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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344332/molecular-and-functional-heterogeneity-of-early-postnatal-porcine-satellite-cell-populations-is-associated-with-bioenergetic-profile
#1
Claudia Miersch, Katja Stange, Silvio Hering, Martin Kolisek, Torsten Viergutz, Monika Röntgen
During postnatal development, hyperplastic and hypertrophic processes of skeletal muscle growth depend on the activation, proliferation, differentiation, and fusion of satellite cells (SC). Therefore, molecular and functional SC heterogeneity is an important component of muscle plasticity and will greatly affect long-term growth performance and muscle health. However, its regulation by cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors is far from clear. In particular, there is only minor information on the early postnatal period which is critical for muscle maturation and the establishment of adult SC pools...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334989/impaired-fetal-muscle-development-and-jak-stat-activation-mark-disease-onset-and-progression-in-a-mouse-model-for-merosin-deficient-congenital-muscular-dystrophy
#2
Andreia M Nunes, Ryan D Wuebbles, Apurva Sarathy, Tatiana M Fontelonga, Marianne Deries, Dean J Burkin, Sólveig Thorsteinsdóttir
Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a dramatic neuromuscular disease in which crippling muscle weakness is evident from birth. Here we use the dyW mouse model for human MDC1A to trace the onset of the disease during development in utero. We find that myotomal and primary myogenesis proceed normally in homozygous dyW-/-embryos. Fetal dyW-/-muscles display the same number of myofibers as wildtype muscles, but by E18.5 dyW-/-muscles are significantly smaller and muscle size is not recovered post-natally...
March 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282360/an-alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-gts-21-promotes-c2c12-myonuclear-accretion-in-association-with-release-of-interleukin-6-il-6-and-improves-survival-in-burned-mice
#3
Mohammed A S Khan, Mohammed F Khan, Shizuka Kashiwagi, William R Kem, Shingo Yasuhara, Masao Kaneki, Ronald G Tompkins, J A Jeevendra Martyn
The role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in physiological processes and disease is poorly understood. The hypothesis tested in this study was that selective alpha7 acetylcholine receptor (α7AChR) agonist, GTS-21, releases of IL-6 in association with myonuclear accretion and enhances insulin signaling in muscle cells, and improves survival of burn injured (BI) mice. The in vitro effects of GTS-21 were determined in C2C12 myoblasts and 7-day differentiated myotubes (myotubes). The in vivo effects of GTS-21 were tested in BI wild type (WT) and IL-6 knockout (IL6KO) mice...
March 9, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279710/satellite-like-cells-contribute-to-pax7-dependent-skeletal-muscle-repair-in-adult-zebrafish
#4
Michael A Berberoglu, Thomas L Gallagher, Zachary T Morrow, Jared C Talbot, Kimberly J Hromowyk, Inês M Tenente, David M Langenau, Sharon L Amacher
Satellite cells, also known as muscle stem cells, are responsible for skeletal muscle growth and repair in mammals. Pax7 and Pax3 transcription factors are established satellite cell markers required for muscle development and regeneration, and there is great interest in identifying additional factors that regulate satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and/or skeletal muscle regeneration. Due to the powerful regenerative capacity of many zebrafish tissues, even in adults, we are exploring the regenerative potential of adult zebrafish skeletal muscle...
March 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255772/isolation-culture-and-biological-characteristics-of-multipotent-porcine-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells
#5
Jinjuan Yang, Hao Liu, Kunfu Wang, Lu Li, Hongyi Yuan, Xueting Liu, Yingjie Liu, Weijun Guan
Skeletal muscle has a huge regenerative potential for postnatal muscle growth and repair, which mainly depends on a kind of muscle progenitor cell population, called satellite cell. Nowadays, the majority of satellite cells were obtained from human, mouse, rat and other animals but rarely from pig. In this article, the porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. The expression of surface markers of satellite cells was detected by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR assays. The differentiation capacity was assessed by inducing satellite cells into adipocytes, myoblasts and osteoblasts...
March 2, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253504/genomic-characterization-of-a-metastatic-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma-case-using-fish-studies-and-cgh-snp-microarray-revealing-foxo1-pax7-rearrangement-with-mycn-and-mdm2-amplification-and-rb1-region-loss
#6
Arivarasan Karunamurthy, Lori Hoffner, Jie Hu, Peter Shaw, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Svetlana A Yatsenko, Urvashi Surti
Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are rare, heterogeneous, soft tissue sarcomas and a common type of childhood malignancy with a distinct histomorphology. At the molecular level, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), a subtype of RMS, harbors a signature genetic makeup characterized by specific translocations. The type of translocation and associated genetic aberrations correlate with disease progression, hence we used multiple molecular modalities including high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization to explore the oncogenic gene fusion and associated copy number variations in a case of metastatic ARMS...
