd146-are-incorporated-as-adventitial-reticular-cells-in-the-microvascular-compartment-of-human-post-natal-skeletal-muscle
#10
Tiziana Persichini, Alessia Funari, Marco Colasanti, Benedetto Sacchetti
Recent observation identifies subendothelial (mural) cells expressing MCAM, a specific system of clonogenic, self-renewing, osteoprogenitors (a.k.a, "mesenchymal stem cells") in the microvascular compartment of post-natal human bone marrow (BM). In this study, we used MCAM/CD146, as a marker to localize, isolate and assay subendothelial clonogenic cells from the microvasculature of postnatal human skeletal muscle. We show here that these cells share with their BM counterpart, anatomic position (subendothelial/adventitial) and ex vivo clonogenicity (CFU-Fs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178319/thyroid-hormone-upregulates-mdm2-in-rat-type-i-fiber-implications-for-skeletal-muscle-mass-regulation
#11
Gracielle Vieira Ramos, André Cruz, William Jose Silva, Andrei Rozanski, Igor Luchini Baptista, João Guilherme Silvestre, Anselmo Sigari Moriscot
AIM: Based upon a microarray assay, we have identified that triiodothyronine (T3) up-regulates MDM2 gene expression in the rat skeletal muscle. Since MDM2 protein is an E3 ligase, we hypothesized that this enzyme could play a role in T3 effects on skeletal muscle mass control. METHODS: To test our hypothesis, male rats (2 months old) were randomly assigned into the following groups: intact controls, treated with 20 physiological doses of T3 for 0.5, 1 and 7 days, or with 5, 20 and 50 physiological doses of T3 for 7 days...
November 27, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150943/muscle-regeneration-potential-and-satellite-cell-activation-profile-during-recovery-following-hindlimb-immobilization-in-mice
#12
Maria Guitart, Josep Lloreta, Laura Mañas-Garcia, Esther Barreiro
Reduced muscle activity leads to muscle atrophy and function loss in patients and animal models. Satellite cells (SCs) are postnatal muscle stem cells that play a pivotal role in skeletal muscle regeneration following injury. The regenerative potential, satellite cell numbers, and markers during recovery following immobilization of the hindlimb for seven days were explored. In mice exposed to seven days of hindlimb immobilization, in those exposed to recovery (seven days, splint removal), and in contralateral control muscles, muscle precursor cells were isolated from all hindlimb muscles (fluorescence-activated cell sorting, FACS), and SCs and muscle regeneration were identified using immunofluorescence (gastrocnemius and soleus) and electron microscopy (EM, gastrocnemius)...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150011/optimization-of-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-for-loss-of-function-in-the-early-chick-embryo
#13
Shashank Gandhi, Michael L Piacentino, Felipe M Vieceli, Marianne E Bronner
The advent of CRISPR/Cas9 has made genome editing possible in virtually any organism, including those not previously amenable to genetic manipulations. Here, we present an optimization of CRISPR/Cas9 for application to early avian embryos with improved efficiency via a three-fold strategy. First, we employed Cas9 protein flanked with two nuclear localization signal sequences for improved nuclear localization. Second, we used a modified guide RNA (gRNA) scaffold that obviates premature termination of transcription and unstable Cas9-gRNA interactions...
