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Anticancer Effect

Juan M R Albano, Lígia Nunes de Morais Ribeiro, Verônica Muniz Couto, Mariana Barbosa Messias, Gustavo Henrique Rodrigues da Silva, Márcia Cristina Breitkreitz, Eneida de Paula, Monica Pickholz
In this work, a stable nanocarrier for the anti-cancer drug docetaxel was rational designed. The nanocarrier was developed based on the solid lipid nanoparticle preparation process aiming to minimize the total amount of excipients used in the final formulations. A particular interest was put on the effects of the polymers in the final composition. In this direction, two poloxoamers -Pluronic F127 and F68- were selected. Some poloxamers are well known to be inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein efflux pump. Additionally, their poly-ethylene-oxide blocks can help them to escape the immune system, making the poloxamers appealing to be present in a nanoparticle designed for the treatment of cancer...
November 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Mahfuz Al Mamun, Kaiissar Mannoor, Jun Cao, Firdausi Qadri, Xiaoyuan Song
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a minor subpopulation of tumor bulks with self-renewal and seeding capacity to generate new tumors, posit a significant challenge to develop effective and long-lasting anti-cancer therapies. The emergence of drug resistance appears upon failure of chemo-/radiation therapy to eradicate the CSCs, thereby leading to CSC-mediated clinical relapse. Accumulating evidence suggests that transcription factor SOX2, a master regulator of embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, drives cancer stemness, fuels tumor initiation, and contributes to tumor aggressiveness through major drug resistance mechanisms like epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters, anti-apoptotic and/or pro-survival signaling, lineage plasticity, and evasion of immune surveillance...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
Tianqun Lang, Yiran Liu, Zhong Zheng, Wei Ran, Yihui Zhai, Qi Yin, Pengcheng Zhang, Yaping Li
Metastatic breast cancer may be resistant to chemo-immunotherapy due to the existence of cancer stem cells (CSC). And the control of particle size and drug release of a drug carrier for multidrug combination is a key issue influencing therapy effect. Here, a cocktail strategy is reported, in which chemotherapy against both bulk tumor cells and CSC and immune checkpoint blockade therapy are intergraded into one drug delivery system. The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX), the anti-CSC agent thioridazine (THZ), and the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor HY19991 (HY) are all incorporated into an enzyme/pH dual-sensitive nanoparticle with a micelle-liposome double-layer structure...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ping Zhang, Yang Zhang, Kuikui Liu, Bin Liu, Wenping Xu, Jufang Gao, Lei Ding, Liming Tao
OBJECTIVES: The aim of study was to investigate the anticancer activities of Ivermectin (IVM) and the possible mechanisms in cells level via cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis and migration inhibition in model cancer cell HeLa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MTT assay was used to study the inhibitory effect of IVM on the proliferation of Hela cells, and the cell cycle was analysed by flow cytometry. The neutral comet assay was used to study the DNA damage. The presence of apoptosis was confirmed by DAPI nuclear staining and flow cytometry...
December 4, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Youqiang Sun, Yuhao Liu, Wei He, Chao Wang, Jennifer Tickner, Vincent Kuek, Chi Zhou, Haibin Wang, Xuting Zou, Zhinan Hong, Fan Yang, Min Shao, Leilei Chen, Jiake Xu
Osteoporosis is a form of osteolytic disease caused by an imbalance in bone homeostasis, with reductions in osteoblast bone formation, and augmented osteoclast formation and resorption resulting in reduced bone mass. Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA) is a natural compound derived from pigeon pea leaves. CSA possesses beneficial properties as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antihepatitis, and anticancer agent; however, its potential to modulate bone homeostasis and osteoporosis has not been studied. We observed that CSA has the ability to suppress RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast marker gene expression, and bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Rahul Patwa, Narendren Soundararajan, Neha Mulchandani, Siddharth M Bhasney, Manisha Shah, Sachin Kumar, Amit Kumar, Vimal Katiyar
The article demonstrates the crystalline silk nano-discs (CSNs), with well-controlled morphology, which upon magnetization, yields magnetic crystalline silk nano-discs, making both prominent alternatives for replacing metal templates such as gold, silver, and so on in therapeutics and implants. The isolated β-sheet-rich discotic CSNs have ~50 nm diameter, high crystallinity (> 90%), and are insoluble but provide good dispersibility and stability in aqueous solutions. The melt blending-cum-electrospinning of functionalized CSN with poly(lactic acid) results in biocompatible nanofiber-based scaffolds having in vitro cell cytocompatibility with improved cell adhesion and proliferation...
