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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058850/molecular-diagnostics-in-the-management-of-rhabdomyosarcoma
#1
Michael A Arnold, Fredric G Barr
A classification of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with prognostic relevance has primarily relied on clinical features and histologic classification as either embryonal or alveolar RMS. The PAX3-FOXO1 and PAX7-FOXO1 gene fusions occur in 80% of cases with the alveolar subtype and are more predictive of outcome than histologic classification. Identifying additional molecular hallmarks that further subclassify RMS is an active area of research. Areas Covered: The authors review the current state of the PAX3-FOXO1 and PAX7-FOXO1 fusions as prognostic biomarkers...
January 6, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053000/myoblast-replication-is-reduced-in-the-iugr-fetus-despite-maintained-proliferative-capacity-in-vitro
#2
Susan M Soto, Amy C Blake, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Paul J Rozance, Kristen B Barthel, Bifeng Gao, Byron Hetrick, Carrie McCurdy, Natalia G Garza, William Hay, Leslie A Leinwand, Jacob E Friedman, Laura D Brown
Adults who were affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) suffer from reductions in muscle mass and insulin resistance, suggesting muscle growth may be restricted by molecular events that occur during fetal development. To explore the basis of restricted fetal muscle growth, we used a sheep model of progressive placental insufficiency-induced IUGR to assess myoblast proliferation within intact skeletal muscle in vivo and isolated myoblasts stimulated with insulin in vitro. Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle weights were reduced by 25% in IUGR fetuses compared to controls (CON)...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025671/retinoic-acid-maintains-human-skeletal-muscle-progenitor-cells-in-an-immature-state
#3
Marina El Haddad, Cécile Notarnicola, Brendan Evano, Nour El Khatib, Marine Blaquière, Anne Bonnieu, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Gérald Hugon, Barbara Vernus, Jacques Mercier, Gilles Carnac
Muscle satellite cells are resistant to cytotoxic agents, and they express several genes that confer resistance to stress, thus allowing efficient dystrophic muscle regeneration after transplantation. However, once they are activated, this capacity to resist to aggressive agents is diminished resulting in massive death of transplanted cells. Although cell immaturity represents a survival advantage, the signalling pathways involved in the control of the immature state remain to be explored. Here, we show that incubation of human myoblasts with retinoic acid impairs skeletal muscle differentiation through activation of the retinoic-acid receptor family of nuclear receptor...
December 26, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017795/injury-induced-senescence-enables-in%C3%A2-vivo-reprogramming-in-skeletal-muscle
#4
Aurélie Chiche, Isabelle Le Roux, Mathieu von Joest, Hiroshi Sakai, Sabela Búa Aguín, Coralie Cazin, Rana Salam, Laurence Fiette, Olinda Alegria, Patricia Flamant, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Han Li
In vivo reprogramming is a promising approach for tissue regeneration in response to injury. Several examples of in vivo reprogramming have been reported in a variety of lineages, but some including skeletal muscle have so far proven refractory. Here, we show that acute and chronic injury enables transcription-factor-mediated reprogramming in skeletal muscle. Lineage tracing indicates that this response frequently originates from Pax7+ muscle stem cells. Injury is associated with accumulation of senescent cells, and advanced aging or local irradiation further enhanced in vivo reprogramming, while selective elimination of senescent cells reduced reprogramming efficiency...
December 22, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017376/myogenic-potential-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-lacking-functional-pax7-tested-in-vitro-by-5-azacitidine-treatment-and-in-vivo-in-regenerating-skeletal-muscle
#5
Anita Helinska, Maciej Krupa, Karolina Archacka, Areta M Czerwinska, Wladyslawa Streminska, Katarzyna Janczyk-Ilach, Maria A Ciemerych, Iwona Grabowska
Regeneration of skeletal muscle relies on the presence of satellite cells. Satellite cells deficiency accompanying some degenerative diseases is the reason for the search for the "replacement cells" that can be used in the muscle therapies. Due to their unique properties embryonic stem cells (ESCs), as well as myogenic cells derived from them, are considered as a promising source of therapeutic cells. Among the factors crucial for the specification of myogenic precursor cells is Pax7 that sustains proper function of satellite cells...
