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Anticancer Effect

Hirota Fujiki, Eisaburo Sueoka, Tatsuro Watanabe, Masami Suganuma
PURPOSE: The okadaic acid class of tumor promoters, which are inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), induced tumor promotion in mouse skin, rat glandular stomach, and rat liver. Endogenous protein inhibitors of PP2A, SET and CIP2A, were up-regulated in various human cancers, so it is vital to review the essential mechanisms of tumor promotion by the okadaic acid class compounds, together with cancer progression by SET and CIP2A in humans. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The first part of this review introduces the okadaic acid class compounds and the mechanism of tumor promotion: (1) inhibition of PP1 and PP2A activities of the okadaic acid class compounds; (2) some topics of tumor promotion; (3) TNF-α gene expression as a central mediator in tumor promotion; (4) exposure to the okadaic acid class of tumor promoters in relation to human cancer...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Zhiqiang Chen, Jing Sun, Tao Li, Yanfeng Liu, Shang Gao, Xuting Zhi, Minhua Zheng
Di-2-pyridylketone-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT), as the novel iron chelator, has been reported to inhibit the tumorigenesis and progression of various cancer cells. However, whether Dp44mT has anticancer effects in colon cancer cells is still unknown. Here, we investigated the antitumor action of Dp44mT in colon cancer and its underlying mechanisms, and the connections between Dp44mT and N-myc downstream-regulated genes 1(Ndrg1). We used cell viability, migration and invasion assay, flow cytometry, western blot and qRT-PCR to examine the anticancer effects of Dp44mT and Ndrg1...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mukhtar Ikhsan, Nurul Hiedayati, Kazutaka Maeyama, Fariz Nurwidya
OBJECTIVE: Nigella sativa (N. sativa) has several pharmacological actions which include antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, antitussive, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, and bronchodilator. The purpose of this study is to measure the effectivity of N. sativa ethanol extract as anti-inflammation on peritoneal Wistar rat mast cells. The laboratory experiment was used to investigate the effectivity of N. sativa as an anti-inflammatory on mast cells...
October 19, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Ilya Yakavets, Henri-Pierre Lassalle, Dietrich Scheglmann, Arno Wiehe, Vladimir Zorin, Lina Bezdetnaya
The main goal of this study was to use hybrid delivery system for effective transportation of temoporfin ( meta -tetrakis(3-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin, mTHPC) to target tissue. We suggested to couple two independent delivery systems (liposomes and inclusion complexes) to achieve drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposome (DCL) nanoconstructs. We further optimized the composition of DCLs, aiming to alter in a more favorable way a distribution of temoporfin in tumor tissue. We have prepared DCLs with different compositions varying the concentration of mTHPC and the type of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivatives (Hydroxypropyl-, Methyl- and Trimethyl-β-CD)...
October 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
Tao Tan, Yuqi Wang, Hong Wang, Haiqiang Cao, Zhiwan Wang, Jing Wang, Jie Li, Yaping Li, Zhiwen Zhang, Siling Wang
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are proposed to be responsible for tumor metastasis, resistance and relapse after therapy, but are unable to be eliminated by many current therapies. Herein, we report that the apoferritin nanocages loading cytotoxic mertansine (M-AFN) can significantly improve their uptake in CSCs-enriched tumorspheres and effectively eradicate CSCs in tumorspheres for anticancer therapy. M-AFN were uniformly nanocage structures with the mean diameter of 11.26±2.58 nm and the loading capacity of 0...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Hao Jin, Geom Seog Seo, Sung Hee Lee
Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a natural flavonoid that exhibits anticancer properties in various carcinoma cell types. However, the precise mechanism responsible for its anticancer activity has not been elucidated fully. In the present study, we examined ISL-mediated apoptotic mechanisms in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. ISL induced apoptosis in human HCT-116 cells and caused marked induction of p62/SQSTM1 mRNA and protein expression. Similarly, ISL potently inhibited in vivo tumor growth and induced p62/SQSTM1 expression in xenograft tumor tissues...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Arielle Elkrief, Lisa Derosa, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Bertrand Routy
Immunotherapy is widely used to treat a large variety of malignancies and has revolutionized the therapeutic approach to cancer. Major efforts are ongoing to identify biomarkers that predict response to immunotherapy as well as new strategies to improve ICI efficacy and clinical outcomes. Studies have shown that the gut microbiome determines the extent to which ICIs may invigorate the anticancer immune response. Here, the authors review recent studies that have described the effects of the gut microbiota on the efficacy of CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitors and outline potential future clinical directions of these findings...
