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Rituximab biology

Su-Hyun Kim, Jae-Won Hyun, Ho Jin Kim
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis (ON), longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), and area postrema syndrome. The majority of patients with NMOSD are seropositive for autoantibodies against the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). As convergent clinical and laboratory-based investigations have indicated that B cells play a fundamental role in NMO immunopathology, B cells have become an attractive therapeutic target...
December 1, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Michael A Spinner, Gaurav Varma, Ranjana H Advani
Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a unique rare subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) which differs clinically, pathologically and biologically from classic HL, warranting a nuanced approach to treatment. CD20 expression by malignant lymphocyte-predominant cells, a tendency for late relapses, and the risk of transformation to aggressive large B-cell lymphoma are characteristic features with important implications for treatment and follow-up. Recognition of histopathological variant patterns is also critical, with important implications for prognosis and treatment...
November 28, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Ciara L Freeman, Laurie Sehn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since its initial approval in 1997, rituximab has revolutionized the treatment of CD20-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. Now, over two decades later, second-generation molecules are emerging that may have key biological advantages compared to rituximab, as well as biosimilars that may be more cost-effective. Clinicians, health policy makers, and payers will now need to critically appraise the available evidence for these competitors and decide which anti-CD20 to use...
November 27, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Daniel Bojar, Tobias Fuhrer, Martin Fussenegger
Capitalizing on the ability of mammalian cells to conduct complex post-translational modifications, most protein therapeutics are currently produced in cell culture systems. Addition of a signal peptide to the product protein enables its accumulation in the cell culture supernatant, but separation of the product from endogenously secreted proteins remains costly and labor-intensive. We considered that global downregulation of translation of non-product proteins would be an efficient strategy to minimize downstream processing requirements...
November 20, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Blanka Kaplan, Vincent R Bonagura
Secondary hypogammaglobulinemia is a common development in patients treated with immunomodulatory agents for autoimmune, connective tissue, and malignant diseases. It has been observed in the medical management of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation. Some patients have preexisting immunodeficiency associated with these illnesses; immunosuppressive treatment magnifies their immune defect. This article reviews immunosuppressive medications, including biological treatments that cause secondary hypogammaglobulinemia...
February 2019: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Carlo Salvarani, Gulen Hatemi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucocorticoids are the mainstay of therapy for large-vessel vasculitis, but potential toxicity and frequent relapses led to studies with nonbiologic and biologic glucocorticoid-sparing agents. The aim of this review is to discuss the recent evidence for the management of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TAK). RECENT FINDINGS: Tocilizumab proved to be a powerful glucocorticoid-sparing agent for GCA in a randomized placebo-controlled trial, whereas the trials with tocilizumab and abatacept failed to show a significant difference from placebo in relapse-free survival rate in TAK...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Amal A Gharamti, Amy Rao, Paula E Pecen, Andrés F Henao-Martínez, Carlos Franco-Paredes, José G Montoya
We report the case of a 65-year-old patient with pseudolymphoma who developed acute toxoplasmosis following 6 cycles of rituximab and bendamustine therapy. Acute toxoplasmosis in the setting of biological response modifiers, rather than reactivation, is a unique unreported infection. The patient developed severe disease with multi-organ involvement, including retinitis, myocarditis, and myositis. We discuss the clinical findings, epidemiology, and laboratory diagnosis.
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Romain Arrestier, Anne-Pascale Satie, Shao-Yu Zhang, Emmanuelle Plaisier, Corinne Isnard-Bagnis, Philippe Gatault, Quentin Raimbourg, David Buob, Flavia Vocila, Anne-Elisabeth Heng, Helene Francois, Anissa Moktefi, Guillaume Canaud, Marie Matignon, Nathalie Dejucq-Rainsford, Isabelle Brocheriou, Dil Sahali, Vincent Audard
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with diverse glomerular diseases. Characteristics of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in this setting have been little studied, and the specific features of this uncommon association remain to be determined. METHODS: We conduct a retrospective study. Clinical, biological and pathological characteristics of patients with MCNS and HIV infection were assessed. We evaluated HIV infection by in situ hybridization and CMIP expression by immunochemistry on kidney biopsies and compared it to HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) and idiopathic MCNS...