November 2018: Biopolymers
Sucheta, Sumit Tahlan, Prabhakar Kumar Verma
BACKGROUND: Thiazolidinedione is a pentacyclic moiety having five membered unsaturated ring system composed with carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur molecules at 1 and 3 position of the thiazole ring and widely found throughout nature in various form. They favourably alter concentration of the hormones secreted by adipocytes, particularly adiponectin. They also increase total body fat and have mixed effects on circulating lipids. Thiazolidinedione nucleus is present in numerous biological moieties and has different pharmacological activities likes, e...
December 4, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Yu Hua Quan, Ji-Young Lim, Byeong Hyeon Choi, Yeonho Choi, Young Ho Choi, Ji-Ho Park, Hyun Koo Kim
BACKGROUND: Chemoresistance remains a major challenge for effective chemotherapy of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). CD44 expression is related to the susceptibility of various cancer cell types to anticancer drugs. Here, we systematically investigated the CD44-dependent chemoresistance of NSCLC cells and developed a liposomal siRNA delivery system to overcome this chemoresistance by the self-targeted downregulation of CD44. METHODS: We confirmed the relationship between the expression of CD44 and the chemosensitivity of NSCLC cells using flow cytometry and MTT assay...
December 4, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Syed Shoeb Razvi, Hani Choudhry, Mohammed Nihal Hasan, Mohammed A Hassan, Said Salama Moselhy, Khalid Omer Abualnaja, Mazin A Zamzami, Taha Abduallah Kumosani, Abdulrahman Labeed Al-Malki, Majed A Halwani, Abdulkhaleg Ibrahim, Ali Hamiche, Christian Bronner, Tadao Asami, Mahmoud Alhosin
Natural polyamines such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are crucial in the cell proliferation and maintenance in all the eukaryotes. However, the requirement of polyamines in tumor cells is stepped up to maintain tumorigenicity. Many synthetic polyamine analogues have been designed recently to target the polyamine metabolism in tumors to induce apoptosis. N4 -Erucoyl spermidine (designed as N4 -Eru), a novel acylspermidine derivative, has been shown to exert selective inhibitory effects on both hematological and solid tumors, but its mechanisms of action are unknown...
2018: Epigenetics insights
Qinghua Wu, Jiri Patocka, Eugenie Nepovimova, Kamil Kuca
Beauvericin (BEA) is an emerging Fusarium mycotoxin that contaminates food and feeds globally. BEA biosynthesis is rapidly catalyzed by BEA synthetase through a nonribosomal, thiol-templated mechanism. This mycotoxin has cytotoxicity and is capable of increasing oxidative stress to induce cell apoptosis. Recently, large evidence further shows that this mycotoxin has a variety of biological activities and is being considered a potential candidate for medicinal and pesticide research. It is noteworthy that BEA is a potential anticancer agent since it can increase the intracellular Ca2+ levels and induce the cancer cell death through oxidative stress and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Gulsah Gundogdu, Yavuz Dodurga, Levent Elmas, Seymanur Yilmaz Tasci, Esen Sezen Karaoglan
Objective: Isoorientin (ISO) is a flavonoid compound extracted from plant species. The goal of this study was to determine the potential antiproliferative effects of ISO in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line in vitro , specifically on cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle pathways. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic effect of ISO isolated from E. spectabilis was measured using 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay in HT-29 cell lines...
October 2018: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Robin L Anderson, Theo Balasas, Juliana Callaghan, R Charles Coombes, Jeff Evans, Jacqueline A Hall, Sally Kinrade, David Jones, Paul S Jones, Rob Jones, John F Marshall, Maria Beatrice Panico, Jacqui A Shaw, Patricia S Steeg, Mark Sullivan, Warwick Tong, Andrew D Westwell, James W A Ritchie
Most cancer-related deaths are a result of metastasis, and thus the importance of this process as a target of therapy cannot be understated. By asking 'how can we effectively treat cancer?', we do not capture the complexity of a disease encompassing >200 different cancer types - many consisting of multiple subtypes - with considerable intratumoural heterogeneity, which can result in variable responses to a specific therapy. Moreover, we have much less information on the pathophysiological characteristics of metastases than is available for the primary tumour...
December 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Yoshihisa Matsushita, Yoshiyuki Furutani, Rumiko Matsuoka, Toru Furukawa
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies. The development of a novel drug to treat pancreatic cancer is imperative, and it is thought that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) could yield such a candidate. Agaricus blazei Murrill is a CAM that has been tested as an anticancer drug, but its efficacy against pancreatic cancer is poorly understood. To study the potential of A. blazei in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, we examined the effects of its hot water extract on the proliferation and global gene expression profile of human pancreatic cancer cells...