October 19, 2018: Gut Microbes
Oscar A Lenis-Rojas, M Paula Robalo, Ana Isabel Tomaz, Andreia Carvalho, Alexandra R Fernandes, Fernanda Marques, Mónica Folgueira, Julián Yáñez, Digna Vázquez-García, Margarita López Torres, Alberto Fernández, Jesús J Fernández
Ruthenium(II) complexes are currently considered a viable alternative to the widely used platinum complexes as efficient anticancer agents. We herein present the synthesis and characterization of half-sandwich ruthenium compounds with the general formula [Ru( p-cymene)(L-N,N)Cl][CF3 SO3 ] (L = 3,6-di-2-pyridyl-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (1) 6,7-dimethyl-2,3-bis(pyridin-2-yl)quinoxaline (2)), which have been synthesized by substitution reactions from the precursor dimer [Ru( p-cymene)(Cl)(μ-Cl)]2 and were characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, 1 H NMR, UV-vis, and IR spectroscopy, conductivity measurements, and cyclic voltammetry...
October 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Lili Feng, Rui Xie, Chuanqing Wang, Shili Gai, Fei He, Dan Yang, Piaoping Yang, Jun Lin
Therapeutic nanosystems which can be triggered by the distinctive tumor microenvironment possess great selectivity and safety to treat cancers via in situ transformation of nontoxic prodrugs into toxic therapeutic agents. Here, we constructed an intelligent, magnetic targeting and tumor microenvironment responsive nanocatalysts that can acquire oxidation therapy of cancer via specific reaction at tumor site. The magnetic nanoparticle core of iron carbide-glucose oxidase (Fe5C2-GOD) achieved by physical absorption has a high enzyme payload and the manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoshell as an intelligent "gatekeeper" shields GOD from premature leaking until reaching tumor tissue...
October 19, 2018: ACS Nano
Rossella Fioravanti, Giulia Stazi, Clemens Zwergel, Sergio Valente, Antonello Mai
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), catalyzes the methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27) up to its trimethylated form (H3K27me), inducing by this way block of transcription and gene silencing. High levels of H3K27me3 have been found in both hematological malignancies and solid cancers, due to EZH2 overexpression and/or EZH2 mutation. From 2012, a number of highly potent and selective catalytic inhibitors of EZH2 have been reported, almost all bearing a 2-pyridone group in their structure...
October 19, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Yan Jun Ma, Chun Xiao Sun, Jian Wen Wang
Hypocrellin A (HA), a promising photosensitizer for anticancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), is a fungal perylenequinone pigment from the fruiting body of Shiraia bambusicola, a traditional Chinese medicine for treating skin diseases. The mycelial cultures are becoming a biotechnological alternative for HA production. In this study, light of different wavelengths was investigated to develop an effective eliciting strategy for HA production in the cultures. Under red LED light (627 nm) at 200 lux, the maximum HA production (175...
October 19, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Izabela Nabiałek-Trojanowska, Ewa Lewicka, Anna Wrona, Anna M Kaleta, Zuzanna Lewicka-Potocka, Grzegorz Raczak, Rafał Dziadziuszko
Over the past decades, effective cancer therapies have resulted in a significant improvement in the survival rates for a number of cancers and an increase in the number of cancer survivors. Radiation therapy is widely used in the treatment of cancer, and it can induce various cardiotoxicities that differ considerably from chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. They occur primarily as late radiation-induced complications, several years from the end of anticancer treatment and present as coronary artery disease, heart failure, pericardial disease, valvular heart disease and arrhythmias...
October 19, 2018: Cardiology Journal
Qionglin Huang, Qingjin Yang, Jian Li, Mingming Mo, Junjie Zhang, Xiaoxia Ye, Lijian Zhang, Chun Cai
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) have significant multiple anti-tumor roles. However, whether epigenetic DNA hydroxymethylation enroll in the anticancer process of omega-3 PUFAs is still not clear yet. OBJECTIVE: To expound the interaction between anti-tumor role of omega-3 PUFAs and the DNA demethylation pathway and thus provide a firm foundation for deepening our understanding on anticancer mechanism of omega-3 PUFAs. METHODS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) model rats were induced to generate tumor by methylnitrosourea and their counterparts treated with omega-3 PUFAs during the induction...