November 20, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Alberto Jiménez Morales, Mar Maldonado-Montoro, Juan Enrique Martínez de la Plata, Cristina Pérez Ramírez, Abdelali Daddaoua, Carolina Alarcón Payer, Manuela Expósito Ruiz, Carlos García Collado
We evaluated the influence of clinical, biochemical, and genetic factors on response in 142 patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, of whom 87 patients were treated with tocilizumab (61.26%) and 55 patients were treated with rituximab (38.7%;) according to the variables European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response, remission, low disease activity, and improvement in Disease Activity Score, 28 joints (DAS28) at 6, 12, and 18 months. A retrospective prospective cohort study was conducted. Patients carrying the FCGR3A rs396991-TT genotype treated with tocilizumab showed higher EULAR response (OR, 5...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
George Daniel Grass, Matthew N Mills, Kamran A Ahmed, Casey L Liveringhouse, Michael J Montejo, Timothy J Robinson, Julio C Chavez, Louis B Harrison, Sungjune Kim
We investigated whether adding radiation (RT) to systemic therapy improved outcomes in early stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients with or without double- or triple-hit lymphoma (DHL/THL) biology. This analysis included 183 patients profiled with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for alterations in MYC, BLC2, and/or BCL6. A total of 146 (80%) were non-DHL/THL, 27 (15%) were DHL, and 10 (6%) were THL. Systemic therapy without RT resulted in inferior freedom from relapse (FFR) (HR: 2.28; 95% CI, 1...
November 20, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Konstantinos Kapriniotis, Savvas Lampridis, Sofoklis Mitsos, Davide Patrini, David R Lawrence, Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos
Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) causes an extensive range of systematic symptoms and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and appropriately. The pathophysiology of the disease remains unclear; however, interleukin 6 (IL-6) pathway and human herpesvirus 8 infection appear to play an important role. As a result, the treatment of MCD remains complex and often insufficient, although a plethora of therapeutic approaches have been used. Between these, biological agents in the form of monoclonal antibodies against specific pathogenic processes of the disease have improved survival rates significantly...
October 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
C Addy, G Doran, A L Jones, G Wright, S Caskey, D G Downey
BACKGROUND: Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial-pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) is increasing in incidence and prevalence. Mycobacterium abscessus (M.abscessus) is a rapid growing multi-resistant NTM associated with severe NTM-PD requiring prolonged antibiotic therapy. Complications of therapy are common but reports on direct complications of active NTM-PD are rare. Vasculitis has been described as a rare complication of NTM-PD, most often in individuals with inherited immune defects. This case is the first to describe an ANCA positive vasculitide (Microscopic Polyangiitis) secondary to M...
November 19, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Jin-Ling Shu, Xian-Zheng Zhang, Le Han, Feng Zhang, Yu-Jing Wu, Xiao-Yu Tang, Chen Wang, Yu Tai, Qing-Tong Wang, Jing-Yu Chen, Yan Chang, Hua-Xun Wu, Ling-Ling Zhang, Wei Wei
Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) is a new ester derivative of paeoniflorin with improved lipid solubility and oral bioavailability, as well as better anti-inflammatory activity than its parent compound. In this study we explored whether CP-25 exerted therapeutic effects in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice through regulating B-cell activating factor (BAFF)-BAFF receptors-mediated signaling pathways. CIA mice were given CP-25 or injected with biological agents rituximab or etanercept for 40 days...
November 16, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Benjamin Terrier, Loïc Guillevin
Pulmonary vasculitis can be heterogeneous and have some pathophysiological, clinical, and biological specificities that might influence treatment choices. Main vasculitides associated with pulmonary vasculitis include antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, immune complex small vessel vasculitis, and antiglomerular basement membrane disease. Patient characteristics and association of lung involvement with other manifestations affecting disease severity may also influence treatment strategy...