December 4, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Dayong Zheng, Xing Chang, Yang Liu, Jingwen Xu, Wenfeng Gou, Zengqiang Li, Daiying Zuo, Weige Zhang, Yingliang Wu
2-Methoxy-5((3,4,5-trimethosyphenyl)seleninyl) phenol (SQ), a novel synthesized combretastatin A-4
(CA-4) analogue, is identified as a microtubule inhibitor and has been shown to exert anticancer activity in breast cancer cells. Here, we found that SQ reversed epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced motility and invasion in breast cancer cell lines by the in vitro Wound healing and Transwell assay. Further studies showed that SQ treatment resulted in inhibitory alteration of EGF-stimulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and MMP-2 activity...
December 4, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Hong Liu, Yifang Wan, Yuxin Wang, Yue Zhao, Yue Zhang, Ao Zhang, Qiang Weng, Meiyu Xu
Fenitrothion (FNT), an organophosphate pesticide, exerts an immunotoxic effect on splenocytes. Dietary polyphenol compounds exert antioxidant, anticancer and antihypertensive effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of walnut polyphenol extract (WPE) on FNT-induced immunotoxicity in splenic lymphocytes in vitro. Treatment with WPE significantly increased the proliferation of FNT-exposed splenocytes, as evidenced by increases in the proportions of splenic T lymphocytes (CD3⁺ T cells) and T-cell subsets (CD8⁺ T cells), as well as the secretion of the T-cell-related cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-γ, IL-4 and granzyme B...
November 30, 2018: Nutrients
Kiran Rawat, Amit Shard, Manali Jadhav, Mayuri Gandhi, Prince Anand, Rituraj Purohit, Yogendra Padwad, Arun K Sinha
Gliomas are lethal and aggressive form of brain tumors with resistance to conventional radiation and cytotoxic chemotherapies; inviting continuous efforts for drug discovery and drug delivery. Interestingly, small molecule hybrids are one such pharmacophore that continues to capture interest owing to their pluripotent medicinal effects. Accordingly, we earlier reported synthesis of potent Styryl-cinnamate hybrids (analogues of Salvianolic acid F) along with its plausible mode of action (MOA). We explored iTRAQ-LC/MS-MS technique to deduce differentially expressed landscape of native & phospho-proteins in treated glioma cells...
December 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Suresh P S, Prasanthi Daram, Nuggehally R Srinivas, Ramesh Mullangi
An overview of published dried blood spot (DBS) methods for the quantitation of various classes of anticancer drugs from clinical and preclinical studies is presented. The increased reporting of DBS methods in literature for quantitation of various classes of drugs is a true testimony of its utility in bioanalytical application. While DBS offers several advantages as compared to conventional wet sampling techniques, still there remain a number of nuances that may impede the assay adaptability of DBS method in routine quantitative bioanalysis...
December 4, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
R Ferrari, M Sponchioni, M Morbidelli, D Moscatelli
In this review article we discuss some of the key aspects concerning the development of a polymer-based nanoparticle formulation for intravenous drug delivery. Since numerous preparations fail before and during clinical trials, our aim is to emphasize the main issues that a nanocarrier has to face once injected into the body. These include biocompatibility and toxicity, drug loading and release, nanoparticle storage and stability, biodistribution, selectivity towards the target organs or tissues, internalization in cells and biodegradability...
December 4, 2018: Nanoscale
Sumaira Sharif, Asia Atta, Tayyaba Huma, Asad Ali Shah, Gulnaz Afzal, Saira Rashid, Muhammad Shahid, Ghulam Mustafa
Mushrooms have been accepted as nutraceutical foods because of their high nutritional and functional values. They have also gained interest due to their medicinal properties, economic importance, and organoleptic merit. In this study, wild Ganoderma lucidum and four commercial mushrooms, that is, Pleurotus ostreatus, Volvariella volvacea, Hericium erinaceus, and Lentinus edodes from Pakistan were screened for their biological activities such as anticancer, antityrosinase, anti-α-glucosidase, and antithrombotic activities from their methanol, ethanol, and water extracts...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Andrey A Rosenkranz, Tatiana A Slastnikova, Tatiana A Karmakova, Maria S Vorontsova, Natalia B Morozova, Vasiliy M Petriev, Alexey S Abrosimov, Yuri V Khramtsov, Tatiana N Lupanova, Alexey V Ulasov, Raisa I Yakubovskaya, Georgii P Georgiev, Alexander S Sobolev
Gamma-ray emitting 111 In, which is extensively used for imaging, is also a source of short-range Auger electrons (AE). While exhibiting negligible effect outside cells, these AE become highly toxic near DNA within the cell nucleus. Therefore, these radionuclides can be used as a therapeutic anticancer agent if delivered precisely into the nuclei of tumor target cells. Modular nanotransporters (MNTs) designed to provide receptor-targeted delivery of short-range therapeutic cargoes into the nuclei of target cells are perspective candidates for specific intracellular delivery of AE emitters...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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