December 15, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993983/ascl2-inhibits-myogenesis-by-antagonizing-the-transcriptional-activity-of-myogenic-regulatory-factors
#6
Chao Wang, Min Wang, Justine Arrington, Tizhong Shan, Feng Yue, Yaohui Nie, Weiguo Andy Tao, Shihuan Kuang
Myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) including Myf5, MyoD and Myog are muscle-specific transcriptional factors orchestrating myogenesis. Although MRFs are essential for myogenic commitment and differentiation, timely repression of their activity is necessary for self-renewal and maintenance of muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Here we define a novel inhibitor of MRFs: the achaete-scute homologue 2 (Ascl2). During development, Ascl2 is transiently detected in a subpopulation of Pax7(+)MyoD(+) progenitors (myoblasts) that become Pax7(+)MyoD(-) satellite cells prior to birth, but not detectable in postnatal satellite cells...
December 19, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939528/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-beta-ppar%C3%AE-activity-increases-the-immune-response-and-shortens-the-early-phases-of-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#7
Isabelle Mothe-Satney, Jessica Piquet, Joseph Murdaca, Brigitte Sibille, Paul A Grimaldi, Jaap G Neels, Anne-Sophie Rousseau
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Beta (PPARβ) is a transcription factor playing an important role in both muscle myogenesis and remodeling, and in inflammation. However, its role in the coordination of the transient muscle inflammation and reparation process following muscle injury has not yet been fully determined. We postulated that activation of the PPARβ pathway alters the early phase of the muscle regeneration process, i.e. when immune cells infiltrate in injured muscle. Tibialis anteriors of C57BL6/J mice treated or not with the PPARβ agonist GW0742 were injected with cardiotoxin (or with physiological serum for the contralateral muscle)...
December 7, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923399/ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-is-required-for-satellite-cell-self-renewal
#8
Neena Lala-Tabbert, Hamood AlSudais, François Marchildon, Dechen Fu, Nadine Wiper-Bergeron
BACKGROUND: Postnatal growth and repair of skeletal muscle relies upon a population of quiescent muscle precursor cells, called satellite cells that can be activated to proliferate and differentiate into new myofibers, as well as self-renew to replenish the satellite cell population. The balance between differentiation and self-renewal is critical to maintain muscle tissue homeostasis, and alterations in this equilibrium can lead to chronic muscle degeneration. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) is expressed in Pax7(+) satellite cells of healthy muscle and is downregulated during myoblast differentiation...
December 7, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906115/established-cell-surface-markers-efficiently-isolate-highly-overlapping-populations-of-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-by-fluorescence-activated-cell-sorting
#9
Claire C Maesner, Albert E Almada, Amy J Wagers
BACKGROUND: Fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) has enabled the direct isolation of highly enriched skeletal muscle stem cell, or satellite cell, populations from postnatal tissue. Several distinct surface marker panels containing different positively selecting surface antigens have been used to distinguish muscle satellite cells from other non-myogenic cell types. Because functional and transcriptional heterogeneity is known to exist within the satellite cell population, a direct comparison of results obtained in different laboratories has been complicated by a lack of clarity as to whether commonly utilized surface marker combinations select for distinct or overlapping subsets of the satellite cell pool...
November 8, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906106/loss-of-niche-satellite-cell-interactions-in-syndecan-3-null-mice-alters-muscle-progenitor-cell-homeostasis-improving-muscle-regeneration
#10
Addolorata Pisconti, Glen B Banks, Farshad Babaeijandaghi, Nicole Dalla Betta, Fabio M V Rossi, Jeffrey S Chamberlain, Bradley B Olwin
BACKGROUND: The skeletal muscle stem cell niche provides an environment that maintains quiescent satellite cells, required for skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Syndecan-3, a transmembrane proteoglycan expressed in satellite cells, supports communication with the niche, providing cell interactions and signals to maintain quiescent satellite cells. RESULTS: Syndecan-3 ablation unexpectedly improves regeneration in repeatedly injured muscle and in dystrophic mice, accompanied by the persistence of sublaminar and interstitial, proliferating myoblasts...