August 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Levent Kilic, Abdulsamet Erden, Yusuf Ziya Sener, Berkan Armagan, Alper Sari, Umut Kalyoncu, Omer Karadag, Ali Akdogan, Ismail Dogan, Sule Apras Bilgen, Sedat Kiraz, Ihsan Ertenli
Secondary amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a late and serious complication of poorly controlled, chronic inflammatory diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with poorly controlled, longstanding disease and those with extra-articular manifestations are under risk for the development of AA amyloidosis. Although new drugs have proven to be significantly effective in the treatment of secondary AA amyloidosis, no treatment modality has proven to be ideal. To date, only in small case series preliminary clinical improvement have been shown with rituximab therapy for AA amyloidosis secondary to RA that is refractory to TNF-α inhibitors (TNF-i) therapy...
November 5, 2018: Biomolecules
Lianne Kearsley-Fleet, Sunil Sampath, Liza J McCann, Eileen Baildam, Michael W Beresford, Rebecca Davies, Diederik De Cock, Helen E Foster, Taunton R Southwood, Wendy Thomson, Kimme L Hyrich
Objectives: Rituximab (RTX) may be a treatment option for children and young people with JIA, although it is not licensed for this indication. The aim of this study was to describe RTX use and outcomes among children with JIA. Methods: This analysis included all JIA patients within the UK Biologics for Children with Rheumatic Diseases study starting RTX. Disease activity was assessed at RTX start and at follow-up. The total number of courses each patient received was assessed...
October 24, 2018: Rheumatology
Maja Perunicic Jovanovic, Biljana Mihaljevic, Petar Jovanovic, Jelena Jelicic, Vesna Cemerikic Martinovic, Jelica Jovanović, Marija Dencic Fekete, Milica Čekerevac, Nebojša Bojanić
Primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PT-DLBCL) represents a rare and aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with some specific features that differ from other NHLs. Formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded (FFPE) samples of 21 PT-DLBCLs and 30 comparative patients with DLBCL were analysed. All PT-DLBCL patients were treated with rituximab-containing regimens, intrathecal prophylaxis (10 patients), and irradiation of the contralateral testis (9 patients). FFPE samples were additionally analysed by immunohistochemistry (Bcl-2, c-Myc protein expression) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) (BCL2 and MYC)...
2018: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
José Carlos Jaime-Pérez, Patrizia Elva Aguilar-Calderón, Lorena Salazar-Cavazos, David Gómez-Almaguer
Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare and chronic autoimmune disease characterized by autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenic purpura with a positive direct anti-human globulin test. It is classified as primary and secondary, with the frequency in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia being 37%-73%. It predominates in children, mainly due to primary immunodeficiencies or autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. ES during pregnancy is associated with high fetal morbidity, including severe hemolysis and intracranial bleeding with neurological sequelae and death...
2018: Journal of Blood Medicine
E Peterknecht, M P Keasey, M W Beresford
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and summarize the available literature regarding the effectiveness and safety of biologics in the treatment of juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. METHODS: PubMed was systematically searched for relevant literature (2012-2017 inclusive) using the following criteria: (1) patients diagnosed with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (≤18 years at diagnosis); (2) treatment with any biological agent; and (3) outcome measures assessing effectiveness and safety...
November 2018: Lupus
Sarah Löw, Catherine H Han, Tracy T Batchelor
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), confined to the brain, eyes, spinal cord or leptomeninges without systemic involvement. Overall prognosis, diagnosis and management of PCNSL differ from other types of NHL. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment are vital to improving clinical outcomes. PCNSL is responsive to radiation therapy, however whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) inadequately controls the disease when used alone and its delayed neurotoxicity causes neurocognitive impairment, especially in elderly patients...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
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