March 3, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251652/sirt1-may-play-a-crucial-role-in-overload-induced-hypertrophy-of-skeletal-muscle
#7
Erika Koltai, Zoltán Bori, Clovis Chabert, Hervé Dubouchaud, Hisashi Naito, Shuichi Machida, Kelvin Ja Davies, Zsolt Murlasits, Andrew C Fry, Istvan Boldogh, Zsolt Radak
Significant skeletal muscle mass guarantees functional wellbeing and is important for high level performance in many sports. Although the molecular mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been well-studied, it still is not completely understood. In the present study, we used a functional overload model to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the soleus, and gastrocnemius muscles in rats. Two weeks of muscle ablation resulted in a 40% increase in muscle mass, which was associated with a significant increase in SIRT1 content and activity (P < 0...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247345/isolation-culture-and-immunostaining-of-skeletal-muscle-myofibers-from-wildtype-and-nestin-gfp-mice-as-a-means-to-analyze-satellite-cell
#8
Pascal Stuelsatz, Paul Keire, Zipora Yablonka-Reuveni
Multinucleated myofibers, the functional contractile units of adult skeletal muscle, harbor mononuclear Pax7(+) myogenic progenitors on their surface between the myofiber basal lamina and plasmalemma. These progenitors, known as satellite cells, are the primary myogenic stem cells in adult muscle. This chapter describes our laboratory protocols for isolating, culturing, and immunostaining intact myofibers from mouse skeletal muscle as a means for studying satellite cell dynamics. The first protocol discusses myofiber isolation from the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222718/abnormal-epigenetic-changes-during-differentiation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-from-obese-subjects
#9
Cajsa Davegårdh, Christa Broholm, Alexander Perfilyev, Tora Henriksen, Sonia García-Calzón, Lone Peijs, Ninna Schiøler Hansen, Petr Volkov, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Maria Pedersen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Dov B Ballak, Charles A Dinarello, Bas Heinhuis, Leo A B Joosten, Emma Nilsson, Allan Vaag, Camilla Scheele, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals...
February 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218909/a-twist2-dependent-progenitor-cell-contributes-to-adult-skeletal-muscle
#10
Ning Liu, Glynnis A Garry, Stephen Li, Svetlana Bezprozvannaya, Efrain Sanchez-Ortiz, Beibei Chen, John M Shelton, Priscilla Jaichander, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
Skeletal muscle possesses remarkable regenerative potential due to satellite cells, an injury-responsive stem cell population located beneath the muscle basal lamina that expresses Pax7. By lineage tracing of progenitor cells expressing the Twist2 (Tw2) transcription factor in mice, we discovered a myogenic lineage that resides outside the basal lamina of adult skeletal muscle. Tw2(+) progenitors are molecularly and anatomically distinct from satellite cells, are highly myogenic in vitro, and can fuse with themselves and with satellite cells...
March 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202082/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-and-myostatin-pathways-key-mediator-of-human-sarcopenia
#11
Manuel Scimeca, Eleonora Piccirilli, Francesca Mastrangeli, Cecilia Rao, Maurizio Feola, Augusto Orlandi, Elena Gasbarra, Elena Bonanno, Umberto Tarantino
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders affecting older people. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the balance between BMPs and myostatin pathways regulates the age-related muscle degeneration in OP and OA patients. To this end, we investigated the relationship among the expression of BMP-2/4-7, myostatin and phosphorylated Smads1-5-8 and the muscle quality, evaluated in term of fibers atrophy and satellite cells activity...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186708/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-as-mediators-of-anti-inflammatory-effects-endorsement-of-macrophage-polarization
#12
Claudia Lo Sicco, Daniele Reverberi, Carolina Balbi, Valentina Ulivi, Elisa Principi, Luisa Pascucci, Pamela Becherini, Maria Carla Bosco, Luigi Varesio, Chiara Franzin, Michela Pozzobon, Ranieri Cancedda, Roberta Tasso
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are effective therapeutic agents enhancing the repair of injured tissues mostly through their paracrine activity. Increasing evidences show that besides the secretion of soluble molecules, the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) represents an alternative mechanism adopted by MSCs. Since macrophages are essential contributors toward the resolution of inflammation, which has emerged as a finely orchestrated process, the aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed characterization of EVs released by human adipose derived-MSCs to investigate their involvement as modulators of MSC anti-inflammatory effects inducing macrophage polarization...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160584/new-insights-from-gwas-for-the-cleft-palate-among-han-chinese-population
#13
S-J Duan, N Huang, B-H Zhang, J-Y Shi, S He, J Ma, Q-Q Yu, B Shi, Z-L Jia
BACKGROUND: Genome wide association studies (GWAS) already have identified tens of susceptible loci for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). However, whether these loci associated with nonsyndromic cleft palate only (NSCPO) remains unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, we replicated 38 SNPs (Single nucleotide polymorphisms) which has the most significant p values in published GWASs, genotyping by using SNPscan among 144 NSCPO trios from Western Han Chinese...