October 4, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906090/muscle-specific-deletion-of-socs3-increases-the-early-inflammatory-response-but-does-not-affect-regeneration-after-myotoxic-injury
#11
Kristy Swiderski, Savant S Thakur, Timur Naim, Jennifer Trieu, Annabel Chee, David I Stapleton, René Koopman, Gordon S Lynch
BACKGROUND: Muscles of old animals are injured more easily and regenerate poorly, attributed in part to increased levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling cascade is a key mediator of inflammatory cytokine action, and signaling via this pathway is increased in muscles with aging. As a negative regulator of JAK/STAT signaling, a key mediator of myogenic proliferation and differentiation, altered expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) is likely to have important consequences for muscle regeneration...
October 24, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906051/the-lysine-methyltransferase-ehmt2-g9a-is-dispensable-for-skeletal-muscle-development-and-regeneration
#12
Regan-Heng Zhang, Robert N Judson, David Y Liu, Jürgen Kast, Fabio M V Rossi
BACKGROUND: Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (G9a/Ehmt2) is the main enzyme responsible for the apposition of H3K9 di-methylation on histones. Due to its dual role as an epigenetic regulator and in the regulation of non-histone proteins through direct methylation, G9a has been implicated in a number of biological processes relevant to cell fate control. Recent reports employing in vitro cell lines indicate that Ehmt2 methylates MyoD to repress its transcriptional activity and therefore its ability to induce differentiation of activated myogenic cells...
May 27, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899900/fiber-type-specific-satellite-cell-content-in-cyclists-following-heavy-training-with-carbohydrate-and-carbohydrate-protein-supplementation
#13
Alec I McKenzie, Andrew C D'Lugos, Michael J Saunders, Keith D Gworek, Nicholas D Luden
The central purpose of this study was to evaluate the fiber type-specific satellite cell and myonuclear responses of endurance-trained cyclists to a block of intensified training, when supplementing with carbohydrate (CHO) vs. carbohydrate-protein (PRO). In a crossover design, endurance-trained cyclists (n = 8) performed two consecutive training periods, once supplementing with CHO (de facto "control" condition) and the other with PRO. Each training period consisted of 10 days of intensified cycle training (ICT-120% increase in average training duration) followed by 10 days of recovery (RVT-reduced volume training; 33% volume reduction vs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859677/plane-of-nutrition-affects-growth-rate-organ-size-and-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cell-activity-in-newborn-calves
#14
M E MacGhee, J S Bradley, S R McCoski, A M Reeg, A D Ealy, S E Johnson
Plane of nutrition effects on body, tissue and cellular growth in the neonatal calf are poorly understood. The hypothesis that a low plane of nutrition (LPN) would limit skeletal muscle size by reducing fibre growth and muscle progenitor cell activity was tested. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to either a LPN (20% CP, 20% fat; GE=1.9 Mcal/days) or a high plane of nutrition (HPN; 27% CP, 10% fat, GE = 3.8 Mcal/days) in a 2 × 3 factorial design to test the impact of diet on neonatal calf growth, organ weight and skeletal muscle morphometry with time...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854222/enhancement-of-satellite-cell-transplantation-efficiency-by-leukemia-inhibitory-factor
#15
N Ito, N Shimizu, H Tanaka, S Takeda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cell transplantation is a promising therapy for several muscle diseases, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Satellite cells are stem cells in skeletal muscle that provide an important cell source for transplantation therapy. However, culture of satellite cells in vitro causes them to lose their undifferentiated state, associated with reduced transplantation efficiency. It is therefore necessary to develop optimal culture conditions for maintaining the undifferentiated state of satellite cells...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849571/arginine-methylation-by-prmt1-regulates-muscle-stem-cell-fate
#16
Roméo Sébastien Blanc, Gillian Vogel, Xing Li, Zhenbao Yu, Shawn Li, Stéphane Richard
Quiescent muscle stem cells (MSC) become activated in response to skeletal muscle injury to initiate regeneration. Activated MSCs proliferate and differentiate to repair damaged fibers or self-renew to maintain the pool and insure future regeneration. The balance between self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation is a tightly regulated process controlled by a genetic cascade involving determinant transcription factors such as Pax7, Myf5, MyoD, and MyoG. Recently there have been several reports about the role of arginine methylation as a requirement for epigenetic-mediated control of muscle regeneration...