October 18, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Anne Clavreul, Emilie Roger, Milad Pourbaghi-Masouleh, Laurent Lemaire, Clément Tétaud, Philippe Menei
Anticancer agents that target both tumor cells and angiogenesis are of potential interest for glioblastoma (GB) therapy. One such agent is sorafenib (SFN), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, poor aqueous solubility and undesirable side effects limit its clinical application, including local treatment. We encapsulated SFN in lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) to overcome these drawbacks. LNCs are nanocarriers formulated according to a solvent-free process, using only components that have received regulatory approval...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Yanmei Liu, Shujun Gao, Jie Zhu, Ya Zheng, Haiyan Zhang, Hong Sun
Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the primary of artemisinin extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine Artemisia annua, has been used in malaria treatment for a long time. Recently, many studies have indicated that, in addition to antimalarial effects, DHA also exhibits anticancer activity in certain types of neoplasms, including ovarian cancer. However, the precise anti-ovarian cancer mechanism of DHA is still unclear. Abnormal activation of the hedgehog (Hh) pathway is closely related to tumorigenesis and progression of ovarian cancer...
October 18, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Jingxia Cui, Shuli Man, Nina Cui, Li Yang, Qianbei Guo, Long Ma, Wenyuan Gao
OBJECTIVES: Drug combination has a promising and potential development prospect in the treatment of various cancers. The objective of this study is to investigate the synergistic mechanisms of polyphyllin VII (PVII) and formosanin C (FC) in lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The combination of FC and PVII influenced on the apoptosis, autophagy, and the relative signalling pathways were analysed in lung cancer cells. RESULTS: The combination of FC and PVII demonstrated a concentration- dependent growth inhibition in human lung cancer cells...
October 18, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Vasiliki Chondrou, Katerina Trochoutsou, Andreas Panayides, Maria Efthimiou, Georgia Stephanou, Nikos A Demopoulos
Background: Doxorubicin is a widely used anticancer drug due to its broad spectrum of antitumor activity. Various mechanisms have been proposed for its cytostatic activity, including DNA intercalation, topoisomerase II inhibition, generation of free radicals and apoptosis. The present study aims to further clarify the cytostatic activity of doxorubicin by its specific effect on (a) DNA damage, (b) micronucleation and (c) apoptosis, using a combination of different methods and cell systems such as human lymphocytes and HL-60 human leukemic cells...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Seung-Ho So, Jong Won Lee, Young-Sook Kim, Sun Hee Hyun, Chang-Kyun Han
Ginseng has been traditionally used for several millennia in Asian countries, including Korea, China, and Japan, not only as a nourishing and tonifying agent but also as a therapeutic agent for a variety of diseases. In recent years, the various effects of red ginseng including immunity improvement, fatigue relief, memory improvement, blood circulation improvement, antioxidation, mitigation of menopausal women's symptoms, and anticancer an effect have been reported in clinical as well as basic research. Around the world, there is a trend of the rising consumption of health functional foods on the level of disease prevention along with increased interest in maintaining health because of population aging and the awareness of lifestyle diseases and chronic diseases...
October 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Xiao Xiao, Jiankai Liang, Chunlong Huang, Kai Li, Fan Xing, Wenbo Zhu, Ziqing Lin, Wencang Xu, Guangen Wu, Jifu Zhang, Xi Lin, Yaqian Tan, Jing Cai, Jun Hu, Xueqin Chen, Youwei Huang, Zixi Qin, Pengxin Qiu, Xingwen Su, Lijun Chen, Yuan Lin, Haipeng Zhang, Guangmei Yan
Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising therapeutic strategy that uses replication-competent viruses to selectively destroy malignancies. However, the therapeutic effect of certain oncolytic viruses (OVs) varies among cancer patients. Thus, it is necessary to overcome resistance to OVs through rationally designed combination strategies. Here, through an anticancer drug screening, we show that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibition sensitizes cancer cells to OV M1 and improves therapeutic effects in refractory cancer models in vivo and in patient tumour samples...
October 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Guocan Yu, Shan Yu, Manik Lal Saha, Jiong Zhou, Timothy R Cook, Bryant C Yung, Jin Chen, Zhengwei Mao, Fuwu Zhang, Zijian Zhou, Yijing Liu, Li Shao, Sheng Wang, Changyou Gao, Feihe Huang, Peter J Stang, Xiaoyuan Chen
Photodynamic therapy is an effective alternative to traditional treatments due to its minimally invasive nature, negligible systemic toxicity, fewer side effects, and avoidance of drug resistance. However, it is still challenging to design photosensitizers with high singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) quantum yields (QY) due to severe aggregation of the hydrophobic photosensitizers. Herein, we developed a discrete organoplatinum(II) metallacage using therapeutic cis-(PEt3 )2 Pt(OTf)2 as the building block to improve the 1 O2 QY, thus achieving synergistic anticancer efficacy...
October 18, 2018: Nature Communications
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