March 1, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155153/characterizing-satellite-cells-and-myogenic-progenitors-during-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#14
Nicolas A Dumont, Michael A Rudnicki
Muscle stem cells, named satellite cells, are quiescent in resting skeletal muscle. Following injury, satellite cells are activated and become proliferating myoblasts that either self-renew or differentiate. Several markers are used to identify the different myogenic populations, such as Pax7 (quiescent and activated satellite cells), MyoD (proliferating myoblasts), and myogenin (differentiating myoblasts). Immunodetection of these markers is a very useful tool to analyze myogenic cells and muscle regeneration...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106759/sex-specific-muscular-maturation-responses-following-prenatal-exposure-to-methylation-related-micronutrients-in-pigs
#15
Michael Oster, Nares Trakooljul, Henry Reyer, Annette Zeyner, Eduard Muráni, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Klaus Wimmers
Supplementation of micronutrients involved in DNA methylation, particularly during pregnancy, is recommended because of its impacts on human health, but further evidence is needed regarding the effects of over-supplementation and differences between sexes. Here, a porcine model was used to assess effects of maternal supplementation with one-carbon-cycle compounds during prenatal and postnatal stages on offspring muscle development. Sows received either a standard diet (CON) or a standard diet supplemented with folate, B6, B12, methionine, choline, and zinc (MET) throughout gestation...
January 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104549/mechanisms-of-silver_nanoparticles-induced-hypopigmentation-in-embryonic-zebrafish
#16
Lian Xu, Qin-Han Xu, Xin-Ying Zhou, Li-Yan Yin, Peng-Peng Guan, Ting Zhang, Jing-Xia Liu
Silver_nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported to inhibit specification of erythroid cells and to induce spinal cord deformities and cardiac arrhythmia in vertebrates, but have not been implicated in development of neural crest (NC) and pigment cells in an in vivo model yet. In current study, down-regulated expressions of NC genes pax7 and foxd3, melanophore genes mitfa and dct, and xanthophore gene gch2 in AgNPs-exposed embryos were revealed by microarray, qRT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH)...
March 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096434/precocious-glucocorticoid-exposure-reduces-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-in-the-fetal-rat
#17
Ganga Gokulakrishnan, Xiaoyan Chang, Ryan Fleischmann, Marta L Fiorotto
Perinatal skeletal muscle growth rates are a function of protein and myonuclear accretion. Precocious exposure of the fetus to glucocorticoids (GLC) in utero impairs muscle growth. Reduced muscle protein synthesis rates contribute to this response, but the consequences for myonuclear hyperplasia are unknown. To test the hypothesis that blunting of Pax7+ muscle progenitor cell proliferative activity by GLC in vivo also contributes to reduced fetal muscle growth, pregnant rats were administered dexamethasone (DEX: 1 mg/L drinking water) from embryonic day (ED) 13 to ED21...
March 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058850/molecular-diagnostics-in-the-management-of-rhabdomyosarcoma
#18
Michael A Arnold, Fredric G Barr
A classification of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with prognostic relevance has primarily relied on clinical features and histologic classification as either embryonal or alveolar RMS. The PAX3-FOXO1 and PAX7-FOXO1 gene fusions occur in 80% of cases with the alveolar subtype and are more predictive of outcome than histologic classification. Identifying additional molecular hallmarks that further subclassify RMS is an active area of research. Areas Covered: The authors review the current state of the PAX3-FOXO1 and PAX7-FOXO1 fusions as prognostic biomarkers...
January 6, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053000/myoblast-replication-is-reduced-in-the-iugr-fetus-despite-maintained-proliferative-capacity-in-vitro
#19
Susan M Soto, Amy C Blake, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Paul J Rozance, Kristen B Barthel, Bifeng Gao, Byron Hetrick, Carrie E McCurdy, Natalia G Garza, William W Hay, Leslie A Leinwand, Jacob E Friedman, Laura D Brown
Adults who were affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) suffer from reductions in muscle mass and insulin resistance, suggesting muscle growth may be restricted by molecular events that occur during fetal development. To explore the basis of restricted fetal muscle growth, we used a sheep model of progressive placental insufficiency-induced IUGR to assess myoblast proliferation within intact skeletal muscle in vivo and isolated myoblasts stimulated with insulin in vitro Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle weights were reduced by 25% in IUGR fetuses compared to those in controls (CON)...
2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025671/retinoic-acid-maintains-human-skeletal-muscle-progenitor-cells-in-an-immature-state
#20
Marina El Haddad, Cécile Notarnicola, Brendan Evano, Nour El Khatib, Marine Blaquière, Anne Bonnieu, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Gérald Hugon, Barbara Vernus, Jacques Mercier, Gilles Carnac
Muscle satellite cells are resistant to cytotoxic agents, and they express several genes that confer resistance to stress, thus allowing efficient dystrophic muscle regeneration after transplantation. However, once they are activated, this capacity to resist to aggressive agents is diminished resulting in massive death of transplanted cells. Although cell immaturity represents a survival advantage, the signalling pathways involved in the control of the immature state remain to be explored. Here, we show that incubation of human myoblasts with retinoic acid impairs skeletal muscle differentiation through activation of the retinoic-acid receptor family of nuclear receptor...
December 26, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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