November 14, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834290/altered-muscle-satellite-cell-activation-following-16-wk-of-resistance-training-in-young-men
#17
Joshua P Nederveen, Tim Snijders, Sophie Joanisse, Christopher G Wavell, Cameron J Mitchell, Leeann M Johnston, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips, Gianni Parise
Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SC) play an important role in muscle adaptation. In untrained individuals, SC content and activation status have been observed to increase in response to a single bout of exercise. Muscle fiber characteristics change considerably when resistance exercise is performed chronically, but whether training status affects the activity of SC in response to a single bout of exercise remains unknown. We examined the changes in SC content and activation status following a single bout of resistance exercise, before and following a 16-wk progressive resistance training (RT) program in 14 young (25 ± 3 yr) men...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834030/does-the-grass-snake-natrix-natrix-squamata-serpentes-natricinae-fit-the-amniotes-specific-model-of-myogenesis
#18
Damian Lewandowski, Magda Dubińska-Magiera, Ewelina Posyniak, Weronika Rupik, Małgorzata Daczewska
In the grass snake (Natrix natrix), the newly developed somites form vesicles that are located on both sides of the neural tube. The walls of the vesicles are composed of tightly connected epithelial cells surrounding the cavity (the somitocoel). Also, in the newly formed somites, the Pax3 protein can be observed in the somite wall cells. Subsequently, the somite splits into three compartments: the sclerotome, dermomyotome (with the dorsomedial [DM] and the ventrolateral [VL] lips) and the myotome. At this stage, the Pax3 protein is detected in both the DM and VL lips of the dermomyotome and in the mononucleated cells of the myotome, whereas the Pax7 protein is observed in the medial part of the dermomyotome and in some of the mononucleated cells of the myotome...
November 10, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826411/established-cell-surface-markers-efficiently-isolate-highly-overlapping-populations-of-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-by-fluorescence-activated-cell-sorting
#19
Claire C Maesner, Albert E Almada, Amy J Wagers
BACKGROUND: Fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) has enabled the direct isolation of highly enriched skeletal muscle stem cell, or satellite cell, populations from postnatal tissue. Several distinct surface marker panels containing different positively selecting surface antigens have been used to distinguish muscle satellite cells from other non-myogenic cell types. Because functional and transcriptional heterogeneity is known to exist within the satellite cell population, a direct comparison of results obtained in different laboratories has been complicated by a lack of clarity as to whether commonly utilized surface marker combinations select for distinct or overlapping subsets of the satellite cell pool...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810640/skeletal-muscle-derived-stem-cells-microintegrated-into-a-biodegradable-elastomer-for-reconstruction-of-the-abdominal-wall
#20
Keisuke Takanari, Ryotaro Hashizume, Yi Hong, Nicholas J Amoroso, Tomo Yoshizumi, Burhan Gharaibeh, Osamu Yoshida, Kazuhiro Nonaka, Hideyoshi Sato, Johnny Huard, William R Wagner
A variety of techniques have been applied to generate tissue engineered constructs, where cells are combined with degradable scaffolds followed by a period of in vitro culture or direct implantation. In the current study, a cellularized scaffold was generated by concurrent deposition of electrospun biodegradable elastomer (poly(ester urethane)urea, PEUU) and electrosprayed culture medium + skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) or electrosprayed culture medium alone as a control. MDSCs were obtained from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats...
October 18, 2016: Biomaterials
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