December 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139538/limitations-of-the-pax7-creer-t2-transgene-for-driving-deletion-of-nf1-in-adult-mouse-muscle
#14
Matthew A Summers, Kathy Mikulec, Lauren Peacock, David G Little, Aaron Schindeler
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that results in a variety of characteristic manifestations. Prior studies have shown reduced muscle size and global skeletal muscle weakness in children with NF1. This associated weakness can lead to significant challenges impacting on quality of life. Pre-clinical studies using a muscle-specific NF1 knockout mouse have linked this weakness to an underlying primary metabolic deficiency in the muscle. However, the neonatal lethality of this strain prevents analysis of the role of NF1 in adult muscle...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090454/enhanced-skeletal-muscle-regrowth-and-remodelling-in-massaged-and-contralateral-non-massaged-hind-limb
#15
Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Zana R Majeed, Sarah M Abshire, Amy L Confides, Amanda J Hayek, Emily R Hunt, Patrick Shipman, Frederick F Peelor, Timothy A Butterfield, Esther E Dupont-Versteegden
Massage, in the form of cyclic compressive loading (CCL), is associated with multiple health benefits, but its potential anabolic effect on atrophied muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that the mechanical activity associated with CCL induces an anabolic effect in skeletal muscle undergoing regrowth after a period of atrophy. Fisher/Brown Norway rats at 10 months of age were hind limb unloaded for a period of 2 weeks. The rats were then allowed reambulation with CCL applied at a 4.5 N load at 0...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080996/impact-of-local-heating-and-cooling-on-skeletal-muscle-transcriptional-response-related-to-myogenesis-and-proteolysis
#16
Roksana B Zak, B M Hassenstab, L K Zuehlke, M W S Heesch, R J Shute, T L Laursen, D T LaSalle, D R Slivka
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of local muscle heating and cooling on myogenic and proteolytic gene responses following resistance exercise. METHODS: Recreationally trained males (n = 12), age 25.3 ± 1.5, % body fat 13.6 ± 1.92, completed four sets of 8-12 repetitions of unilateral leg press and leg extension while heating one leg, and cooling the other. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of each leg pre and 4 h post exercise. RESULTS: MyoD, FOXO1, and MuRF1 mRNA increased with exercise regardless of temperature (p < 0...
October 28, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079520/zac1-gpr39-phosphorylating-camk-ii-contributes-to-the-distinct-roles-of-pax3-and-pax7-in-myogenic-progression
#17
Qiumei Yang, Ye Li, Xulong Zhang, Daiwen Chen
Both Pax3 and Pax7 can activate a large panel of genes involved in muscle stem cell function. Despite a significant overlap in their transcriptional network, functional difference between them is observed. After overexpressing Pax3 or Pax7 in C2C12, we find both Zac1 and GPR39 are upregulated by Pax7 but not Pax3. Further studies suggest Zac1 interacts directly with Pax7, which can regulate GPR39 expression by activating Zac1. In addition, the effect of Zac1/GPR39 system on myogenic progression has been illuminated: Zac1/GPR39 can promote myogenic differentiation and produce type-II muscle fibers...
November 2, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071380/satellite-cell-response-to-concurrent-resistance-exercise-and-high-intensity-interval-training-in-sedentary-overweight-obese-middle-aged-individuals
#18
Jamie K Pugh, Steve H Faulkner, Mark C Turner, Myra A Nimmo
PURPOSE: Sarcopenia can begin from the 4-5th decade of life and is exacerbated by obesity and inactivity. A combination of resistance exercise (RE) and endurance exercise is recommended to combat rising obesity and inactivity levels. However, work continues to elucidate whether interference in adaptive outcomes occur when RE and endurance exercise are performed concurrently. This study examined whether a single bout of concurrent RE and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) alters the satellite cell response following exercise compared to RE alone...
October 25, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041952/the-response-of-muscle-progenitor-cells-to-cutaneous-thermal-injury
#19
Yusef Yousuf, Marc G Jeschke, Ahmed Shah, Ali-Reza Sadri, Andrea-Kaye Datu, Pantea Samei, Saeid Amini-Nik
BACKGROUND: Severe burn results in a systemic response that leads to significant muscle wasting. It is believed that this rapid loss in muscle mass occurs due to increased protein degradation combined with reduced protein synthesis. Alterations in the microenvironment of muscle progenitor cells may partially account for this pathology. The aim of this study was to ascertain the response of muscle progenitor cells following thermal injury in mice and to enlighten the cellular cascades that contribute to the muscle wasting...
October 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035460/pleural-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma
#20
Hongyang Lu, Jing Qin, Zeng Wang
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) commonly occurring in children and adolescents, is a rare and aggressive soft tissue malignancy. Here, a rare case of pleural ARMS is reported in a boy presenting dyspnea for two weeks. The pathology of a biopsy specimen from pleura showed ARMS. PAX3-FKHR fusion protein is positive and the PAX7-FKHR fusion protein is negative as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The prognosis of this patient was poor and nonresponsive to chemotherapy.
October 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
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